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a bill authorizing the treasurer to sub- cided, and a conflict of strong prejudices, scribe, - for the benefit of general Wash- keen jealousies, partial interests, and uningum," the same number of shares in tried theories. Washington was chosen cach of the navigation companies to be as the man of the nation, the guardian fred, as were to be taken for the state. of the universal weal: in po instance did Washington was embarrassed by this gen- he act or appear otherwise. His inceserous and honorable proceeding. In a sant application to business impaired his fine leuer of acknowledgment, he declin- robust constitution. Successive attacks ed the large donation for bimself, but of a severe disease compelled him, in askid it for some objects of a public na- 1790, to retire, for a short time, to mount lure. The shares were then reserved for Vernon. On all points of consequence the use of a seminary of learning estab- connected with domestic or foreign aflwhed in the vicinity of James and Poto- fairs, he consulted his able cabinet with mac rivers. In 1787, the legislature of much deference, collected their opinions Virginia unanimously elected him one of anxiously, and decided only after mature their delegates to the convention to be deliberation. The occurrence and prog. held at Philadelphia for the revisal of the ress of the French revolution occasioned federal systein. 'He finally consented to that complete division of parties, and those serve, making a painful sacrifice of his bitter animosities, which engendered the plays and expectations of uninterrupted most perplexity and chagrin for Washretirement, in order to assist in “averting ington, and emboldened or exasperated the contemptible figure which the Amer- men to impeach, in the end, eren his ican communities were about to make in spirit of impartiality and love of freedom. the annals of mankind, with their sepa- In the outset, he felt a lively interest in rate, independent, jealous state sovereign- the success of that revolution : he did not ties." The convention, when assembled hesitate to avow his sympathies and wishat Philadelphia, unanimously chose him es; but when the reign of terror and the for their president; and no member of order of Jacobins were established, be that angusi body more decidedly approv- experienced repugnance and horror, in ed the coustitution which they gave to common with so many other true friends the country. All America, as soon as it of liberty and humanity throughout the was adopted, looked to him as the first civilized world. In his circular of 178}, president under it, with an eye of affec- he had said, “There is a natural and tionate contidence and desire which necessary progression from the extreme could not be resisted. His reluctance to of anarchy to the extreme of tyranny; quit his retreat was extreme. The ex- and arbitrary power is most easily estab pression of his feelings on this head, in lished on the ruins of liberty abused to his private letters, is a striking mixture licentiousness;" and, in 1793, he perceived of genuine diffidence, personal disappoint- that this maxim was to be verified in the ment and elevated patriotism. Neither case of Franee. The result justified the the aniinosity of parties, nor the prepon- caution with which he avoided an alliance derance of the enemies of the new system with that power; but, independent of the in some of the states, could deprive him fatal character of French affairs, he knew of a single vote for the station of president. that peace was indispensable for the l'. From mount Vernon to New York, when States, in the infancy of their national excongress was in session, the journey of istence and union. The proclamation of Washington had the character of a tri- neutrality, and his resolute enforcement umph. He delivered his inaugural address of it; Jay's treaty with Great Britain ; and on the 30th April, 1789), and, throughout the general firmness of Washington's his administration, acted up to the princi- opinions and proceedings, sustained by plex and promises there in contained. As the unequalled favor and authority of his before in his military capacity, so now in name with the people, saved our young his civil, he declined receiving any thing republic from being hurried into a dreadbeyond his actual expenditures, in his ful vortex. The vigor and lenity of otticial character. We need not repeat Washington's government were eremplithe names of the eminent men whom he fied in the manner in which the insurrerassociated with him, in the arduous busi- tion in the western parts of Pennsylvania ness of putting the government into suc. in 1794, was suppressed: not a drop of cessful operation. The machinery of the blood was shed. At the expiration of system was to be contrived, adapted, set eight years, having served iwo terms in motion, and gave rise continually to Washington retired from the presidenes, the most important questions to be de- though, had he consented to retain the station, there can be no doubt he would iatory; but there was a quickness in his have been unanimously reëlected. His sensibility to any thing apparently offenvaledictory address to the nation is too sive, which experience had taught him to well known for comment. His last speech watch and to correct. In the manageto congress was delivered on the 7th of ment of his private affairs, he exhibited December, 1796. He returned to mount an exact, yet liberal economy. His funds Verdon to enjoy the pleasures of retire- were not prodigally wasted on capricious ment; but he was not left to perfect re- and ill-examined schemes, nor refused to pose. No sooner had war with France beneficial though costly improvements. become probable (1798), than all eyes They remained, therefore, competent to were directed to him as the person to that expensive establishment which his lead the American army. President Ad- reputation, added to a hospitable temper, ams nominated him to the chief corn- had in some measure imposed upon him, mand of all the land forces, and the sen- and to those donations which real distress ate unanimously confirmed the appoint- has a right to claim from opulence. He ment. He accepted it, asking only not to made no pretensions to that vivacity be called into the field until his presence which fascinates, or to that wit which should be required, and refusing to re- dazzles and frequently imposes on the ceive any emoluments annexed to it be- understanding. More solid than brilliant, fore he was in a situation to incur ex- judgment rather than genius constituted pense. The occasion for bis services, the most prominent feature of his characwhich was anticipated, did not happen. ter. As a military man, he was brave His devotedness to the cause of his coun- enterprising and cautious. That malig. try was not the less appreciated. His nity which has sought to strip him of all public toils were now finished; but the the higher qualities of a general, has conperiod allowed him for the enjoyment of ceded to him personal courage, and a a private life was short. On Friday, the firmness of resolution which neither dan13th December, 1799, exposure to rain gers nor difficulties could shake. But produced an inflammatory affection of his candor will allow him other great and throat He expired in the night of Sat- valuable endowments. If his military urday, having been early aware of the course does not abound with splendid certainty of his fate. . He manifested an achievements, it exhibits a series of judiequanimity, in his last moments, suitable cious measures, adapted to circumstances, to the whole tenor of his life. Funeral which probably saved his country. Placed, honors were paid to him in every part of without having studied the theory, or been his country, with the most sincere and taught in the school of experience the impressive manifestations of sorrow. His practice of war, at the head of an undischaracter is thus drawn by chief justice ciplined, ill-organized multitude, which Marshall: “General Washington was was unused to the restraints and unacrather above the common size; his frame quainted with the ordinary duties of a was robust, and his constitution vigorous, camp, without the aid of officers possesscapable of enduring great fatigue, and re- ing those lights which the commander-inquiring a considerable degree of exercise chief was yet to acquire, it would have for the preservation of his health. His ex- been a miracle, indeed, had his conduct terior created in the beholder the idea of been absolutely faultless. But, possessing strength united with manly gracefulness. an energetic and distinguishing mind, on His manners were rather reserved than which the lessons of experience were free, though they partook nothing of that never lost, his errors, if he committed dryness and sternness which accompany any, were quickly repaired; and those reserve when carried to an extreme; and, measures which the state of things renon all proper occasions, he could relax dered most advisable were seldom, if ever, sufficiently to show how highly he was neglected. Inferior to his adversary in the gratified by the charms of conversation numbers, in the equipment, and in the and the pleasures of society. His person discipline of his troops, it is evidenee of and whole deportment exhibited an unaf- real merit, that no great and decisive adfected and indescribable dignity, unmin- vantages were ever obtained over · bim, gled with haughtiness, of which all who and the opportunity to strike an imporapproached him were sensible; and the tant blow never passed away unused. attachment of those who possessed his He has been termed the American Fabjfriendship, and enjoyed his intimacy, was us; but those who compare his actions ardent, but always respectful. His tem- with his means, will perceive at least as per was humane, benevolent and concil- much of Marcellus as of Fabius in his character. He could not have been more tion to a torrent, which would have overenterprising without endangering the whelmed a man of ordinary firmness, cause he defended, nor have put more that course which had been dictated by a to hazard without incurring justly the sense of duty. In speculation, he was a imputation of rashness. Not relying up- real republican, devoted to the constituon those chances which sometimes give tion of bis country, and to that system a favorable issue to attempts apparently of equal political rights on which it is desperate, bis conduct was regulated by founded. But between a balanced repubcalculations made upon the capacities of lic and a democracy, the difference is like his army, and the real situation of his that between order and chaos. Real libcountry. When called a second time to erty, he thought, was to be preserved only command the armies of the U. States, a by preserving the authority of the laws, change of circumstances had taken place, and maintaining the energy of governand he meditated a corresponding changement. Scarcely did society present two of conduct. In modelling the army of characters, which, in his opinion, less re1798, he sought for men distinguished for sembled each other, than a patriot and a their boldness of execution, not less than demagogue. No man has ever appeared for their prudence in council, and con- upon the theatre of public action whose templated a system of continued attack. integrity was more incorruptible, or whose “The enemy,' said the general in his pri- principles were more perfectly free from vate letters, must never be permitted to the contamination of those selfish and ungain foothold on our shores.'' In his civil worthy passions which find their nous. administration, as in his military career, ishment in the conflicts of party. Having were exhibited ample and repeated proofs no views which required concealment, of that practical good sense, of that sound his real and avowed motives were the judgment, which is, perhaps, the most same; and his whole correspondence rare, and is certainly the most valuable does not furnish a single case from which quality of the human mind. Devoting even an enemy would inter that be was himself to the duties of his station, and capable, under any circumstances, of pursuing no object distinct from the pub- stooping to the employment of duplicity. lic good, he was accustomed to contem- No truth can be uttered with more contiplate, at a distance, those critical situations dence than that his ends were always in which the U. States might probably be upright, and his means always pure. He placed, and to digest, before the occasion exhibits the rare example of a politician required action, the line of conduct which to whom wiles were absolutely unknown, it would be proper to observe. Taught to and whose professions to foreign governdistrust first impressions, be sought to ac- ments, and to his own countrymen, were quire all the information which was at- always sincere. In him was fully extainable, and to hear, without prejudice, emplified the real distinction which for all the reasons which could be urged for ever exists between wisdom and cunning, or against a particular measure. His own and the importance as well as truth of judgment was suspended until it became the maxim that “honesty is the best polnecessary to determine; and his decisions, cy.' If Washington possessed ambition, thus maturely made, were seldom, if ever, that passion was, in his bosom, so regin to be shaken. His conduct, therefore, was lated by principles, or controlled by cirsystematic, and the great objects of his cumstances, that it was neither vicious administration were steadily pursued. nor turbulent. Intrigue was never emRespecting, as the first magistrate in a ployed as the means of its gratification : free government must ever do, the real nor was personal aggrandizement its ob and deliberate sentiments of the people, ject. The various high and important their gusts of passion passed over without stations to which he was called by the ruffling the smooth surface of his mind. public voice, were unsought by himself: Trusting to the reflecting good sense of and, in consenting to fill them, he seems the nation for approbation and support, he rather to bave yielded to a general conhad the magnanimity to pursue its real viction, that the interests of his country interests, in opposition to its temporary would be thereby promoted, than to his prejudices; and, though far from being particular inclination. Neither the extraregardless of popular favor, he could ordinary partiality of the American peonever stoop to retain hy deserving to Jose ple, the extravagant praises which were it. In more instances than one, we find bestowed upon him, nor the inveterate him committing his whole popularity to opposition and malignant calumnies hazard, and pursuing steadily, in opposi- which he experienced, had any visible


influence upon his conduct. The cause large folio volumes. Each class of subis to be looked for in the texture of his jects is brought together in a strict chronmind. In him, that innate and unassum- ological order, and a copious index is ing modesty which adulation would have added to every volume. After the revooffended, which the voluntary plaudits of lution had terminated, and he was settled millions could not betray into indiscretion, on his farm, though relieved from public and which never obtruded upon others duties, his correspondence continued to his claims to superior consideration, was be very extensive with eminent persons happily blended with a high and correct in this country and in Europe; and from sense of personal dignity, and with a just that time till his acceptance of the presiconsciousness of that respect which is dency, his copied letters fill six folio voldue to station. Without exertion, he umes; and, even during the period of bis could maintain the happy medium be- presidency, his habits of industry enabled tween that arrogance which wounds, and him to find leisure for preparing seven that facility which allows the office to be volumes of recorded letters, besides many degraded in the person who fills it. It is others of which press copies were taken, impossible to contemplate the great events and which are not preserved in books. which have occurred in the U. States, There are fourteen other volumes, in under the auspices of Washington, withwhich are recorded the transactions of out ascribing them, in some measure, to the president with congress and the heads him. If we ask the causes of the pros- of departments, and which consist of letperous issue of a war, against the suc- ters that passed between him and the cessful termination of which there were secretaries, on special subjects; also opinso many probabilities; of the good which ions, reports and intelligence from the was produced, and the ill which was secretaries. Among other records is a aroided, during an administration fated private journal kept by him, in which his to contend with the strongest prejudices official acts and intercourse with the dethat a combination of circumstances and partments are daily noted down. His letof passions could produce; of the con- iers remained numerous and important to stant favor of the great mass of his fel- the end of his life. This great collection low citizens, and of the confidence which, shows, in a striking light, the industrious, to the last moment of his life, they re- methodical and careful habits of Washposed in bim,—the answer, so far as these ington. causes may be found in his character, Washington, William Augustine, a diswill furnish a lesson well meriting the tinguished officer in the revolution, was the attention of those who are candidates for eldest son of Baily Washington, of Stafpolitical fame. Endowed by nature with ford county, Virginia. He was one of a sound judgment, and an accurate, dis- the earliest to engage in the struggle of criminating mind, he feared not that la- his country with the British government, borious attention which made him per- and was appointed to the command of a fectly master of those subjects, in all their company of infantry in the third regiment relations, on which he was to decide; of the Virginia line. His first essay in and this essential quality was guided by arms was at York island, where his conan unvarying sense of moral right, which duct elicited warm applause. In the rewould tolerate the employment only of treat through New Jersey, he was distinthose means that would bear the most guished for the fortitude with which he rigid examination ; by a fairness of in- sustained its difficulties, hardships and tention which neither sought nor required dangers. At the surprise of the Hessians, disguise; and by a purity of virtue which he led the van of one of the assailing colwas not only untainted, but unsuspected.” umns, and, whilst rushing with his com-A selection from Washington's papers is pany to the attack, received a severe preparing for publication, by Mr. Jared wound in one of his hands. Soon afterSparks, and the first part may be expected wards, three regiments of light dragoons to appear very soon. An account of these having been raised, he was appointed a papers was published some time since, by major in one of them, commanded by Mr. Sparks, in a series of letters addressed lieutenant-colonel Baylor. This corps to judge Story, from which it appears that was surprised, in 1778, by a detachment it was a habit adopted by general Wash- of the enemy, under general Gray, and alington, at an early stage of his life, to most cut to pieces. Washington, however, preserve copies of all his important let- escaped, and, in the following year, was ters, as well those of a private as those of detached to join the army of general Lina public nature. The transcripts of his coln, in South Carolina. There he was revolutionary papers occupy forty-four constantly employed with the light troops

His first rencounter with the enemy took the affair at Guilford, he acted a very place betwixt Ashley ferry and Ran- conspicuous part. By a spirited and jutowle's bridge, in which he drove back dicious charge, he broke the regiment of the cavalry of the British legion, com- guards commanded by colonel Steward, manded by lieutenant-colonel Tarleton, who was killed, and, in conjunction with and took several prisoners; but, being un- colonel Howard and his Marylanders, supported by infantry, be gained little ad- nearly effected their entire destruction. vantage from his success. He has been Unfortunately, his hat fell from his head, exonerated from all blame in relation to and whilst dismounting to recover it, the the surprises at Monk's corner and Lan- officer next in command was so grievian's ferry, which had nearly caused the ously wounded as to be disabled from annihilation of the American cavalry, as, managing his horse, which, wheeling in both instances, he was acting in a sub- round, carried him off the field, followed ordinate capacity. Being compelled by by the rest of the cavalry, who imagined these disasters to retire, with the remain- that the movement had been directed. This der of his corps, to the borders of North accident saved the remnant of the guards, Carolina, he solicited from general Gates and, in all probability, the entire British the aid of his name and authority, to fa- .army. At Hobkirk's hill

, he obtained fresh cilitate its restoration and equipment. laurels. By skilful manquvring, he gained The refusal of the general was severely the rear of the British army, and captured punished in the battle of Camden, where eleven officers, and upwards of two hunthe presence of a superior cavalry, led by dred men. He was only able, however, such a soldier as Washington, might have to bring fifty of them off the field, in condone much to insure success, or, at least, sequence of the retreat of the American would have prevented the terrible slaugh- forces. At the battle of Eutaw, he exter which followed the defeat. After this hibited signal valor, and made repeated occurrence, lieutenant-colonel Washing- charges on the British light infantry, who ton was attached, with his cavalry, to the maintained their ground with a steadiness light corps commanded by general Mor- worthy of the attack. In a last effort for gan. By an ingenious stratagem, he car. victory, his horse was killed, and, becomried the post at Rugely's, taking a large ing entangled, as he fell, in the ranks of body of the enemy without firing a shot. the enemy, and unable to extricate himAware of the character of his opponent, self, he was made prisoner. This was Rugely, he fixed a pine log on the front the final scene of his military performwheels of a wagon, so as to make it look, ances. He remained a prisoner in Charlesat a distance, like a field-piece, and threat- ton until the close of the war. He then ening immediate destruction if resistance settled in South Carolina, having married should be attempted: the affrighted colo- a lady of that state, to whom he had benel begged for quarter, and surrendered 'come attached during his captivity. He at discretion. To the brilliant victory at subsequently served in the legislature, the Cowpens, he contributed in a high where he gave evidences of capacity for degree, and received a silver medal from civil service, which induced his friends to congress, in testimony of his gallant con- endeavor to persuade him to become a duct. His ardor in this affair had nearly candidate for the office of governor; but cost him his life. Anxious to animate the his modesty caused him to refuse every pursuit by his example, he was burried so solicitation to that effect. When general far in advance as io be surrounded by Washington accepted the command of several officers of the British legion, and the army, during the presidency of Mr. was saved only by the bravery of a ser- Adams, he selected his relative to be one geant and his bugleman, Bali, who, by of his staff, with the rank of brigadier. a pistol-shot, disabled an officer, whose general. After a tedious indisposition, he sword was raised for his destruction. died in 1810. In person, he was tall, and After the junction of the two divisions of possessed great strength and activity. As the American army at Guilford court- a soldier, he was better fitted, perhaps, house, bis cavalry was made a part of a for the field of battle, than for the planbody of horse and foot, selected by gen- ning of military operations. In disposition, eral Greene, and placed under colonel he was hospitable, generous and benevoWilliams. In the retreat into Virginia, lent in the extreme, combining uprightand in all the maneuvres subsequent to ness with kind and courteous manners the recrossing of the Dan, he essentially WASHINGTON ISLANDS, or INGRAHAY aided in bafilling the skilful efforts of Islands; a group of three islands in the Coruwallis to force Greene to a battle. In South Pacific ocean, to the north-west of

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