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TABLE 7.-Summary of statistics of institutions for the instruction of the colored race for
TABLE 7.-Summary of statistics of institutions for the instruction of the colored race for
TABLE 8.-Number of schools for the colored race and enrollment in them by institutions,
without reference to States.
Some idea of the work of Central Tennessee College may be obtained from the following extract taken from the catalogue of 1889–90:
“A large portion of the students have been teachers and are at school preparing for better work. Others are getting ready to teach. Most of these bave charge of Sunday schools in connection with day schools, thus aiding in the religious instruction of the communities where they labor. Hundreds of students educated here are working among their people as advocates of total abstinence from all intoxicating liquors and tobacco. Most of them are professed Christians, and infuse the Christian spirit into their work. Some are successful preachers in the different branches of Methodism, as well as in other denominations. Over 100 have been graduated in the medical department, and most of thein are now practicing successfully. There are more than 5,000,000 of colored people in the South who are asking for more competent teachers, better educated lawyers, doctors, and preachers who can teach the people; better educated farmers and mechanics, and more enlightened wives and mothers to elevate the home life of the entire people.”
Rev. H. M. Tupper, of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., says:
“Essentially the same methods and system of grading have been followed as in previous years. In the cook and dining rooms 102 girls have received instruction and been employed 1 hour per day under an experienced matron, and the improvement in order, neatness, and efficiency has been marked; also more interest and desire to excel on the part of the young ladies bave been manifest than during any previous year. The same may be said in regard to the department of sewing, which is under the supervision of a very competent instructor in the different branches of needlework. Plain sewing is first taught, then cutting and putting together plain garments, the making of buttonholes ; also systematic dressmaking and various kinds of fancy work. This department is well graded, and the pupils are advanced according to their proficiency. The results of the year, on the whole, have been most gratifying.
“In the male department there have been four teachers, and instruction has been given in carpentry, furniture-making, house-painting, whitewashing, kalsomining, and glazing. Others have engaged in mason work, landscape-gardening, and care of grounds. In this way we supply every want of the school, manufacturing all kinds of furniture needed, and repairing and doing any kind of carpenters' work, About 200 young men have been given instruction and employed in the different departments of industrial work, and we propose early next session to establish a printing department, as the tendency is, in some kinds of our industrial work, that the classes are crowded, making it difficult for the teacher to give the needed supervision and instruction,
" In reviewing the history of our industrial work in all its phases and bearings, I pronounce it a grand success, second in importance to no other department of the school, and I am doing my best from year to year to introduce such improvements as will more and more accomplish the best possible results. I find it requires experience, patience, and no little amount of firmness and energy to maintain a high standard of efficiency in the several departments of industrial work, even more effort than is necessary to secure excellence in the literary departments of the school."
Rust University, Holly Springs, Miss.:
“In the department of shoemaking twenty-eight young men have been instructed during the year, and the result proves to be in advance of our expectations.
“In the department of carpentry fifty-three young men have been instructed in the use of tools. With the advantages gained by the erection of a new industrial hall, which will be completed in a few weeks, much greater progress in both shoemaking and carpentry is promised.
“In typesetting nine young men and seven young women have worked, and not only gained knowledge under the faithful instruction of an experienced printer, but as well sent out about 1,000 copies of Rust Enterprise monthly, the work of which proves their interest and efficiency.
“ The nurse-training department has donc excellent work. Sixteen young women have been carefully and systematically instructed. This is a department that needs levelopment to meet the actual demands of the times. With a prescribed course of tudy of 4 years we expect to make this a power for good.” LeMoyne Institute, Memphis, Tenn.: “ This school commands the confidence and respect of all. Among the best teachers n public schools in the Mississippi Valley on both sides of the river are the gradates of Le Moyne Distitute." Meharry Medical Department of Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn. : “This school has conferred the degree of M. D. on one hundred and four young hen, nearly all of whom are now engaged in the successful practice of their profesion. They have been kindly received by the white physicians, whose uniform tesimony is that the colored physicians sent out by this school give evidence of very Jorough preparation for their work.
"In each of the Southern States south of Virginia one or more of our graduates are now practicing medicine, and in quite a number of Southwestern States. Their record is one that no college need be ashamed of."
President Tupper says of the work of Leonard Medical School of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., and on the general subject of colored men in medicine :
“The graduates of last year more than met expectations, and won for themselves much honor before the North Carolina and Virginia State medical boards. Only one failed to pass, while others stood among the first in scholarship. Before the North Carolina medical board, in a class of some forty white applicants for license to practice medicine, one of the graduates of the Leonard Medical School led the class in six branches of medicine, but failed in two questions in chemistry. One thing has been clearly proved, that the best minds among the colored people can successfully master the different branches of medicine and make good physicians, but the medical men find it more difficult, perhaps, the fault to some extent being in their preliminary training, and in such cases the only safe remedy seems to be to allow the student to remain after the expiration of the 4 years' course until he can bring himself up to our standard of graduation.
“This is fair to the student and avoids the danger of letting loose on the community a class of graduates who have continued in school the prescribed number of years, but have not thoroughly mastered the different branches of medicine. In this connection, I wish to bear testimony that in a long experience as student and teacher I have never seen young men make so earnest and persistent efforts to succeed in their studies and qualify themselves for their profession, and we have to introduce restraints to protect their health rather than incentives to industry and study.
“During the past year we have raised the standard of qualifications for entrance into our medical school, and several who were expecting to be admitted were required to spend an extra year in preliminary studies, and get the new class is a third larger than any preceding one.
"All of our graduates thus far have settled in the larger cities of the South, and without a single exception have roadily entered into a good practice, and have the confidence of the colored people and the good-will and respect of the white physicians."
From catalogue of Atlanta University, 1889-90 :
“Nearly all the graduates and many others who have left before finishing their course are engaged in teaching during a part or all of the year. Besides these, during the 4 months of the summer vacation a large pumber of students engage in teaching, and it is estimated that over 10,000 children in Georgia are taught annually by those who have been connected with the institution.”
From report of B. T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee (Alabama) Colored Normal School:
“While the air is full of speculation as to the solution of the 'Negro problem,' it seems to me that the fact that a negro normal school of 400 students could exist for 8 years in the midst of a white community with perfect good feeling on all sides proves that the problem left to the judgment of the commonsensed and conservative among both races will soon solve itself. Education of the right kind is the only solution of the race problem.
“Eight years' experience of combining mental and industrial training proves (1) that the two can be so combined as not to hinder the mental training; (2) that enough profitable work can be done by the students to materially decrease their boarding expenses; (3) that the habits of industry growing out of an industrial training stick to the students after they graduate and prevent their becoming stuck-up' loafers when not teaching; (4) that the industrial training tends in the highest degree to develop moral character. The industries taught at present are farming, brick-mak ing, wheelwrighting, blacksmithing, saw-mill work, carpentry, painting, plastering brickmasonry, printing, mattress-inaking, harness-making, sewing, laundry work cooking, and general housekeeping. Students work at these industries on an aver age of 11 days in each week and are in the class-room the remainder of the time.”
The catalogue of Southern University, New Orleans, La., 1889-90, says of the in dustrial department:
“This department, organized 4 years ago, is receiving much commendation. I has proven a success, and is a department that reflects great credit on the pupils.
“A large number of girls have learned to make garments, rugs, and household arti cles of various kinds. This work is regularly and systematically graded, beginnin with the plain and simple and advancing to the costly and intricate. The pupil furnish their own materials.
“Students in this department are thoroughly instructed in all manner of needle work and in cutting and fitting. Those who complete a course in this departmer receive a certificate stating the same. We design the addition of such industries & will afford then the means of earning an honorable and competent livelihood.”
At Clark University, Atlanta, Ga., a brick building, 100 by 40 feet and two storio
bigh, has been erecled for the industrial department. The boys are taught carpentry, wheelwrighting, painting, and harness-making. In the printing office they are instructed in that business. The girls are taught to be trained nurses, and in cooking, dressmaking, cutting, etc.
At Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., a printing office has been furnished by a special appropriation from the John F. Slater fund, and instruction is annually given to fifteen young men in the various kinds of work that belong to a job office.
Instruction in wood-working is also given under the direction of a graduate of the mechanical department of Pennsylvania State College. Two hours each week are given to working in wood, and the results of the first year's efforts have been quite satisfactory, and the influence on general scholarship has been beneficial.
In the nurse-training department the students have been taught the right methods of caring for the sick and those who have met with accidents, and in the laws of hygiene. Instruction has also been given in cooking and in the nutritive values of the different foods and their comparative cost. Dressmaking and plain sewing have also been taught.
The catalogue for 1889-90 of Atlanta University contains a list of the graduates from 1871 to 1889, inclusive, and also the business of each, so far as learned Of the 148 persons whose names are given, 120 are teachers, 9 preachers, and 19 are engaged in other pursnits.
“The boys of the college, college preparatory, and normal classes, and the first two grades of the grammar school course, are taught the use of tools.
“ The boys are also taught some of the principles of farming and gardening. Attention is given to the raising and care of stock, to the raising of fodder crops, their comparative value and fitness for this soil and climate. The cultivation of vegetables is encouraged by competition and prizes for the best results.
“The girls are taught various branches of household science, such as plain sewing, dressmaking, cooking, and nursing the sick, under experienced teachers.
“An outfit of type and other printing material has been purchased for instruction in printing, and additions of material will be made as our funds allow.
“Classes in printing have been organized, a monthly paper, the Bulletin, has been issued, and most of the job printing of the institution has been done by student labor."
In New Orleans University facilities are afforded for the daily instruction of 50 young men in carpentry, cabinet making, and upholstering. A printing office has also been opened, in which all the work of a job office will be taught. The girls receive instruction in dress cutting and making. In the nurse-training department a full course of instruction is given in everything properly belonging to that department.
ALABAMA. Separate schools for the two races are required. (Sch. L's, 1885, p. 29, sec. 52.) Also required by the Constitution. (Sch. L's, 1885, p. 3, sec. 1.)
The poll taxes ($1.50 on each male citizen between 21 and 45 years of age, collected in each county, shall be retained therein for the public schools thereof. (Sch. L's, 1885, p. 6, par. 6.)
Póll taxes paid by each race in each township or school district must be used for that race in that township or district. (Sch. L's, 1-85, p. 32, sec. 60.)
The State superintendent of education shall apportion the school fund according to school population to each township or district, and for each race therein. (Sch. L's, 1885, p. 30, sec. 56, et seq.)
The whole amount apportioned in 1888-89 was $370,420.56, of which the 273,994 white children received $204,911.93, and the 212,931 colored children received $165,508.63; 74.8 cents for each white child and 77.7 cents for each colored child. (Sch. Rep., 1889, p. 107.) The whole amonnt disbursed, including local funds, was $690,390.22 (p. 10).
According to the school laws published in 1835 (p. 12) the teachers were paid by the county superintendents quarterly. It seems that by the present laws they are paid directly from the State treasury, the county superintendents simply delivering the money sent to each teacher. (Rep. of 1888, p. 27, and Rep. of 1886, p. 19.)
“All local school funds raised for the support of public schools, by taxation or otherwise, shall be apportioned and expend d in the district or districts where such funds have been raised, under such rules and regulations as the district superintendent of public schools of said district, or other local board provided by law, may prescribe; but this section shall not be construed to repeal any provision for the apportionment and disbursement of the moneys mentioned in this article [Art. VII], provided for in special or local laws” (Sch. L's, 1885, p. 31).
In addition to the $165,508.63 apportioned to the colored schools, they were entitled to the poll taxes paid by colored voters. From these funds colored teachers were paid $201,217.82, and, in addition, $7,000 were paid to colored normal schools. (See Rep. 1889, p. 10.) This gives $1.14 to each white child and 98 cents to each colored child. It is probable that a larger proportion of the colored voters failed to pay the poll tax, as was true in North Carolina, where a record was kept of the poll-tax recripts from each race.
The apportionment in 1886–88, was as follows: White children (251,606), $190,182.45, or 76 cents for each; colored children (201,331), $156,684.87, or 78 cents for each. (See Rep. 1888, p. 100.)
The disbursements of State fund, including poll tax, was as follows: White teachers and normal schools, $304,384.40, or $1.21 for each child. Colored teachers and normal schools, $207,380.42, or $1.03 for each child. (See Rep. 1883, p. 8.)
"In making the apportionment of school money to the several school districts the superintendent of education shall first set apart to each township or otber school district the amount due from the State to each district as interest on its sixteenthsection fund, or other trust fund held by the State; and all townships or school districts which have an income from trust funds in the hands of the State, or from lease or sale of their sixteenth-section lands, shall not receive anything out of the balance of the educational fund to be apportioned until all other townships or school districts having no trust fund shall have received from the general fund such sum as will give them an equal per capita apportionment with the townships and districts having such trusts and incomes.
“The superintendent of education shall apportion the educational fund to the respective townships or school districts subject to the provisions of the preceding section, according to the latest official returns of the enumeration of school population of the townships or other districts which have been made to his office; and he shall also apportion the fund for each township between the races therein; but whenever the superintendent of any township or district has failed to make and return the census enumeration of his township or district, as required by law, the superintendent of education shall make the apportionment to such township or district according to the best information he can obtain as to the school population of such townships or district; but in no event shall he, in case of such failure, estimate the school population of any such district or township at more than the number shown by the last official report thereof to his office.
“As soon as the superintendent of education shall have made the apportionment of school money as hereinabove provided, he shall record the same in his office in books kept for that purpose, showing the amount which he has apportioned to each school district in the State, and specifying from what source or sources the same was derived, the amount to each race in the township, and the number of children of each race in the district upon which the apportionment was based; and he shall then furnish to each county superintendent of education a certified copy from such books, showing the dividends of educational fund to each township or district under the supervision of such county superintendent of education, and the amount so divided and certified shall be the total amount which each of such school districts shall be entitled to receive from the State, except the poll tax, during the then current scholastic year; and no contract to pay for any school or schools, for any district, more than the amount thus apportioned to it, together with such poll tax as it may receive, and such funds as may be in hand from previous years, shall be valid against the State or township.” (pp. 30–31, secs. 55-57.)
“He [the State superintendent] shall, on the first Monday of July and on the first Monday of January of each year, make a pro-rata apportionment to the several counties of the State of the remaining revenues in the State treasury available for distribution for school purposes, on the basis of the number of persons between the ages of six and twenty-one years residing in the said counties, respectively, on the first Monday of July previous; and he shall publish a statement of the same, and as early as practicable shall (transmit a copy thereof to each county examiner, and to each of the several treasurers in the State, and to each county clerk, who shall submit the same to the county court at its next term; and he shall thereupon draw his requisition on the State auditor in favor of the treasurers of the several counties for such amounts as the said counties may be entitled to receive for the support of free common schools." (Sch. L's, 1889, p. 16.)
“The county court, immediately on receiving notice of the distributive share of school revenue apportioned by the State superintendent to each county, shall proceed to apportion to the several school districts of the county, in proportion to the number of persons between the ages of six and twenty-one years residing within the school district, respectively, on the first Monday of July previous, the said schoo revenue apportioned to the county, and shall forward to the county treasurer, and to each of the directors of each district, a statement of such apportionment, care. fully distinguishing the sources from which the school revenue so apportioned are