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peared anonymously, in 1756; and, twentysix years after, he added a second volume, part of which had been printed at the same time with the former. In 1766, he was advanced to the station of head-master at Winchester, where he presided with high reputation nearly thirty years, when he resigned the mastership, and retired to the rectory of Wickham, in Hampshire. In 1797, an edition of the works of Pope, with notes, issued from the press under his superintendence (in 9 vols., 8vo.); and he then undertook an edition of Dryden's works, of which he had prepared only two volumes at the time of his death, which took place at Wickham, in 1800. Memoirs of his Life and Writings were published (in 2 vols., 4to.) by his pupil, doctor Wooll.
WARTON, Thomas, brother of the preceding, born at Basingstoke, in 1728, received his education at Winchester school, and Trinity college, Oxford, and, in his twenty-first year, distinguished himself by his Triumph of Isis, a poetical vindication of his alma mater against the reflections in Mason's Elegy of Isis. His Progress of Discontent, said to have been composed as a college exercise in 1746, added to his fame. In 1750, he took the degree of M. A., and, the next year, was chosen a fellow of his college. His Observations on Spenser's Fairy Queen, published in 1754, made him advantageously known as a critic, and prepared the way for his election, in 1757, to the professorship of poetry at Oxford, which he filled for ten years with great ability. He was instituted to the living of Kiddington, in Oxfordshire, in 1771, and, several years afterwards, published an account of his parish, under the title of a Specimen of the History of Oxfordshire (1783, 4to.). The first volume of his History of English Poetry was published in 1774, and the second and third, respectively, in 1778 and 1781. His plan was extensive, including the period from the eleventh to the eighteenth century; but the history goes no lower than the reign of Elizabeth, and a few sheets only of a fourth volume were prepared for the press, when he relinquished his undertaking. What he has executed is, however, very well done, exhibiting an extent of research and reading, and a correctness of taste and critical judgment, which render it a subject of regret, that he should have been diverted from completing his design. A new edition of the History of Poetry, with a preliminary essay, and the notes of Ritson, &c., was published in 1824 (4 vols., 8vo.).
In 1785, Warton became Camden professor of history at Oxford, and succeeded Whitehead in the office of poet laureate. His last publication was an edition of the smaller poems of Milton, elucidated with curious notes. In his sixty-second year, he was seized with a paroxysm of the gout; and though a journey to Bath removed the complaint, yet it probably laid the foundation for a paralytic attack, which occasioned his death at Oxford, May 21, 1790. He was interred, with academical honors, in the chapel of Trinity college. Among his various literary labors, not already noticed, were an edition of the Greek Anthology (1766); another of Theocritus (1770, 2 vols., 4to.); the Life and Literary Remains of Doctor Ralph Bathurst (1761, 8vo.); Life of Sir T. Pope (1780, 8vo.); and an Inquiry into the Authenticity of the Poems attributed to Rowley (1782, 8vo.). He published a collection of his poetical productions in 1777 (8vo.); and his Poetical Works, with an Account of his Life, by Richard Mant, appeared in 2 vols., 8vo. (Oxford, 1802).
WARWICK; a town of England, in the county of the same name, on the Avon. It is of great antiquity, and celebrated for the grandeur of its castle. William the Conqueror considered this castle of great importance, enlarged it, and gave it to the custody of Henry de Newburg, on whom he bestowed the earldom of Warwick. It is, at present, one of the noblest castles remaining in England. The whole of the apartments are elegantly furnished, and adorned with many original paintings. Population, 9109; ninety miles north-west of London.
WARWICK, Guy, earl of, an English champion, now celebrated in nursery tales, is supposed to have flourished in the reign of the Saxon king Athelstan. There is a tower belonging to Warwick castle, which still bears the name of this redoubted hero, and a spot called Guy's cliff, where the hermitage, to which he retired after performing the many valorous exploits recorded of him, is said to have stood. In the suburbs of Warwick, a chantry, with a statue, was erected to his memory, in the reign of Henry VI, by Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. In the castle of Warwick are still shown his spear, buckler, spurs and bow, and also the slippers of the beautiful Phillis, for whom he performed all his wondrous achievements. Besides many victories over dragons, wild boars, &c., Guy is said to have decided the fate of the king
dom in single combat with an enormous giant, who stood forth as the champion of the Danes, at Memhill, near the walls of Winchester, when king Athelstan was besieged.-The history of Warwick may be found in old English and French romances.
WARWICK, EARL OF. (See Dudley.)
WASHES; a large estuary on the eastern coast of England,in the counties of Norfolk and Lincoln. When the tide is full, the whole is under water; but when the tide is out, it is passable by travellers, though not without danger from quicksands. WASHING OF Ores. (See Mining, vol. viii, p. 504.)
WASHINGTON, the capital of the U. States, in the district of Columbia, is situated on the left bank of the Potomac and the right bank of the Anacostia, or Eastern branch. The Tiber, a small stream, runs through the middle of the city; and its waters may be conveyed to the capitol and the president's house. Lat. 38° 32′ 54′′ N.; lon. 77° 1′ 48′′ W. from Greenwich (on American maps it is often made the first meridian); 436 miles south-west of Boston, 226 of New York, 136 of Philadelphia, 37 of Baltimore; 553 northeast of Charleston, 1260 north-east of New Orleans, and 897 east of St. Louis; 295 miles, by the course of the Potomac, from the Atlantic ocean; population, in 1810, 8208; 1820, 13,247; 1830, 18,827; population of the district, at the last-mentioned period, 39,858, of which 6056 were slaves. The city of Washington became the seat of government in 1800; and it is the residence of the president, and the other chief executive officers of the federal government. The federal congress meets at Washington on the first Monday of December every year, and the supreme court of the U. States holds its annual sittings here, beginning on the second Monday of January. Washington is separated from Georgetown by Rock creek, over which there are several bridges, and from Alexandria by the Potomac, over which is a pile bridge upwards of a mile in length: there are, also, several bridges over the Anacostia. This river has a sufficient depth of water for frigates to ascend, without being lightened, above the navyyard, which is situated upon it: vessels drawing fourteen feet can come up to Potomac bridge, whence to the mouth of the Tiber, there are nine feet of water at
ordinary high tide. A spacious canal unites the Anacostia with the Potomac. The city is well supplied with good water, and is pleasantly situated with a range of heights in the rear, affording many fine sites, and the Potomac, of more than a mile in width, opening towards the south. Near the head of tide-water navigation, and having an easy communication with the ocean, it is connected with a rich back country by the Chesapeake and Ohio canal. Steam-boats ply regularly between Washington and Baltimore, Alexandria, Norfolk and other places; and eight stage-coaches leave daily for Baltimore, besides several in other directions. The city is regularly laid out; but a small part of the ground embraced within the plan is built upon. Streets running north and south, are crossed by others running east and west, whilst those which are called avenues, traverse these rectangular divisions diagonally, and are so laid out as to afford the most direct communication between those places deemed the most important, or which offer the most agreeable prospects. Where the avenues form acute angles by their intersections with the streets, there are reservations which are to remain open. The avenues are named after the states of the Union, and the streets are designated numerically or alphabetically, beginning at the capitol; those running north and south of it being designated by the letters of the alphabet-A north, A south, &c.—and those east and west of it being numbered as 1st street east, 1st street west, &c. The avenues and streets leading to public places are from 120 to 160 feet wide; the others from 70 to 110 feet. The public buildings are, 1. the capitol, situated on Capitol square, at the head of Pennsylvania avenue. It is of the Corinthian order, constructed of free-stone, and composed of a centre and two wings. The length of the whole is 350 feet; depth of the wings, 121 feet; height to top of dome, 120 feet. A Corinthian portico extends the length of the centre, which is occupied by the rotunda, ninety-six feet in diameter and ninety-six feet in height. The rotunda is ornamented with relievos, and contains four paintings, executed by Trumbull, representing the landing of the pilgrims at Plymouth, the treaty between Penn and the Indians, the preservation of Smith by Pocahontas, and the adventure of Daniel Boone with two Indians. Adjoining this, on the west, is the library of congress. The hall, ninety-two feet in length, thirty-four in width,
and thirty-six in height, contains 16,000 volumes. The senate-chamber, in the north wing, is a semicircle of seventyfour feet in length, and forty-two in height. Over the president's chair is a portrait of Washington, by Rembrandt Peale. The representatives' chamber, in the south wing, is also a semicircle, ninety-five feet in length, and sixty in height. The dome is supported by twenty-six columns and pilasters of breccia, or Potomac marble. A colossal statue of liberty, and a statue of history, are the principal embellishments of the hall. Immediately beneath the senate-chamber, and nearly of the same form and dimensions, is the room in which the sessions of the supreme court are held. The president's house is two stories high, with a lofty basement, and 180 feet long by 85 wide. Four brick buildings, two stories high, with freestone basements and Ionic porticoes, contain the offices of the principal executive departments. The general post-office, 200 feet long, contains also the patent-office. The navy-yard, on the Anacostia, with an armory, &c.; the marine barracks, to the north of the navyyard; an arsenal, public manufactories of arms and military stores, &c., are among the other public establishments. There are also, a city-hall, four market-houses, twenty churches, an orphan asylum, alms-house, &c. Columbia college, which was incorporated by congress in 1821, is situated a little to the north of the city, and has four instructers and about fifty students. There are also two Roman Catholic institutions, which are under the care of the sisters of charity. In August, 1814, Washington was taken by the British, under general Ross, who set fire to the capitol, president's house, and other public offices. The library of congress was burned at this time, and that of Mr. Jefferson was subsequently purchased to replace it.
WASHINGTON, a village about seven miles east of Natchez, in Mississippi, is the seat of Jefferson college, which is the first literary institution in that state. It was established in 1802, but, for many years, was not equal to the minor academies of New England. It has lately been converted into a military school, on the plan of that at West Point. The buildings are commodious, and the situation pleasant. It has ten instructers and 160 students.
WASHINGTON, George, the third son of Augustine Washington, was born, Feb. 22, 1732, near the banks of the Potomac, in
the county of Westmoreland, Virginia. When but ten years old, he was deprived of his father, in consequence of which the care of his improvement devolved exclusively upon his remaining parent, who admirably fulfilled her duty towards him; but, from the limited extent of her fortune, his education was confined to the strictly useful branches of knowledge. In 1743, his elder brother married a connexion of lord Fairfax, the proprietor of the northern neck of Virginia; in consequence of which George was introduced to the acquaintance of that nobleman, who gave him, when in his eighteenth year, an appointment as surveyor in the western part of the territory mentioned. In 1751, his military bent induced him to accept the station of one of the adjutantgenerals of Virginia, with the rank of major. Soon afterwards, he was sent, by governor Dinwiddie, on a perilous mission, in consequence of the French troops having taken possession of a tract of country claimed by Virginia, and commenced the erection of a line of posts, to be extended from the lakes to that river. After great toil and danger, he reached the station of the French commander, to whom he delivered the governor's letter; and, having received an answer from him, he returned. As no disposition was indicated to comply with the requisition which had been made, a regiment was raised to maintain the rights of the British crown, and Mr. Washington was appointed its lieutenant-colonel. On the death of the colonel, Mr. Fry, he succeeded to the command, and greatly distinguished himself by his defence of fort Necessity against a very superior French force. He was obliged, at length, to capitulate, but on highly favorable terms; and the legislature of Virginia passed a vote of thanks to him for his conduct on the occasion. In the course of the winter of 1754, orders were received from England for settling the rank of the officers of his majesty's forces; and, those who were commissioned by the king being directed to take rank of the provincial officers, colonel Washington resigned his commission in disgust. He then retired to a country-seat, which he had acquired by the death of his brother, who, having served in the expedition against Carthagena, had named it mount Vernon, in honor of the admiral who commanded the fleet in that enterprise. He did not, however, remain long in private life. In the spring of 1755, he was invited, by general Braddock, to enter his family as a vol
unteer aid-de-camp, in his expedition to the Ohio. The history of this disastrous expedition, and the admirable conduct of Washington, are too well known to need repetition: had his counsels been followed, the result, in all probability, would have been different. In the battle with the Indians, he had two horses killed under him, and four balls passed through his coat; but, to the astonishment of all, he escaped unhurt, while every other of ficer on horseback was either killed or wounded. His reputation was now established, and he was immediately appointed to the command of a regiment consisting of sixteen companies, raised by the legislature of Virginia, for the defence of the province, after the intelligence of the defeat of Braddock, and the retreat of Dunbar, had been received. He was also designated, in his commission, as the commander-in-chief of all the forces raised and to be raised in the colony; and, as a still further proof of the public confidence, he was intrusted with the unusual privilege of selecting his field-officers. During the years 1755 1758, he was engaged in protecting the frontier from the incursions of the French and Indians-a duty from which he was at length relieved by the capture of fort Duquesne. After this expulsion of the French from the Ohio, the hostile operations of the Indians ceased, and Virginia was relieved from the dangers with which she had been threatened; and, as the health of colonel Washington had been much impaired by his arduous labors, and his domestic affairs required his attention, he resigned his commission, having established an exactness of discipline in his regiment, which reflected the greatest credit on his military character. He soon afterwards married Mrs. Custis, a young lady to whom he had been long attached, and who, besides a large fortune, possessed great personal attractions and accomplishinents of mind. Previously to his resignation, he had taken his seat in the general assembly, of which he had been elected a member by the county of Frederick. For several years after his marriage, the attention of colonel Washington was principally directed to the management of his estate. He continued a most respectable member of the legislature of the province, and took an early and decided part against the claims of supremacy asserted by the British parliament. As hostilities approached, he was chosen by the independent compa7
nies formed through the northern parts of Virginia to command them, and was also elected a member of the first congress which met at Philadelphia. Here he was placed on all those committees whose duty it was to make arrangements for defence. When it became necessary to appoint a commander-in-chief, his military character, the solidity of his judgment, the steady firmness of his temper, the dignity of his person and deportment, the confidence inspired by his patriotism and rectitude, and the independence of his fortune, combined to designate him, in the opinion of all, for that important station; and, accordingly, on the fourteenth of June, 1775, he was unanimously chosen "general and commanderin-chief of the armies of the United Colonies, and all the forces now raised or to be raised by them." After expressing his high sense of the honor conferred upon him, his firm determination to exert every power he possessed in the service of his country, and her "glorious cause," and his diffidence of his abilities and experience, and declining all compensation for his services, at the same time avowing an intention to keep an exact account of his expenses, which he should rely on congress to discharge, he proceeded, as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made, to the head-quarters of the American army, then at Cambridge, in the neighborhood of Boston. On arriving there, he bent the whole force of his mind to overcome the great difficulties with which he was obliged to struggle, in consequence of the want of ammunition, clothing and magazines, the deficiency of arms and discipline, and the evils of short enlistments. The history of this campaign before Boston is a history of successive exertions to surmount almost insuperable obstacles, by one who was solicitous, in the extreme, to perform some great and useful achievement, in order to prove himself worthy of his high station. In one of his letters to congress, at this period, he says, "I cannot help acknowledging that I have many disagreeable sensations on account of my situation; for to have the eyes of the whole continent fixed upon me, with anxious expectation of hearing of some great event, and to be restrained in every military operation, for want of the necessary means to carry it on, is not very pleasing, especially as the means used to conceal my weakness from the enemy, conceal it also from our friends, and add to their wonder." This was written in
February, after a council of war had expressed an opinion, chiefly on account of the want of ammunition for the artillery, against the execution of a bold plan which he had formed of crossing the ice, and attacking general Howe, in Boston. He then took possession of the heights of Dorchester, in the persuasion that a general action would ensue, as the position enabled him to annoy the ships in the harbor and the soldiers in the town. The British general, in consequence, was reduced to the alternative of either dislodging the Americans or evacuating the place, and endeavored to accomplish the former; but the troops which were embarked for the purpose, were scattered by a furious storm, and disabled from immediately prosecuting the enterprise. Before they could be again in readiness for the attack, the American works were made so strong, that an attempt upon them was thought unadvisable; and the evacuation could no longer be delayed. It took place on the seventeenth of March, and gave great joy to the United Colonies. Congress passed a vote of thanks to the general and his army, "for their wise and spirited conduct in the siege and acquisition of Boston," and directed a medal of gold to be struck in commemoration of the event. As soon as the British fleet had put to sea, the American army proceeded, by divisions, to New York, where it arrived on the fourteenth of April. Every effort was made by Washington to fortify the city, before the appearance of the enemy. In the beginning of July, the British troops were landed on Staten island, and some efforts were made by lord Howe, who commanded the fleet, to open negotiations for the restoration of peace; but they failed, in consequence of the refusal of the American commander to receive any communication not addressed to him in such a way as to acknowledge his public character. The English commander had directed his letters to "George Washington, esquire," and then to "George Washington, &c., &c., &c.," but declining an unequivocal recognition of his station. The disastrous affair of Long island soon afterwards occurred, on the twenty-seventh of August, in which Washington was obliged to behold the carnage of his troops without being able to assist them. It constrained him to withdraw his forces entirely from the island, which he accomplished on the night of the twentyeighth, with such secrecy, that all the troops and military stores, with the greater part of the provisions, and all the artillery,
except such heavy pieces as could not be drawn through the roads, rendered almost impassable by rains, were carried over in safety. From the commencement of the action, on the morning of the twentyseventh, until the American forces had passed the East river, on the morning of the twenty-ninth, his exertions and fatigues were unremitted. Throughout that time, he was almost constantly on horseback, and never closed his eyes. The manner in which this operation was performed, greatly enhanced his military reputation; and it may justly be ranked among those skilful manoeuvres which distinguish a master in the art of war. No ordinary talents, certainly, are requisite to withdraw, without loss, a defeated, dispirited and undisciplined army from the view of an experienced and able enemy, and to transport them in safety across a large river, while watched by a numerous and vigilant fleet. In consequence of the operations of the British general, it soon became indispensable to evacuate New York. This was done on the fifteenth of September, with an inconsiderable loss of men. The strongest point of the position which Washington then took, was at Kingsbridge; but it was soon afterwards deemed necessary to withdraw altogether from York island, and the army moved towards the White Plains. General Howe followed, and the battle of the White Plains ensued, in which a portion of the American forces, occupying a hill on the right of the army, under the command of general Mac Dougal, were driven from their station after an animated engagement. Washington then changed his position for another, and Howe, considering this too strong to be attempted with prudence, retired down the North river, for the purpose of investing fort Washington, on York island. It was taken, and its garrison made prisoners of war; on which the American general retreated into New Jersey. His situation now was gloomy in the extreme. All his efforts to raise the militia had been ineffectual; and no confidence could be entertained of receiving reinforcements from any quarter. But that unyielding firmness, which constituted one of the most valuable and prominent traits of his character, enabled him to bear up against every difficulty. "Undismayed," says Marshall, "by the dangers which surrounded him, he did not, for an instant, relax his exertions, nor omit any thing which could obstruct the progress of the enemy, or improve his own condition. He did not appear to despair of the pub