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porsons of the proper age residing in such subdistrict or district, and be applied for that purpose from time to time in such way as the board of education of the district may deem best. Any board of education failing to comply with this section may be compelled to do so by the circuit court of the county by mandamus."
The school reports of West Virginia do not state the amounts appropriated for white and colored schools separately, but the amounts paid white and colored teachers are given:
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN
REMARKS UPON THE TABLE.
The following table presents the statistics of public elementary schools, excluding infant schools, in countries whose official reports bave been received in this Office.
Statistics of enrollment.--The totals of enrollment, column 5, must not be understood as including all children receiving elementary instruction; it is simply the number of children who have availed themselves of the public-school provision. An endeavor has been made in another part of this Report (pp. 76, 77) to show the number of children receiving instruction from all sources in several countries.
While in many countries very nearly the whole school population resorts to public schools, in other countries parochial or church schools bear an equal or possibly even greater part in the work; private nonparochial schools patronized by the wealthy exist in all countries, and in all home instruction supplies the place of school instruction for a small percentage of the population. In Great Britain it is assumed that one-seventh of the population will depend wholly upon private agencies for instruction, and the remaining six-sevenths are made the basis for estimating the amount of public-school accommodation to be supplied.
It is extremely difficult to deal with the statistics reported officially for Austria on account of the various classes of schools which participate in the work of elementary instruction. The official report presents the educational status of the entire school population; that is, the youth six to fourteen years of age. The total number is given as 3,295,552. The number reported as attending the public Volksschulen, i. e., people's schools, is used in the table before 11s. In addition to this number, viz, 2,748,347, there were in private Volksschulen 107,627, and in small elementary schools 1,695 pupils. There were also 50,618 youths of school age in attendance upon higber Volksschulen, or receiving instruction at home; 365,218 children are said to have been without instruction ; leaving a small percentage who are classed as incapacitated by reason of bodily or mental infirmity.
For Great Britain and France enrollment in church schools is included in column 5 of the table. In the former these schools share with board schools in the public grant and are classed as public elementary schools; in the latter they are under the supervision of the Government, althongh not supported by public funds. The official reports for Ireland give the total enrollment, including all children who have made a single attendance upon the schools during the year. For 1888 this number was 1,060,895. The enrollment, as given in the table, includes only the pupils who may be presented for examination, and in respect of whom grants may be claimed ; that is, pupils who made at least one attendance within the last 14 days preceding the Government examination.
The conflict between church and state authorities in several countries, notably in Belgium and the Netherlands, has caused great fluctuations in the attendance in public or state schools in recent years. For instance the enrollment for Belgium is very nearly double that reported in 1884–85 (vide Rep. of Commissioner, 1886-87).
The triumph of the antiliberal party in 1884 cansed a radical change in the school policy. A new school law was passed allowing church schools to share in the public funds upon certain conditions, and in many ways strengthening the influence of the clergy in educational affairs. The result was a decline in public-school attendance, which is now, however, again upon the increase.
Teachers.-Pupil teachers are employed in England and Wales, Scotland, New South Wales, and Japan, and are included in the totals of teachers for those countries. Financial statistics-The expenditures given in column 16 of the tablo relate to the schools comprised in the table. The chief item in these expenditures is always the amount paid for teachers' salaries. In addition to this and incidental expenses, viz, the cost of books and material supplies, the costs of inspection, compulsion, and other administrative expenses are included in column 16. The totals presented in this column do not in every case conjprise the entire amount given in the original reports under the head of expenditure for primary education. The differences arise in some cases from the fact that appropriations for special purposes, as pension funds, scholarship funds, etc., included in the original reports, are excluded from the totals here used. In other cases the original reports have classed as elementary, schools that do not come within the scope of this table, as infant schcols, normal schools, etc. The expenditures for these have been subtracted from the totals used in column 16, excepting in the case of Belgium, whose reports do not give an itemized statement. Here expenditure for normal schools is included in the total for primary instruction, It should be observed that by far the larger proportion of tho amounts expended always goes for teachers' salaries and the current incidental expenditures common to all systems. The special expenditures included for a few countries do not materially affect the relative bearing of the facts.
23, 447, 192 1887 202.30 Dr. Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn, minister of public instruction and ecclesiastical affairs. 16, 901, 023
135. 16 Dr. August Trefort, minister of education and public worship: Count Albin Csaky appointed in 1888.
Melot, and in 1891 by M. J. de Barlet.
1887; M. Spuller, May 30 to December 12, 1887; M. Leopold Fave, December 12, 1887, to April 3,
1889, to March 17, 1890; Ms. Léon Bourgeois, March 17, 1890.
165, 255 1885 | 1, 686.00 Dr. A. Pauli (senator), chief officer.
67, 658 1885 545. 62 Dr. G. Brehmer, chairman of the supreme school council.
public instruction ; director, F. F. Petzholdt. 1,995, 185 1885 265.00 | Dr. von Silcher, ministerial director and president of the department of ecclesiastical affairs and pub
England and Wales.
28, 628, 804 1888 4, 024, 681 1888 4, 837, 352 1887
2, 200,000 1879 28, 459, 628 1881
4, 450, 870 | 1887 1, 806, 900 / 1875 4, 708, 178 1881
492.00 Committee of council on edncation: Lord president for England and Scotland, Viscount Cranbrook ;
Villari in February, 1891.
15.00 J. A. Bonnevie, chief officer of department of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction in 1889.
tical affairs and public instruction in 1890.
and commerce in 1891. 27.38 Carl Gustaf Hammarskjöld, minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs; Gunnar Wennerberg in
102, 970, 831 1882
2, 203, 358 1885
2, 957, 527 | 1887 268, 137, 044 1887 16, 454, 414 | 1881
3, 736, 771 1881 38, 507, 177 1887
350, 000 1887 6, 806, 381 | 1882
10. 45 223. 10 K. M. Chatfield, director of public instruction,
43.00 R. G. Hodgson, officiating director of public instruction. 261.00 Aripori Mori, minister of public instruction; Yoshikaura Akinasa appointed in 1890.
1.59 | Langham Dale, superintendent-general of education. 525.00 Abderrahman Ronchdi Pacha, ininister of public works and temporarily of public instruction; Aly
Monbarek Pacha in 1889.
.14 S. D. Pope, superintendent of education.
50 J. B. Soinerset, superintendent of education, Protestant schools.
5. 00 Jas.J. Wickham, superintendent Roman Catholic schools.
7.00 Ilon. Gédéon Ouïmet, superintendent of public instruction.
Valverde in 1891.
rez; Dr. J. A. Ojeila, presiding officer in 1889; Dr. Benjamin Zorrilla,* president of the national
council of education.
lic instruction in 1890.
dnagų.. in 1889, succeriled by Dr. C. Berro; Jacob A. Varela, inspector of primary instruction.
W. Adkin-on, inonector of schools. 5.00 George Fisher, l. nister of education; since January 24, 1891, R. Reeves. 5.00 E. N. C. Braddon, 1887–88, minister of education.
* Deceased in 1891.