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which they could resort from time to Canadian origin ; and those markets retime for those religious consolations ceived not only our own, but a large which they had been wont to enjoy in share of American bread-stuffs and prothe land which had given them birth :

visions. Our timber was not only adfor the bulk of the population of mitted freely into the British markets, Upper Canada at this period were of but excessive and almost prohibitory English or of Scottish extraction; and of this article from the Baltic, for the

duties were imposed upon importations it is gratifying to find that provision purpose of fostering Canadian trade and for religious instruction and education British shipping. The British market has progressed, step by step, with the was closed by prohibition against our settlement of this and other provinces wheat until 1814, which was then only of our North American colonies. For admitted when the price in England rose many years subsequent to this period, to about two dollars per bushel—a privimoreover, there was little good feeling lege in a great measure nugatory; but existing between the population of the West Indies and lower provinces gave Upper and Lower Canada, differing port of American produce was permitted as they did, in religion and in race; by this route.

In 1822 the and, as a natural consequence, the Canada trade acts of the imperial parpopulation of the former depended for liament, by imposing a duty upon Ameits increase rather upon an accession rican agricultural produce entering the of new settlers from Great Britain British American colonies and the West than upon immigration of the French Indies, destroyed one-half of the export inhabitants from the lower province, trade of the St Lawrence; and the simulwhose very loyalty to the crown was taneous abundance of the English harvest of a dubious character. A strong forbade our exports thither.” feeling of irritation, in fact, existed It will be naturally inferred from between the populations of Upper and the above that Canada had not, up Lower Canada, which was aggravated to 1822, been an extensive exporter by the intermeddling and vacillating of agricultural produce of her own policy of successive colonial secre- growth. Her population, however, taries, by whom the agitating pa- were largely engaged in milling purtriots (?) of the latter were shielded suits, in the manufacture of pot and from the consequences of their turbu- pearl ashes, &c.; and the existing lence and sedition, whilst the loyalists railways and canals of the United of the former, whose firmness ulti- States not having then been formed, mately saved its “ brightest jewel" and afforded routes for shipment of from being reft from the diadem of the agricultural produce of their westthe British sovereign, had the cold ern territory from the Atlantic seashoulder of authority turned to them board, such produce could be forwardat every available opportunity, when ed only by the St Lawrence, as if of such studied insult could serve to Canadian origin—the people of Canaconciliate and flatter the disaffected. da, and especially the shipowners, Upon both provinces imperial legisla- profiting largely by the trade. But to tion was the means of inflicting serious proceed with our essayist :discouragement. A constant tamper- “ As a recompense for the damage done ing with the trade of the colony was by the Trade Act of 1822, our flour and carried on, alternately stimulating wheat in 1825 were admitted into the and depressing it, giving it now one United Kingdom at a fixed duty of five direction and again another, until shillings sterling per quarter. The openlittle certainty for the investment of ing of the Erie and Champlain canals at capital could be said to exist.

this critical juncture gave a permanent Upon this subject Mr T. C. Keefer, direction to those American exports which of Montreal, in his prize essay upon of injury was inflicted upon the St Law,

had before sought Quebec, and an amount the Canals of Canada, written in 1851, rence which would not have been reached remarks:

had the British Action of 1825 preceded “A wise and liberal policy was adopted that of 1822. The accidental advantages, with regard to our exports previous to resulting from the differences which 1822. The products of either bank of arose between the United States and the St Lawrence were indifferently ex- Great Britain, on the score of reciprocal ported to the sister colonies, as if of navigation (which differences led to the interdiction of the United States' export population. To a certain extent the trade to the West Indies, and reduced it supposition is correct. The growth from a value of 2,000,000 dollars, in 1826, of Canada was retarded; but there to less than 2000 dollars in 1830), restored were influences at work—there was a for a time our ancient commerce. The trade of the St Lawrence was also assisted

stubborn energy in the character of a by the readmission, free, in 1826 (after portion of that people, and, more than four years' exclusion), of American timber all, there was given them a soil, and and ashes for the British market, and by natural facilities for its conversion into the reduction of the duty upon our flour wealth — which, combined together, for the West India market, and therefore enabled them to surmount the diffirapidly recovered, and in 1830 far sur- culties and stumblingblocks thrown passed, its position of 1820.

in their way by anti-patriotic and “In 1831 there was a return to the policy bungling statesmanship. We have which existed previous to 1822. United stated that the population of Upper States' products of the forests and agriCanada was, in 1830, 210,437 souls. culture were admitted into Canada free, In 1842 it had reached 486,055 souls, and could be exported thence as Canadian being an increase during the twelve produce to all countries, except the United Kingdom ; and an additional advantage years of upwards of 130 per cent. was conferred by the imposition of a dif

The population of Lower Canada in. ferential duty, in our favour, upon foreign creased from 511,922, in 1831, to lumber entering the West Indian and 690,782 in 1844, or a little over 34 South American possessions."

per cent in the thirteen years. For Notwithstanding some fluctuations,

this striking disparity in the progress caused by abundant crops in England, of the two provinces abundant reasons and a failing crop in Lower Canada; can be adduced. In the first place, the writer goes on to say :

the inhabitants of Lower Canada are

not of an enterprising race. If left * The shipping and commerce of the to them alone, the country would proSt Lawrence rapidly increased in import- bably have merged long ago into the ance and value, with no continued relapse United States Confederation. down to the year 1842. The revulsion of held fast by the old laws and habi

They 1842 was general, being one of those periodical crises which affect commerce,

tudes of the worst times of their parent but was aggravated in Canada by a repe- country; and their ambition seemed tition of the measures of 1822, not con- to be circumscribed within the limits fined this time to the provision trade only, of the soil which had been cultivated but attacking the great staple of Quebec for them by the early settlers, which -timber. The duties on Baltic timber was being divided and subdivided, as in Britain were reduced; the free impor- the natural increase of their populatation of American flour was stopped by tion required. The French were never the imposition of a duty thereon, and

a successful colonising people; and it our trade with the West Indies anni

is doubtful whether any people can hilated by the reduction of the duty upon American flour brought into those_islands.

be so who cling to the tenets of a By imposing a duty of two shillings ster. Church, beyond whose immediate minling per barrel upon American flour im- istration they are deterred from livported into Canada, and reducing it in ing, and dare not die. Besides, Lower the West Indies from five to two shillings, Canada suffered especially from the an improvement equal to five shillings changeable policy of the Imperial Govsterling per barrel was made in the new ernment, which had been playing fast position of American flour exported from and loose with the navigation of the the Mississippi, Baltimore, and New St Lawrence, and the trade of its chief York. The value of our trade with the city, Quebec. In Upper Canada, on West Indies in 1830 (during the exclusion of the Americans) amounted to 906,000

the contrary, influences were in operadollars; and in 1846 it was 4000

dollars)" tion, as we have stated, which tended

to neutralise the effect of the impediIt will very naturally be supposed ments thrown in the way of its hardy that a people whose interests were thus settlers by British legislation. The trifled with, and upon whom the im- wave of population from Europe and perial legislature blew hot and cold the Atlantic States of the American in a breath, were not likely to pro- Republic had begun, long before 1842, gress greatly in material wealth, or in to approach the great Lake District bordering upon Upper Canada, and into navigable rivers downward, for bearan important frontier trade had been ing, in the cheapest and most expeditious established. The communications manner, the fruits of the lumberman's between the lakes and the Atlantic winter labour to its market on tide-water. and Gulf seaports were open to the by the duration of the snow; but its ma

The commencement of vegetation is delayed Upper Canadian people, whose pro- turity is reached about the same period ductions were thus brought practi- as in the western country, because there cally and economically nearer to the has been a smaller loss of caloric during consuming countries of the Old World the winter, less retardation from a linthan those of Lower Canada. More- gering spring, and more rapid growth over, the immigration from Great from the constant action of a strong and Britain naturally tended towards the steady summer-heat. ‘upper province, whether flowing

“Whatever exceptions may be taken to through the St Lawrence or the Ato the climate of Eastern Canada, it must lantic ports, as to a territory in which be remembered that it embraces the settlers would find communities of a greater portion of the white-pine bearcommon blood and country, speaking product of which can only be obtained

ing zone of North America, the invaluable the same mother tongue, and imbued by those conditions of climate (the abunwith the same associations, religion, dant ice and snow) which have given it domestic habits, and aspirations with such imaginary terrors. There is scarcely themselves, and acknowledging the one article, or class of articles, from any same allegiance and loyalty to the one country in the world which affords more same Sovereign and the same laws. outward freight, or employs more sea These circumstances, connected with tonnage, than the products of the forests their respective positions, combined of British North America. with the superior energy of character production give necessarily a commercial

“ While these conditions of climate and and habit inherent in the race by and manufacturing character to the East; which Upper Canada was being peo

ern province, the milder climate and pled, are sufficient to account for the

more extensive plains of Western Canada more rapid increase of the material afford a field for agriculture, horticulture, wealth and population of that pro- and pastoral pursuits unsurpassed in some vince, during a period when the whole respects by the most favoured sections of the North American colonies seem of the United States. The peninsula of to have been the subject of experi- Canada West, almost surrounded by many mental, if it may not even be called hos- thousand square miles of unfrozen water, tile, legislation by the Government of enjoys a climate as mild as that of northern the mother country. To a considerable New York. The peach tree, unprotected, extent Upper Canada has been fa- whilst tobacco has been successfully cul

matures its fruit south and west of Ontario, voured by its climate as the recipient tivated for years on the peninsula beof a European population ; whilst, at tween lakes Erie and Huron. During the same time, the more frigid climate the last two years (1851 and 1852) Westof Lower Canada suits admirably the ern Canada has exported upwards of two wants of that country. Mr Andrews, millions of barrels of flour, and over three the consul of the United States for millions of bushels of wheat ; and at the Canada and New Brunswick, re

present moment the surplus stock on ports :

hand is greater than at any former period. “ It is true that in Eastern Canada

There is probably no country where there there are extremes of climate unknown

is so much wheat grown, in proportion to in the North-Western States (of America); vation, as in that part of Canada west of

the population and the area under cultibut it will be found that the mean tem

Kingston.perature varies but little in the two regions. The intense cold of the winter We may illustrate the concluding makes a highway to the operations of the paragraph of the above extract by the lumberman over and upon every lake and following statement from the Ameristream, whilst the earth and the germs

can Statistical Annual:of vegetation are jealously guarded from the injurious effects of severe frost by a

“ The production (in bushels) of grains thick mantle of snow.

The sudden tran. in the two provinces, as represented in sition from winter to summer, melting the census of 1851, and in the United the accumulations of ice and snow in States in that of 1850, gives the quantievery mountain stream, converts them ties per capita as follows:

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To each


» 1851,

Another circumstance has given a tions of personal property rateable which Fast impulse to the prosperity of were previously exempted from assessboth provinces. In 1841 a legislative ment. I have obtained statements which, anion of Upper and Lower Canada although not strictly official, are, I believe, prepared the way for a more har- tolerably correct, of the amounts of the monious action of their population. and 1852) which have already taken

two valuations (those, namely, for 1851 In 1847 the Imperial Government place under the Act; and I find them to formally abandoned all control over

be as follows :the Canadian tariff; and in their next session the colonial legislature

Total assessable Property of Upper abolished the differential duties upon

Canada in the years— imports inland, and placed the mother


£36,252,178 7 0 country in the same relative position


37,695,931 4 8

In order to arrive at the real value, it is as foreigners. From 1841 the devel

believed that 20 per cent at least ought opment of the upper province was to be added to these amounts.” most rapid.

We have given the population in 1842 at 486,055 souls. The same Report gives us the folIn 1851 it was 952,004, having in- lowing statistics as to the increase of creased nearly 100 per cent in the the wheat crop of Upper Canada :nine years. The total population of

Bushels. Canada-both provinces—was

inhabitant. In 1841,

3,22),991 6.60 In 1841, 1,156,139

1847, 7,558,773 10.45 In 1851, 1,842,265

12,692,852 13.33 Increase, 59.34 per cent.

Nearly quadrupling itself in ten years. But the increase of the wealth and productiveness of Upper Canada was

The wheat crop of Lower Canada even more striking than the increase had also increased : it was of its population. We quote from

inhabitant. the Report of Lord Elgin, presented In 1843,

942,835 1.36 to Parliament February 15, 1853 :

3,075,868 3.46 “ The first returns of the assessable pro- The minot is one-twelfth more than a perty of Upper Canada, as taken under bushel. the Act of 1819, which I have been enabled to procure, are those of 1825. Its

This remarkable increase of the pototal amount is estimated in that year pulation and productiveness of Upper

at £1,854,965 5 0 Capada cannot be accounted for, in

2,407,618 14 8 the ordinary way, as the result of 3,189,862 14 11 emigration direct to the province; 4,608,843 12 G and herein consists a feature which 6,393,630 16 0

is well worth the serious consideration Another Act (13 & 14 Vict., Cap. 67) of the British public. The following was passed in 1850, requiring the muni- are the statistics of the immigration cipal authorities to assess property at its for the last six years into both proreal value, and rendering certain descrip- vinces :


To each


In 1830,


, 1835, » 1840, » 1845,

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Whence derived. England and Wales, 6,034 8,980 9,887 9,677 9,276 8,714 Ireland,

16,582 23,126 17,976 22,381 15,983 14,976 Scotland,

3,086 4,984 2,879 7,042 5,477 4,682 Lower ports,

1,842 468 701 1,106 1,184 435 European Continent, 1,395 436 849 870 7,256 7,278 Total,

27,839 38,494 32,292 41,076 39,176 36,085







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The gross amount of this immigra- States' ports, not because they offer tion-215,000 in six years—is cer- the cheapest route, but because they tainly large as an addition to a popu- afford constant facilities. The St Lawlation of under two millions; but it rence is only open for traffic during does not by any means represent the about seven months out of the twelve; accession of numbers which the country and the competition which the United has acquired from this source. It is States is enabled to carry on successobvious that a large amount of the fully with our shipowners, by means population of the upper province must of her efficient internal communicahave come by the Atlantic ports of tions, compels a large portion of our the United States ; for we find that tonnage to go out to British America the shipping using the ports of Quebec either circuitously, or in ballast, from and Montreal during the past few British ports. This is most strikingly years has actually diminished instead shown by the followingof increasing. The following statement of the number and tonnage of STATEMENT showing the number and tonvessels from sea, which entered in

nage of vessels entered inwards and

outwards at the port of Quebec, in 1852, wards and outwards at the ports of

with cargoes, or in ballast. Quebec and Montreal in each of the six years preceding 1852, is taken

INWARDS. from Lord Elgin's Report :


With cargoes,

560 Tonnage.

224,525 1845, 1,699 628,389

In ballast,

671 280,499 1846, 1,699 623,791


1,444 542,505

With cargoes,

1228 518,580 1849, 1,328 502,513

In ballast, None. None. 1850, 1,341 485,905

No ship in ballast can afford to 1851, 1,469 573,397

carry passengers, inasmuch as she His Lordship remarks, in explanation must pay dock and light dues, &c., of this falling off,

which would sweep away the bulk of “During the earlier years of this series, her earnings from such a freight. A while the Canada Corn Act of 1843 was considerable number of our timber in operation, an impulse was given to the ships, therefore, make the outward trade of Quebec and Montreal, by the pre- voyage to a United States port, thus ference accorded in the markets of Great diverting the legitimate trade of CaBritain to produce conveyed by the route nada, both with respect to goods and of the St Lawrence. Since that preference has been withdrawn, the facilities passengers, through the United States' afforded by the Government of the United territory and routes to the Far West. * States for the transportation, in bond, of To show the extent of this diversion

Canadian imports and exports through its of traffic from its natural course, we territory, and the multiplication of rail- quote again from the very valuable ways connecting the southern bank of the Report of Lord Elgin :St Lawrence with different points on the coast, have diverted a portion of the trade

" The imports, or principal articles of of that river from the Canadian seaports

British and foreign merchandise entered to those of the United States. As this is for consumption in Canada, during the however, a point of considerable impor. year ending the 5th Jan. 1852, amounted tance to the interests of the lower pro

in value to £4,404,409, 0s. 3d., on which vince especially, it may be well to look £606,114, 5s. of duty was collected; and into it more closely, with the view of in the goods in warehouse and in bond on quiring whether there be anything in the

that day were valued at £233,545, 158., nature of the route itself, or in the nature subject to £76,660, 2s. 3d. of duty. The of the trade, which places the route of the corresponding figures of the year precedSt Lawrence at a disadvantage in com

ing were as follows: peting with others for the trade of the Imports, £3,489,466 3 4 Great West."

Duty collected, 506,050 8 6 It is a well-known fact that a large

Goods warehoused, 150,709 18 7 portion of the emigrants from this

Duties payable thereon, 49,871 13 6 country, whose intended destination of the imports entered for consumption is Canada, go by way of the United there were imported from Great Britain

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