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the Marquesas islands, lon.139° 5–140°13' Wassanan; a city of Africa, on a rivW.; lat. 7° 50—9° 30' S. They were dis- er called Zadi, sixty days' journey southcovered by captain Ingraham, of Boston, in east of Timbuctoo. According
to an ac1791, and visited by captain Roberts, of the count given by Sidi Hamet to Riley, this same place, in 1792. The latter gave them city appears to contain twice as many inthe name of Washington. They are fully habitants as Timbuctoo. It is surrounded described in captain Porter's Journal of by a very large wall, built of great stones a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean in loosely piled up. A whole day is required 1812—14 (New York, 1825, 2 vols.). The to walk around it. The houses are built principal island of the group is Nooahiva, of stones, without cement, and roofed with or Nikahiva. Stewart also gives an ac- reeds and palm leaves.
The country count of these islands, in the first volume around is highly cultivated. The inhabof his Visit to the South Seas.
itants are Mohammedans. The account of WASHINGTON, Mount. (See White Sidi Hamet, above quoted, that, after emMountains.)
barking on the Joliba, at Timbuctoo, he Washita (formerly spelled Ouashitta) found that river to flow six days nearly is a river of Arkansas and Louisiana, east, and then to take a south-easterly diwhich rises about intermediate between rection, seems to agree with the statethe river Arkansas and the Red river, in ments of the Landers (see Viger); but it lat. 34° N. The Fourche Caddo, Little is not easy to conjecture what was the Missouri, and Saline, rise at no great dis- city described under the name of Wastance from the Washita. It runs through sanah by Sidi Hamet. The king, accorda country, in Arkansas, that is generally ing to the same authority, lived in a large sterile and mountainous. Pine, and that palace, had 150 wives, 10,000 slaves, and species of oak called pin oak, are the com- a large army.-See Riley's Narrative mon kinds of timber in that region, and (New York, 1817). they denote an inferior soil. In the richer Waste-Book. (See Book-Keeping.) and alluvial tracts are found the trees War Tyler, or WALTER THE TYLER; common to that latitude. That beautiful famous in history as one of the leaders of kind called bois d'arc is here found in the revolt of the lower classes in England, great abundance. In high stages of wa- in 1381. (See Richard II.) It has been ter, the Washita is navigable for steam- suggested that this name was merely asboats 600 miles, to the Hot springs. Asumed, as those of the other leaders of hundred salines, some of which are high- the revolt (Jack Straw, Hob Carter, and ly impregnated with salt, are found near Tom Miller) appear to have been, to dethe river. Its bottoms are very fertile af- note their mean origin, or to conceal their ter it enters Louisiana. Where it unites real rank.* The immediate cause of this itself with Red river, it strikes the eye as insurrection is said to have been the insothe larger of the two. It has a course of lence of a collector of poll-tax, who, unDearly 800 miles.
der pretence of ascertaining the age of WASP (vespa). The wasps may be the tiler's beautiful daughter, offered ber readily distinguished by having the upper intolerable indigvities. The tiler, brought wings longitudinally folded while at rest. into his cottage by the outcry of the girl's They belong to the order hymenoptera of mother, felled the tax-gatherer to the Linnæus, and have a pedunculated abdo- ground with a mortal blow. The villeins, men, terminated by a concealed sting. and other poor people of Norfolk, SufTheir larvæ resemble those of the bee, folk, Essex, Sussex, were roused by the and their history is also similar in most cry of the men of Kent, in which county respects. They live altogether in socie- lay Dartford, the scene of the occurrence ties, the individuals of which share in above described, and, declaring there common their labors and danger. In should be no more bondmen, assembled general, they construct their habitations at Blackheath, in May, to the number of with a sort of paper, formed of vegetable 60,000, and took possession of London. fibres, agglutinated by a sort of gum. The Their demands were, the abolition of cells resernble in form those of honey- bondage, the liberty of buying and sellcomb, and are often disposed in several ing in markets and fairs, a general parstories. They feed on animal substances, don, and the reduction of the rent of on meats exposed to the air, dead insects, over-ripe and sugary fruits, fragments of
* The case of the celebrated Jack Cade pre
sents a similar instance. His real name was John which they cut off with their mandibles, Aylmere, and he was a physician, as appears and carry away, for the purpose of feed- from Ellis's Letters Illustrative of English Histoing their young
ry, sccond series.
land. At an interview between Tyler when the fusee is winding up: the inner and the king, in Smithfield, the former end of the spring hooks on to the barrel was murdered by some of the attendants arbor, and the outer end hooks to the inside of the latter, under pretence that the rebel of the barrel. Now, if the fusee is turned leader seemed about to seize the king's round in the proper direction, it will take bridle. The revolt was extinguished with on the cord or chain, and, consequently, circumstances of great cruelty ; more than take it off from the barrel. This bends up 1500 wretches perishing by the band of the spring; and, if the fusee and great the hangman. These conmotions were wheel are left to themselves, the force exnot confined to England; and they indicate erted by the spring in the barrel to unbend the growing light of knowledge, which itself, will make the barrel turn in a conrendered the people impatient of personal trary direction to that by which it was slavery, then general (see Villenage), and bent up. This force of the spring unof the chains which a haughty pobility bending itself, being communicated to the had imposed upon them. Their concur- wheels, will set them in motion, and they rence with the attempts towards religious will move with considerable velocity. reform (see Wickliffe) must not be over- Their time of continuing in motion will looked. “A foolish priest of Kent,” says . depend on the number of turns of the spiFroissart,“ had preached to the peasants ral groove on the fusee, the number of that, in the beginning of the world, there teeth in the first or great wheel, and on were no bondmen. “Why,' said he, the number of leaves in the pinion upon should they be kept under, like wild which the great wheel acts, &c. The beasts? and why, if they labored, should wheels, in any sort of movement, when they have no wages?
at liberty, or free to turn, and when imWhen Adam delved, and Eve span, pelled by a force, whether it is that of a
Where was then the gentleman !'" weight or of a spring, would soon allow “ Two verses,” says Hume, “which, in this force to terminate ; for, as the action spite of prejudice, one cannot but regard of the force is constant from its first comwith some degree of approbation." mencement, the wheels would be greatly
Watch and Clock Making. A clock accelerated in their course, and it would or a watch movement is an assemblage of be an improper machine to register time wheels ani pinions, contained in a frame or its parts. The necessity of checking of two vrass plates, connected by means this acceleration, and making the wheels of pillars, the first or great wheel of move with a uniform motion, gave rise which, in ar eight day clock movement, to the invention of the escapement, or has concentric with it a cylindrical barrel, 'scapement, as it is commonly called. To having a spiral groove cut on it. To this effect this, an alternate motion was neces. cylinder is attached one end of a cord, sary, which required no small effort of which is wrapped round in the groove, human ingenuity to produce.—The esfor any determined number of turns; and capement is that part of a clock or watch to the other end of the cord is hung a connected with the beats which we hear weight, which constitutes a power or it give; and these beats are the efferts force to set the wheels in motion. Their of the moving power, carried forward by time of continuing in motion will depend ineans of the wheels in the movement to on the height through which the weight the last one, which is called the stoing has to descend, on the number of teeth in wheel in a pendulum clock, and the balance the first or great wheel, and on the num- wheel in a watch. The teeth of this wheel ber of teeth or leaves of the pinion upon act on the pallets or verge, which are of which this wheel acts, &c. The wheels various shapes, and which form the most in spriug clocks, and in watches, are urged essential part in a 'scapement; they drop on by the force of a spiral spring, con- from each tooth of the swing or balance tained in a hollow cylindrical barrel, or wheels, on their respective pallets, giving box, to which one end of a cord or chain one beat or impulse to the pendulum or is fixed, and lapping it round the barrel balance, in order to keep up or maintain for several turns outside: the other end is their motion; and, were it not for the palfixed to the bottom of a solid, shaped like lets, which alternately stop the teeth of the frustrum of a cone, known by the the swing or balance wheels, the motive name of the fusee, having a spiral groove force would have no check. Hence it is cut on it: on the bottom of this cone, or that, by this mechanism of the 'scapement, fusee, the first or great wheel is put. The the wheels in the movement are preventarbor, on which the spring barrel turns, is ed from having their revolutions accelso fixed in the frame, that it cannot turn erated, which would take place to such a
degree as to make the machine run down we have very nearly the weight of a cuin a minute or two; whereas, from the bic foot of it in úvoirdupois ounces. 100 resistance opposed by the pallets, it is kept cubic inches of air at 60° Fahr., when the going for twenty-four or thirty hours, for barometer stands at 30 inches, weigh a week or a month, or even for twelve 31.1446 grains. Hence it follows that wamonths. In the clocks or watches, how- ter, at that temperature and pressure, is ever, which, as a matter of curiosity, have 810.734 times heavier than air. Water been made to go so long, it was not possi- passes to the solid state at 32° Fahr. ble to have an accurate measure of time. When it shoots into ice, it forms, in the (For the historical matter connected with first place, a prism, not very regular in this subject, see Clock.).
shape, but very long. From this primary WATELET, Claude Henry; a French prism other smaller ones shoot out on writer of emiuence on the fine arts and both sides, and always at angles of 60° the belles-lettres. He held the office of and 120°. Hail is always crystallized in a receiver-general of the finances, was a the form of two six-sided pyramids apmember of the French academy, and of plied base to base. Ice has been observed several foreign learned societies, and died in crystals having the form of a rhomat Paris, in 1786, aged sixty-eight. He boid of 120° and 60°. · In taking the solid published, in 1760, a poem Sur l’Art de form, water undergoes an enlargement of peindre, and was the author of several volume from eight parts to nine ; and this other works, the most important of which expansion even takes place previous to the is the Dictionary of Painting, Sculpture congelation, during the reduction of temand Engraving, forming part of the En- perature for six or eight degrees, the cyclopédie Methodique.
greatest density of water being about 40° WATER. The composition of this fluid Fahr. In the act of freezing, too, the has been fully demonstrated both from anal. greater part of the air, which the water ysis and synthesis. It is found that when holds loosely dissolved, is expelled. Elechydrogen gas is burnt (an operation in tricity is also rendered sensible in its conwhich oxygen is combined with it), water gelation. Water passes into
vapor when is formed, and is the only sensible product. exposed to the atmosphere at any natural This is the proof by synthesis. On the temperature, and even ice evaporates, as other hand, when water is acted on by is proved by its losing weight when sussubstances capable of attracting oxygen, pended in the air. The transition into these are oxidated, the water disappears, vapor is promoted by heat: at 212°, under a and hydrogen gas is evolved. The pro- medium atmospheric pressure, water boils. portions of these elements in water are (See Steam.) Water absorbs the aërial As follows: one volume of oxygen to two fluids, but in quantities very different, acvolumes of hydrogen ; or, by weight, eight cording to the force of attraction which it parts oxygen to one of hydrogen. Water exerts towards them. Of some of the acid is a transparent and colorless liquid, des- gases it absorbs many times its own voltitute of smell, and nearly without taste. ume; of others, the quantity is so inconIt refracts light powerfully. When its in- siderable as not to be very perceptible, ternal movements are prevented, it is a unless ascertained by an apparatus pecuvery slow conductor of heat, and an im- liarly adapted to show the result. The perfect conductor of electricity. It is al- quantities absorbed are greater as the most incompressible, a pressure equal to temperature is low, down to freezing. 2000 atmospheres occasioning a diminu- They are also augmented by pressure. tion of only one ninth of its bulk. Water 100 cubic inches of recently-boiled water, being the substance most easily procured at the mean temperature and pressure, in every part of the earth in a state of absorb of purity, it has been chosen, by universal consent, to represent the unit of the spe- Carbonic acid,
Sulphureted hydrogen, 100 cubic inches.
100 cific gravity of all solid and liquid bodies.
100 When we say the specific gravity of a
12.5 body is two, we mean that it weighs twice
3.7 as much as the same volume of water
1.56 would do. Now, a cubic foot of water, at
1.56 the temperature of 60° Fahr., and when
1.56 the barometer stauds at 30 inches, weighs.
Hydrogen, 998.217 avoirdupois ounces, which is on- All water which has been exposed to the ly 1.783 ounces less than 1000. Hence, atmosphere (as spring and river water) if we know the specific gravity of a body, contains a portion of air, from which it
VOL. XIII. 8
derives a sparkling quality and agreeable turbid appearance from the presence of taste. It is thus also fiued for supporting any sulphate or carbonate, and the turbid the respiration of fishes It appears that appearance of it arising from the latter is the oxygen is absorbed in preference to removed on adding a drop or two of pure the nitrogen, and in considerably larger nitric acid. A solution of nitrate of silver quantity. All the powerful acids exert gives a bluish precipitate from the presa strong attraction for water, such as the ence of any muriate; and if this test is apsulphuric, the nitric, muriatic, fuoric and plied after the previous application of niphosphoric acids. Few of these can even frate of barytes (care being taken that this be obtained free from it in an insulated last is free from all muriatic acid), it is more state ; and it appears to have an important certain, as any precipitation from the preseffect in their more characteristic acid ence of a sulphate or carbonate is removproperties. A strong attraction is exerted ed. A solution of acetate of lead causes between water and the fixed alkalies, as a turbid appearance, if sulphates or caralso between it and the alkaline earths. bonates are present; while it produces a The compound salts, also, always contain less marked effect from the presence of water, even those of them which appear muriates. A solution of oxalate of analtogether insoluble. Water, though in- monia detects lime by precipitation ; and capable of combining with the metals, ex- a solution of soap in alcohol indicates, by erts a chemical action upon them, afford- the degree of turbid appearance it proing to several of them oxygen, at the tem- duces, the predominance of sulphate perature of ignition, and, at a natural of lime, or the degree of hardness, as it temperature, aided by atmospheric air, is called. If a solution of phosphate of oxidating or corroding others : it also com- soda produce a milkiness after a previous bines with some of iheir oxides. Water addition of a similar quantity of carbonate is a solvent of many other substances. of ammonia, magnesia is present. The Few of the animal or vegetable products presence of free carbonic acid is detected are insoluble in it, and all of them are af- by a slight milkiness being produced by fected by it as a chemical agent. Those the addition of an equal portion of lime compounds in which water exists in inti- water to the water, and with still more mate combination, and the properties of delicacy by super-acetate of lead. It is which it appears to modify, are named also discovered in the air expelled by hydrates. It sometimes exists in union, boiling, which, on being agitated with in the proportion of one atom (represent- lime water, affords a milky precipitate. ed by nine to hydrogen as one); some- Water is freed from all foreign substances times two atoms (or cighteen parts by by distillation. weight) are combined, and sometimes Waters, Mineral. Under the article even ten atoms. From the extensive sol- Mineral Waters, in this work, their definivent power of water, it is scarcely ever tion was given, and a division of them met with pure in nature. Every kind of into classes pointed out: a notice also of spring or river water is impregnated with some of their principal localities was apsaline and earthy bodies of different kinds. pended. In this place, we shall present Spring water contains carbonate of lime, some additional information respecting muriate of lime, and muriate of soda, with the localities of mineral waters (particua trace of magnesia, and often a little sul- larly American), their temperature, chemphate of polash or soda. River water ical constitution, and medicinal qualities. contains carbonate of lime, muriate of so. The division of mineral waters above alda, and each of these also sometimes a luded to, was into sulphureous, carbonatlittle alkali. Well water, besides these, ed, chalybeate and saline. Among the contains always a portion of sulphate of most celebrated waters of the sulphureous lime, the presence of which is the chief class are those of Aix-la-Chapelle, twelve cause of the quality termed hardness in leagues west from Cologne, nine northwaters. Rain or snow water is freer from east from Liege, and eighty from Paris. these foreign substances, but is not per- Its thermal waters appear to have been fectly pure, as it affords a trace of muri- known to the Romans; but they owe ate of soda and muriate of lime. The pres- their modern fame to Charlemagne, whe ence of these different saline and earthy made Aix-la-Chapelle his residence, and substances is judged of by the following occasionally held his levee in the bath, with tests, added in the quantity of a few drops all his attendants. The temperature of these of each to an ounce or two of water. A so- waters varies, at the different baths, from lution of nitrate of barytes produces a 110° to 143“ Fahr. They contain car
bonates of soda, lime and magnesia, mu- springs in France are those of Mont d'Or riate and sulphate of soda and silex. The and of Vichi. The former were known gases are in the following proportions :— to the Romans. There are four principal
springs at Mont d'Or, the temperature of Nitrogen,
51.25 three of which are decidedly thermal, Carbonic acid, .
28.26 and stand respectively at 107°, 109° and Sulphureted hydrogen, . 20.49 1139 Fabr. ; while the fourth is of the
low temperature of 52° Fabr. An analy
sis of one of these springs gives, Their medicinal qualities have been long well known. They are adapted to all
Free carbonic acid, chronic cutaneous disorders, asthmatic
Carbonate of soda,
189 affections, chronic rheumatism, dyspep
Sulphate of soda,
57 sia, diseases of the uterus, stiffness, weak
Muriate of soda,
145 ness and contraction of the limbs from Alumine,
62 gun-shot wounds. Their use is external
Carbonate of lime,
116 and internal. Those waters of the pres
Oxide of iron,
11 ent class existing in the U. States, which
Carbonate of inagnesia, 38 are the best known, are the White Sulphur
Total, 748 springs of Virginia. They are situated in the county of Greenbriar, in a hilly There are seven springs at Vichi, ranging and mountainous region of country, thir- in temperature from 72° to 112° Fabr. ty-seven miles in a south-westerly direc- The proportions of the saline ingredients tion from the Hot springs. The water is vary in each. All contain, however, carvery cold, and by its taste indicates an bonic acid, carbonates of lime, magnesia, abundance of saline matter in its compo- soda, sulphate of soda and muriate of sosition. It deposits largely a whitish mat- da. Of the cold carbonated waters, those ter, consisting chiefly of sulphur. These of Seltz, situated on the Rhine, nine leagues waters, besides proving efficacious in north-east of Strasburg, are the most celthose diseases enumerated above, have ebrated. The artificial Seltz water is been much resorted to by invalids suffer- made as follows :ing from the slow fever, following remit
Water, tent, bilious, or ill-cured intermittent fe
Carbonic acid, . vers. Under the present class must be
5 times the volume.
Carbonate of soda, 4 grs. mentioned the Salt Sulphur spring in
Muriate of soda, 22 Monroe county, and the Red Sulphur
Carbonate of spring in Giles county, Virginia. The last
2 mentioned enjoys much celebrity in cases
magnesia, S of pulmonary consumption in all its The best example of this class afforded by stages. (See Virginia.) Numerous springs the U. States is found in the Sweet springs, of the sulphureous class occur throughout Monroe county, Virginia. The springs the longitudinal range of Tennessee
from rise on the north side of a large mounwest to east, from Nashville on to the tain. Their temperature is 73° Fahr. Virginia line. In Kentucky, also, the The name is calculated to convey an Olympian springs, situated fifty miles east erroneous impression of their taste, which of Lexington, among the western ranges is not sweet, but like a solution of a of the Alleghany mountains, are deserving small quantity of a calcareous or magneof mention ; likewise the Blue Licks, sian carbonate : the excess of carbonic which occur on the banks of the Licking acid gives, however, the waters a briskriver, forty miles north-east of Lexington, ness productive of a very different effect on the main road from that place to on the palate from what an imperfect Maysville. The carbonated waters, whose mixture of the earths would produce. characteristic is the predominance of car- Chalybeate waters owe their characterisbonic acid, are both cold and thermal. tic properties, both chemical and mediciTheir medical use is most advantageously nal, to an impregnation of iron, in the displayed in allaying the thirst and heat state of an oxide, which is held 'in soluof feverish action which accompany a dis- tion by carbonic acid. They are limpid, turbed state of the stomach, and inflam- inodorous, and have a peculiar styptic mation of the liver and other viscera, taste. Exposed to the air, they become and in subduing irritation of the kidneys, covered with an iridescent pellicle, and a and checking copious discharges. The quantity of ochrey matter subsides, the two most celebrated thermal acidulous water at the same time losing its taste.