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The first water craft was simply a floating object, liberalism, while it founds itself upon character, perhaps only sufficient to carry one person ; but, by inculcates the necessity of some belief; and the the aid of science, the forces of nature have been most benighted conservatism, while it teaches that brought into use, until we look with wonder upon the certain doctrines must be subscribed to at peril of mighty iron-clad steamer that, with compass and eternal perdition, still urges the necessity of good chart, ploughs the briny waves and never misses a behavior. single beat of its great iron heart from shore to It is plain to the student of history that belief, for shore. The iron rails that now stretch across the ages past, has been assuming less and less importance continent from sea to sea, and the great network as in the estimation of the Christian world, and that they cross and recross, all working in perfect order, character, in all religious teaching, is coming more carrying the merchandise of the nation, and the and more to the foreground; and the question, wonderful mass of human beings, with such certainty whether this is a hopeful change is a very important that it is claimed that almost the safest place to be one to every lover of humanity. I propose therefore found is on board a train of cars. But what effect to inquire whether or not belief can ever be a duty. would it have had on science had it always been con- If the tree is to be judged by its fruits, if systems sidered heresy to make any improvements ?

are to be judged by their consequences, then the form We have had many blessings in this land. Indeed of religion which consists in mere belief stands conit may be said of us as it was said by Moses to demned in the light of all history. Its fruits have the Israelites on the border of the land of promise. been evil, wholly evil. Jesus was crucified because After he had stood upon the top of Pisgah and he was accused of believing himself to be the Son of looked at the land and received the knowledge that God. The Apostles were persecuted, some of them he could not pass over, he then spent the remain- put to the most cruel deaths because they believed in der of his time in rehearsing God's dealings with the resurrection. Luther was excommunicated bethem: “ Search earth and heaven and ye will fail to cause he would not believe that the church could find a nation that has been dealt with as this peo- sell the right to sin for money. Bruno was burned ple.” So may it be said of us. We have had because he believed the sun to be the centre of the trouble as a nation. Only a few years ago was solar system, and Galileo only saved himself from heard the sharp rattle of musketry and the heavy the stake by denying his belief. To go back in the roll of cannons. The heavy tread of soldiery as world's history, the rightful owners of the soil of the long lines went forth to deadly combat, brother Palestine were exterminated because they believed against brother. When I speak on this subject my in the wrong God, and their very domestic animals feelings are such that I scarcely can control them; were put to tortures shocking to read of for the wrong and, although the combat is ended and the blood belief of their owners. has ceased to flow, yet the tears still course their . What is it that keeps up the smothered hostility way down my aged cheeks as I remember brave between and among the various sects of christendom? sons whose bones lie mouldering beneath the rays Why is it that each indulges a concealed contempt of a Southern Sun. Every hearthstone in this and hatred of all the others? It is because each land has been wet by tears and every family teaches that all the others, as far as they differ from circle has been broken. But these things have it, are guilty of the wrong belief. passed away, and the angel of peace is hovering It would be well to have the words of Paul conabove us, and we pray God it may continue. And, spicuously placed in all places of worship: “If I whilst we are thus blessed, let us each one endeavor understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and to build the house of God, and no danger but the have all faith and have not charity I am nothing. If glory of God will be there, the Urim and the Thum- I bestow all my goods to feed the poor and give my mim will be there, and the spirit of prophecy will body to be burned, and have not charity it profiteth be there; and, though it be builded larger than the me nothing." first and built by those in the younger walks of But is belief ever a duty ? True belief is the relife, it will be for the same purpose and in it will be sult of the impartial weighing of testimony. The the same vessels and all the precious things of the mind puts the reasons for and against in juxtaposifirst with the improvements of the present.

tion and contrasts them, to ascertain which is the

stronger side. Its conclusion is the result of a fair BELIEF AND CHARACTER.

balancing of the scales. The mind may force the

balance; indeed the fairest mind is apt, unconRead at Concord First-day School Union, held at Chester sciously, to put its wishes in one scale and so to force

a result. But in such a case the result is never There are two distinct things in the world that reliable. We may therefore lay it down as a settled pass under the name of religion, correct believing rule that if we wish to believe a proposition, our conand correct behaving : faith in the sense of accept- clusion in the premises is not to be depended upon. ing prescribed dogmas, and faith in the sense of faith. We had better in such case let the point remain unfulness, devotion to duty. The difference between decided. At least we will not then be deceiving our these two things, in the statement of them, is very selves. obvious, but in every-day life it is not so easy to How then can it ever be a man's duty to believe separate them. In fact, we rarely find either of anything? Certainly it can never be our duty to them, in the entire absence of the other. Every weigh the evidence unfairly, to cheat our own minds. form of religion, every individual religious mind, If we conclude we ought to believe, that alone incontains a blending of both. The most advanced capacitates us from weighing the testimony fairly

Fourth mo. 18th, 1885.

We will wish to do what we ought, and that wish | acter. It was the religious force within which was will get into the scale and produce an unreliable thus manifested, and without that force these maniresult.

festations would have been of little consequence. I am very far from holding, however, that it is Upon this point, therefore, we agree heartily with immaterial what we believe. There are some beliefs those who insist upon keeping always in view the apparently honestly held, that are demoralizing. We primary and essential nature of our organization. should always believe what we conclude upon full They are quite right. It can be built only, on one examination to be true. But if we find that any foundation. Any attempt to move it off that founparticular belief renders us uncharitable, unkind, dation will destroy the whole fabric. All the unforgiving, we may fairly conclude that some selfish strength of the structure that has been reared since item has gone into the balance without our know the days of the early Friends is that given by the ledge, and we should at once reject the result as stones which they laid. When he began to preach, necessarily wrong, or re-examine the question, elimi. George Fox had in his perception the simple subject nating the selfish element, that is to say the wish to of religion. No other force animated him. Nothproduce a given result.

ing else drew him on. He thought of his mission as It is remarkable that faith in the sense of belief containing nothing other than this. That Christianholds a very inconspicuous place in the teachings of ity should be practical he did most distinctly believe, Jesus of Nazareth. The good Samaritan, held up as but he proved it by its outcome; he did not build an example to all Christians throughout all the ages, the religion itself upon its outward evidences. He was an arrant heretic, an infidel, a believer in the believed that the proof of attention to the Monitor wrong creed, in the estimation of both Jew and Within must be presented by a course in life consisChristian. In the parable of the final judgment, it tent with the Christian teachings, and that as a foul was the believers, the professors that were rejected, stream is evidence of an unclean fountain, so a pure because they had relied upon their belief to save stream showed that the source in the soul had been them, and had neglected the little human duties, in purified by the divine sunlight. He never failed to their daily pathway through life. On the other understand that the reason for doing right must be hand, they who were accepted had no belief, knew the religious apprehension of the duty of right-donothing of theoretical religion, wondered that they ing, and that without such deep seated and solemn should even be called followers of Christ; but having convincement in the most sacred and secret recesses no creed, they had gone about doing good, rendering of the professing Christian's heart, there can be no kind services to the least of humanity, and therefore, assurance that his right-doing will long continue. to the greatest.

If it should be asked, then, of what avail is it to

strive to awaken new interest, and arouse a fresh life THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.

in our body, we should reply frankly that it is of no

avail whatever, except as a means of increasing our If we were to attempt an analysis of the features religious warmth. Fire is but the increase of heat, of Quakerism, it might be said that in a certain and beat is derived from active effort. If it were broad, but perhaps not very precise sense, the Friends the fact that Friends now hoped to revive their Sohad three classes of characteristics, and that these ciety by mere expedients, by moral, or social, or

literary, or scientific stimulants, it would be a reason 1. Their religious principles.

for giving up all expectation that any permanent re2. Their Testimonies,-views affirmative and de- vival would be accomplished. The Society is neither claratory, or negative and condemnatory, in relation a moral association nor a social club. It is a religito the practical affairs of life.

ous body, or it is nothing.-Friends' Journal. 3. Their customs, usages, and peculiarities.

We reprint the above from the JOURNAL of Fourth To the world outside it is these last, unessential, mo. 9, desiring to bring it to the notice of FRIENDS' and scarcely important at all, that are often best know. The idea of “Quaker” entertained by

INTELLIGENCER readers. many superficial observers is a man with a straight

JOHN H. MCILVAIN. coat, or a woman with a plain bonnet. And with many of our own membership it is doubtless the John H. McIlvain, a birthright member of our case that our “Testimonies" occupy their first and Society, died at his residence in West Philadelphia, highest thought. Yet it is true, and cannot be too on the 26th ult., in his seventy-seventh year. earnestly or too emphatically declared, that it is the He was the eldest son of Hugh and Hannah first characteristic which is the essential one. This Mollvain of West Philadelphia, and the grandson, is primary, the others proceed from it.

on his mother's side, of John and Rachel Hunt, the For the Society of Friends is a religious body. It latter an approved minister of Darby Meeting. He is that, and that only. All its manifestations are was thoroughly convinced of the truth of Friends' derived from the fact and lead back to it. Unless principles as he understood them, and was a great it be a religious body, it has neither reason for being, admirer of the character and writings of William nor the possibility of being very long. The moral Penn. Though a frequent attender of our little and benevolent activities of the Society, valuable as meeting in West Philadelphia, he took no part in they have been to the world and honorable as business meetings. For many years engaged in the tbey have been to those who undertook and main- lumber business on the west side of the Schuylkill tained them, were not fundamental, - they were river, his courtesy and probity in dealing won him simply the practical outcome of its Christian char- | many friends among his customers.

were :

(The following is taken from The Student. It was one of the

He leaves a wife, three sons, two daughters, and others by its own rules of action. There is a robust, ten grandchildren, among whom, as well as other healthy, hearty taking up of the higher life, just as relatives and friends, his gentle loving nature created it finds us, not changing from wi hout so much, only for him a warm attachment, and by whom he will be lopping off that which is false or unprofitable, a greatly missed.

working from within until the leaven is diffused A sincere friend of the Indian race, whose original through and through. This is what will never foscharacter he deemed both noble and truthful, he silize into dogmatism. Let us pray for an increase made several visits to their reservations in what was of such asceticism," then considered the “far West," and remained among them for months at a time, always parting from them

EDUCATIONAL. with friendly feelings on both sides.

Frequently when a delegation passed through Philadelphia, on their way to Washington, or on ON THE QUESTION, HOW TO INDUCE CHILDREN TO

KEEP UP STUDY AFTER THEY LEAVE SCHOOL. their return, he managed to interest the whole party sufficiently to induce them to visit him at his house. The Indians seemed always to recognize that he was

Essays read at the Educational Conference at the Meetingtheir friend, and he gained their attention when house, Fifteenth and Race Street, on Second month 28th, 1885. many others failed. The valuable museum of objects In talking one day with a much honored Kinderrelating to their customs and dress, which he has left, gartner of the discouragements in the work with shows many mementoes of their appreciation of his children, she turned the whole tide of my feeling by kindly attentions.

saying, “Keep your faith ;" and for many years that He possessed great mechanical skill in imitating has been a sort of starting-point--a place to go to to some of their productions, notably, bows, arrows and take my bearings. Let us lose our faith once in the arrow-heads, which he made so deftly, that they child, and all the poetry is gone out of teaching; it could scarcely be distinguished from the originals would be better for us and the child both if we were which he had copied. The arrow-heads be made by at some other avocation. the Indian mode of chipping the mineral of which A professor of a prominent college once said to me they were composed, by pressure, using hard bones, that he felt sorry to see a fresh young girl take the precisely as the Indian workman did, and producing profession of teaching; that she must so soon find specimens, accurate and of the highest finish. that it is a life of giving and giving, and getting He was an earnest lover and close observer of nothing. Another teacherma

Another teacher--a woman-once said, nature, and never seemed more at home than when “Well, I am heartily tired of teaching, and teaching, among the mountains, or on the great prairies of the and asking the children to please take it in.” West. This bent of mind made him an ornothologist, Now, we all know what this means, and we have and his intimate knowledge of the habits and notes all felt just so, but "keep your faith.” Harriet of the birds of our country, from personal observation, Martineau, in her Household Education, says: “Have was shown, in the wonderful skill with which his patience to let Nature work, without hindrance and specimens were mounted, always true to nature, a without degradation; give her free scope, remove out skill, as competent judges have testified, second to of her way everything that is low and sordid and none in this country, and to which, the beautiful col. needlessly irritating, and minister to her everything lection in his museum bears visible evidence. In this that is pure and gentle, and noble and true, and she interesting pursuit he mostly hunted and killed his will produce a glorious work.” Why is it we have birds, and although a good shot he never destroyed to ask such a question as “ How shall we induce life without an object, and when sufficient specimens children to keep up an interest in their studies after were secured, desisted from his work.

they leave school ?Why do we have to say, “ChilOn such subjects as he was interested in he was a dren, please do try to do something for yourselves fluent talker, and his conversation was often very after I am done doing for you ?” Is it that our instructive and interesting.

A. schools are filled only with sick children who are not West Philadelphia, Fifth mo, 3d, 1885.

hungry enough to eat nor merry enough to play?

I do not like to degrade a school into a hospital. AMUSEMENT.

Suppose we start a school for healthy children, what

shall we do to preserve the inborn desire for knowlF. W. Robertson says: “It seems to me a life of edge? how shall we keep that activity which Froebel amusement is irreconcilably antagonistic to Christi- says is Nature's first law? He teaches that idleness anity, and more destructive to the higher spirit than in the child is a habit—that the child begins the life even the mercantile life in its worst form."

of acting after the first few months; that children He further says: “The austerity that comes after like to work and they will work hard ; it is their lise's experience is more healthy, because more natu- nature, for man was created to work. To children ral than that which begins it. When austerity be- all work is play, and they are continually asking the gins life it is the putting of the new wine into the assistance of grown people in that play; they want old, weak wine-skins, which burst, and the young to be counseled and guided, but grown people seldom heart, cheated out of its youth, indemnifies itself by know how to be true guides; they either are. an attempt to realize the feelings which were denied bearing and arbitrary, desiring children to act acit by a double measure of indulgence in age;" “or,” | cording to their ideas, or they are without interest adds a Friend, "instead of indulgence, it adopts a and sympathy. They do not realize that by such narrow proscriptive spirit that would square all playful ways the child gets conceptions, and a little



exertion gradually increased makes finally the great- A teacher of genius will overcome this in her class est exertion possible. Laziness in children often by various devices all her own, and make machine results from the care which parents take to save work unpopular. That I may know this thing-them from exertion by having everything done for that it may be one link in my chain, is not a suffithem,

ciently strong idea in the pupil. We know this, and A Ledger editorial of some months ago asks, we regret it. We have our theories about helping “What becomes of all the promising children ? the young out of it, but they are better than our How is it that children really promising and even practice. superior in certain directions too often dwindle into We believe in self-activity, but we absorb the second and third rate men and women ?" and went activity. Idleness becomes a habit in the child on to lay the responsibility at the feet of parents and before our eyes, while we are doing and doing. We teachers. Justice to the child is beginning to be believe that the child should not hear or learn any. done, and people are beginning to look in the right thing which it cannot by reproducing make its indidirection to lay their criticisms. Keep your faith in vidual property. Froebel tells us that the means to the child, and look to parents and the home, to the young child of reproduction is in drawing, and teachers and the school, to answer for the apathy or we know, later on, what the pencil in the hands of a dislike for intellectual exertion. For the child in all child with ideas will write, if we only had time to let the first vigor of activity, we are now beginning to him use it; but there is so much to teach, and if he look to the Kindergarten to foster and direct'; there ever should learn to use the pencil for reproduction we are ready to acknowledge, are the appliances for of his thought, do you imagine for a moment that he doing and the correct principles for government and could be induced to keep up an interest in drawing growth. Let us look to the Kindergarten for the or writing after he left school? inspiration for the work to come. Miss Peabody Did you ever try to induce a girl to keep up an writes a little book called After the Kindergarten, interest in reading after she left school, if she had What? and most of us have to do with the “ What?'' ever learned to read ? if words have become aids and but to those who have gone so far as the “What?” not hindrances to thought? Can you keep her from there is hope. The only school to be suspicious of is feeding where thought is expressed ? We are all the one that has no Kindergarten, and consequently groping after methods; let us remember there is no What?"

method for us to apply to all minds, but we can help I speak of the correct principles of government in each mind to find its own method of growth. Kindergarten, for therein I think lies much of the I have seen a history class of young girls, this damage done in schools toward stifling or misdirect- winter, sent to the library with topics of American ing activity. Let there be no steps between the history to look up, reading from Irving, Prescott and school-room and polite society, the government of Bancroft with interest and intelligence, and I am one's self for the rights of others. Let us remove confident they are gathering more than facts. I our marking and grading and let each child find his know they are learning to love history, and I am not own place-individuals from first to last. To many iu the least in doubt but they will take an interest in children the machinery of the school-room and the American history all their lives. To send children personality of the teacher is a great hindrance; the on voyages of discovery accomplishes two things: it great activity of the teacher, the wonderful teaching teaches them the fact they have found, and it strengththat she does, may in itself create languor in the ens them for the next trip; finally, they will not need child. I have felt myself in the presence of some to be sent at all, for with every true victory springs teachers as though I could think of nothing but how up the longing for another. well she explains, how wonderfully she manages; all Certainly there is somethłng wrong, there has been excellent for the teacher, but how many children some sad mistake, when children do not want to before her are growing strong? Such a school may study after they leave school. That they do not become such a power that it seems to the child a immediately organize and systematize their work world within itself, governed upon principles that may not always be their fault'; the demands of busido not apply at home, teaching things that are not ness and of society may claim them; but if the fire brought into his life and he never imagines they can has not been smothered in school it will burn out of be. A certain course to be completed and then a school. new life. Some teachers speak of school work as Was there ever better advice to teachers than that being only to make a skeleton to fill out in time to of Philip of Macedon to Aristotle when he


bim I remember being told that once, and some- his son, the young Alexander, to teach :

“ Make how there grew up in my mind so ghastly a picture yourself unnecessary to him.” that I am sure I should never blame anybody from West Philadelphia. LUCRETIA M. B. MITCHELL, shrinking from the completion of the monster when he came out from school and had his own way of it; EVERY man, says Sir Henry Thompson, ought to but to those who like skeletons, that might be an deal carefully and faithfully with himself, watching enticing work. Still, I would advise some more rigorously the effects of the smallest license on his generally pleasing comparison for the work of school mental and bodily state, and boldly denying himdays.

self the use of a luxurious habit if he finds any signs I do not believe many of our schools do the best of harm arising therefrom. And he must perform the thing toward making us strong to work for ourselves. difficult task with a profound conviction that his The average scholar studies too much for the teacher; judgment is very prone to bias on the side of indulthis lesson is prepared for this particular recitation. I gence, since the luxurious habit is so agreeable.








The principles of Christianity as enunciated by its founder include the principles of justice and fair

dealing one with another. The Golden Rule lies at HOWARD M. JENKINS, Managing Editor.

its very foundation. To come to an obedience to

this law, requires close searching of heart that the RACHEL W. HILLBORN. springs of action may be kept pure and sweet. We

cannot divorce this Christianity from our business,

our recreations and our social relations, it must perPHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MO. 9, 1885.

meate and pervade every action of life. The “What

soever ye would ask of another," must be the princiTHE CHURCH OF THE PRESENT.--While we can

ple of action with the Divine precept always before not shut our eyes to the fact that the Church in the the mind, “Do all to the glory of God.” past has kept alive in the hearts of men a reverence

All work that makes life better, truer and more for God, and in varying degrees has helped the God-like is Church work, and we are wise in our world to understand the duties and responsibilities of human life and to realize an accountability to God methods to the broadening field of duty and service

we as our as the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, we must

opening before us. acknowledge that the enormous power it has wielded, has too often been used to fetter the conscience and OUR APPROACHING GATHERING.--A few more stile investigation, thus cutting man off from the words ere we enter upon the services of our annual sources of knowledge, and circumscribing his thought meeting, to which, and from which, we date so within the limits of human authority.

many of the points along the line of our religious It is the province of the Church to exert a regen- work. erating influence upon the world; but to do this it Religious in the sense of keeping us in the way of must meet the world's needs. It holds within its "unspotted lives," by applying to ourselves the ingrasp the keys of the kingdom of heaven, not in the quiries which we ask and answer collectively at this sense claimed by the followers of St. Peter, but in time; religious also in the aiding of the weak and the fulness of that sympathy and fellowship of the helpless if perchance we report ourselves as engaged Gospel of Christ that unlocks the gates of selfishness in work for humanity, and religious in a devotional and distrust, that the peace of God may enter in and sense, that hereby we strengthen one another in that abide forever.

love and fealty we all owe to Him who has caused It is this conception of the Church and its work our lines to fall in "pleasant places,” and who has that is slowly but surely taking possession of its liv. given us such a “goodly heritage.” ing members now bearing its burdens and responsi- But let us guard ourselves against the grave error bilities. They are learning that there can be "pure of permitting this large assembly to feed our selfand undefiled religion” without a formulated creed ; complacency. Rather let us search ourselves as with that it is a matter of individual experience that a "lighted candle” to see where we fall short of the whatever reveals God to us, whatever brings Him standard of a true disciple. nearer to us, whatever lifts us up into the purer light If, in comparing notes of the past, we find good of the infinite glory and gives us a sense of commu- results, let it spur us on to fresh activity; if othernion with the Highest, is religion; all that prompts wise, let there be no gloomy reflections, but take to kindly action, to gentle, loving speech, is worship, fresh courage and resolve, if possible, to make better and the soul, realizing the immanence of the Divine, use of our advantages for religious growth. makes haste to put its house in order for the heavenly Let us search for hidden talents, by calling into Guest.

the ranks of workers as many of all ages as we can. We read the visions of prophet and apostle, of the In the making up of committees for the various sertime when the kingdoms of this world shall become vices to be performed we need the aged fox counsel, the kingdom of God and His Christ, the new heaven the middle-aged for strength, and the young for zeal and the new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness, and warmth ; thus shall we have all the elements and we cry "Lord hasten the time.” But do we not gathered to add strength and interest to this our know this glorious renovation will be brought about yearly feast, and make it one of profit and blessing through the faithfulness of the Church, and will come, to all who may be privileged to attend. Nor should as each individual member, through obedience to those who abide at home be neglected. Let there be the refining influence of the Divine Spirit, makes all diligent storing up of all that will benefit, whether it things new within himself"

be in the meeting proper, or the 'ustly-valued social

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