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From which the nutritious natural butter has NOT been extracted. Sold by all Grocers. A Sample Package will be sent by mail by addressing Smith's Manufacturing Co., 107 Fourth Avenue, New York.

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Agricultural Implements, Seeds aud Fertilizers. The Cheapest and Largest Variety. At 2043 and 2045 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Reapers, Binders and Mowers of the leading kinds, Horse Rakes, Hay Tedders, Grain Drills, Threshing Machines, ÁgriculturalPort% able Engines, Wind Engines of various kinds, § Force and Suction Pumps, Grain Feed Mills of 3 all sizes and kinds, Hay Forks and Eleva& tors, Wagons and Carts, Chilled Steel and ... xxxvors."<ro- Cast Plows of all varieties and sizes, Belle City, Baldwin and Telegraph Feed Cutters of all sizes, also various other kinds, Harrows of every device conceivable. Kemp's Manure and Philpot's Fertilizer Spreaders the Union Grain Trill, and other kinds, Meat Cutters from the smallest to Jumbo size; Farm Boilers and Hog Scalders, Corn Shellers, from “Pet” size to the capacity of 5000 bushels per day. I am in communication with all the Agricultural Implement builders in tho United States. *Send for circulars of any kind of goods wanted.

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At the Tea Warehouse of WILLIAM INGRAM & SON, No.

31 N. SECOND ST., Philadelphia, Pa., opposite Christ Church. If $5.o.o is sent to us, either by Registered Letter, Postal Note, Bank check, or Post Office Order, we will send either one of the following orders:—Order No. 1 : We will send 6 pounds of good Black, Green, Japan or mixed Tea, and 18 pounds of good mild or strong roasted Coffee. Order No. 2: We will send 30 pounds of good mild or strong Roasted Coffee. Order No. 3 : We will send

5 pounds of real good Black, Green, Japan, or Mixed Tea, and 15

pounds of fine mild or strong Roasted Coffee. Order No. 4: We will send 25 pounds of real good, mild or strong Roasted Coffee.

Persons may club together, and get one of these Orders, and we will divide it to suit the Club, sending it all to one address. To those who wish to purchase in larger quantities, we will sell at much less

reduction. The Tea and Coffee will be securely packed, and sent by Express or Freight, whichever is ordered. Samples of any of the above orders will be sent Free by Mail to examine. In ordering, please say whether Order No. 1, 2, 3, or 4, is desired. Call on or address WM. INGRAM & SON, Tea Dealers, 31 North Second Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

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No. 1541 N. 12th St.

HE “MANHATTAN ?” IS AN OLD LINE COMPANY, ORganized in 1850, and beyond question one of the strongest life insurance corporations in the country. The new plan referred to in a previous issue of this journal, is more favorable in its results, as to net cost, than assessment insurance. It needs only to become KNowN to be PREFERRED. A statement showing its Operation will be mailed to you on application, Stating age. Address JAMES B. CARR, Manager, 414 Walnut St., Phila.



INT co, 537 IE"IER-A-INTIECITaTINT E" Co-y 2 Doors beolow Green St., PHILADELPHIA.



of about TWO MIT,LIONS. SAMUEL C. HUEY, President.

Bosts policies are NON-FORFEITABLE and INCONTESTABLE." of

HENRY C. BROWN, Secretary.

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A limited number of Boarders for the Summer Season, will be taken at Wild Orchard, about one mile from Fern WOQd, on P & W. C. R. R. Beautiful, high Situation, surrounded by large shade trees, pure water, perfect drainage, and thirty min: utes from the house to Broad Street, Depot. Carriages to and from all trains. Large Airy Rooms, fresh vegetables from our OWn garden, and milk and cream from Our OWr, COWS.

To those wishing to spend a quiet summer, in the Country, with very easy access to the city, Wild Orchard presents peculiar attractions. For full particulars, address,

JOSIAH WHITE, Fernwood, Del. Co., Pa.

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The Friends' journal.

INTELLIGENCER. Vol. xlii.—No. 12.



Father, our thoughts are rushing wildly on, Tumultuous, clouded with their own vain strife,

Darkened by cares from our own planting grown : We call the tumult, life.

But, oh, this hour of heavenly quietness, When, as a lake that opens to the sky,

The Soul, serene in its great blessedness, Looks up to meet thine eye

By the stream's windings let us with thee talk
Of this strange earth-life thou so well hast known ;

In thy fresh footprints let us heavenward walk,
No more to grope alone !

If in our thoughts, by thee made calm and clear,
The brightening image of thy face we see,

What hour of all our lives can be so dear
As this still hour with thee?


Read at a Conference held at Race Street Meeting-house, Fourth month 26th, 1885.

In the earliest times the object of disciplinary arrangements among Friends, was pronounced by George Fox to be the promotion of charity and piety. A system of rules and advices, was of gradual growth as the manifest needs of the newly gathered body of professors and apostles developed. It cannot be claimed that any system of discipline formed a part of the original compact of the Society. It was an association of persons who were earnestly seeking a saving knowledge of divine truth. They were men of prayer, and diligent searchers of the Scriptures; unable to find true rest in the various opinions and systems of that time in England. They were united in the conviction that the Christ—the life and light of mankind—was the spiritual ruler, teacher and friend of every individual who sought heavenly help. Their less dependence upon man led to much inward retirement and waiting upon God, that they might know His will, and become quick of understanding in the things pertaining to the inner life. We hold that these faithful seekers found the eternal truth, and that they speedily found that true Christianity is a powerful, active and beneficent principle. Those who really receive it, no more can live unto themselves alone, and these first fathers of our Church, very early were found admonishing, encouraging, watching over and helping each other in love. The members who lived near to each other, and


JOURNAL. Vol. xiii.-No. 640.

who met together for religious worship, immediately formed a Christian family or church. As these were welded together by Christian unity and Christian love, a proper order was developed in which the members were united. Meetings for discipline early were seen to be a necessity. George Fox mentions some in the north of England so early as 1653; and the first general meeting of which we know that any records are extant, was held in Yorkshire, in the year 1656, and from this meeting a number of directions and advices were issued, addressed “To the Brethren in the North.” This document was very comprehensive, and gives an outline of what afterward became the settled discipline of the Church.

In 1658 George Fox mentions attending a general meeting at Bedfordshire, which lasted three days, and was attended by many thousands, and by Friends from most parts of the nation.

Quarterly Meetings included the meetings of a county, and were executive meetings similar to our present Monthly Meetings. The first care was for those in suffering whether by poverty or persecution —and the second was whether any by an unfaithful walk and conversation were dishonoring their profession of obedience to the inspeaking word of God.

Another object of these meetings was a regular statement of the most flagrant cases of persecution, and these were in due form laid before the powers that were—and it may, we believe, be truly said that their constancy in suffering was scarcely greater than their unwearied efforts to obtain relief for their suffering brethren, and for the removal of persécuting laws. And thus our faithful fathers essentially promoted the cause of religious liberty. The proper registration of births, deaths and marriages, was also considered imperative, and was early provided for by our people. But, it was soon evident “that offenses must come;” and treating with offenders against righteous order became the painful duty of the early Church. Here the Gospel order as laid down by Christ Jesus was the discipline adopted by the Society of Friends. Under the date of 1666, George Fox says in his Journal, that he felt called of God to recommend the setting up of Monthly Meetings—and in 1668 he writes that the work was done both in England and in America. A General Yearly Meeting of ministering Friends from all parts of the kingdom, was held at Devonshire House, London, from year to year, from 1672 until the General Representative Yearly Meeting of London was assembled in 1678. They issued an important epistle to all the Church, containing much Christian counsel; and these meetings have continued to assemble yearly in London until the present time. This General Yearly Meeting was instituted primarily for the promotion of the truth by bringing the life and practice of members to the line and plummet. It was soon felt that for such a meeting to be effective, love and concord were of especial importance. This concern found expression in a formal Query which corresponds to our present second Query. The meeting was to consist of representatives from every Quarterly Meeting in Great Britain and from the Yearly Meeting in Ireland ; likewise of acknowledged ministers and appointed elders, and of correspondents. Each Quarterly Meeting was to depute not more than eight, nor less than four representatives, where they could conveniently be found ; but the Quarterly Meetings of Lancashire, London, Middlesex and Yorkshire, in consideration of their numbers were each allowed to send 12. London Yearly Meeting, once established, became the fountain of influence and power in the Society of Friends. From its decisions there was of course no appeal. It had both legislative and executive functions, and it may be exact to say, it had judicial powers also. First, it consisted only of ministers and elders, and later the representatives were added. The attendance of the general membership was not expected or recommended, except Friends were drawn to the service by a sense of religious obligation. The epistles issued came forth with the vigor of Papal Bulls, and seem to have been quite authoritative. It was before the death of George Fox that women's meetings for business were established, since it was found that the wives and mothers of these stalwart Sons of the Morning, would sit in attentive silence in the business meetings of the congregation. But these noble men, doubtless remembering the inspiring story of Deborah, which illuminates the antique times of Israel, felt that this woman wisdom must not be lost to the infant Church.

We find this paragraph in the Printed Epistle” of London Yearly Meeting of 1691 : “It is our tender and Christian advice that you do encour– age faithful women's meetings, and the settling of them where they are wanting, and may with convenience be settled ; knowing their service, and what need there is for their godly care in the Church of Christ, in divers weighty respects proper to thern.”

As to what business was considered, it was at first to inspect and relieve the wants of the poor of their own sex, applying to men's meeting for concurrence, and for the means. It was to take cognizance of proposals for marriage, according to the established rules. It was to join in certificates of removal for women Friends. They were to visit those received by certificate. They were to appoint overseers who, however, must be confirmed by the brethren. They were to join with men Friends in visiting those of their own sex who asked to be received into membership, and were to act jointly with men friends in treating with women offenders, and in the act of dis

* The Printed Epistle was addressed to the Church at large. The Written, to individual Quarterly Meetings.

ownment when this step was deemed needful. The women's meeting alone had no power to cut off a member. We all know how steady has been the advancement of the rights and dignities of women in the Society of Friends. This has not been in consequence of the increasing demands of women, but changes have from time to time been made, as it was seen by the brethren that women Friends were qualified to act judiciously with the men in regard to the weightiest matters of the Church; until now the men's and women's meetings for business are nearly if not quite co-equal in powers. The responsibility thus placed upon women should be duly appreciated and they should see to it that their negligence and lukewarmness may not so discredit their sex as to tend to the discouragement of such as desire the assistance of women in civil life. It is a question as to what the character of the Epistles of the Women's Yearly Meeting may have been in the 18th century. Those launched forth by the Men's Meeting were pastoral, authoritative, disciplinary. London Yearly Meeting Epistles were addressed to the Quarterly and Monthly Meetings of Friends, in Great Britain, Ireland and elsewhere. In this “elsewhere * were included all Yearly Meetings on the American Continent, until the separation in the years 1827–8. The preparation of these documents was certainly a matter of weight to our fathers, and their style of language, sterling substance and power give us a feeling of acquaintance with the conservators of Quaker principle during an age of very little growth. * The “advices” which were thus sent down year by year, are worthy of the reverent attention of mankind in these days as well as in the century past. Such meekness of wisdom, such stainless lives, such love of God and man, as the great mother assembly of all the Churches, enjoined on all her branches, if generally accepted as a chart of life, would make of this earth an Eden, and restore mankind to the primal innocence. But though Friends during this period enjoyed comparative peace and steadily won the respect and approval of their fellow-citizens, the decline in numbers was incessant. They steadily sank from perhaps 120,000 in 1700, to some 20,000 in 1800. There was a pious and devoted ministry, a faithful eldership—and careful observance of such rectitude among the membership as was believed to be essential to the honor of truth. “Is there among you any growth in the truth * This is the second of the Queries answered in writing in Men's Monthly Meetings to the spring Quarterly Meetings, and thence to the Yearly Meeting. This must have been a most discouraging query and must have called forth much solemn theorizing as to why more converts were not gathered in and why the beloved youth did, then as now, so often find their way back to the popular churches. There were 17 regular Queries for Men's Meetings and 10 for Women's Meetings, which differed essentially, as the duties and powers of men and women are never entirely identical. The 12th Query for Men's Meetings was, “Is there any appearance of convincement among you, and have any been joined to our Society on that ground

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