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dependence of spirit. After leaving col- other in 1775, commemorative of the lege, he studied medicine, and rose, in a 5th of March, 1770. Within a year after few years, to eminence among the phy- his death, congress passed resolutions to sicians of Boston. He soon became con- erect a monument to his memory, in Bos spicuous as a politician; and his pen was ton, with a suitable inscription (which, constantly employed in defending the however, has not yet been done), and rights of his country, from the year in
to educate his eldest son at the expense which the stamp act was passed, until the of the U. States. In 1780, this body furcommencement of the revolutionary war. ther resolved to recommend to the execuFrom the year 1763, he was a principal tive of Massachusetts, to make provision member of the secret meeting or caucus for the maintenance and education of his in Boston, which exercised great influ- three youngest children, and to defray the ence on the concerns of the country; and expense, to the amount of the half-pay of in the plans of defence which he helped to a major-general. mature in this assembly, and which were WARRINGTON; a thriving town of Eng. made known after the destruction of the land, in Lancashire, on the Mersey ; poptea, he evinced great circumspection and ulation, 16,018; eighteen miles east of wisdom, notwithstanding the boldness and Liverpool. By the reforın act of 1832, it ardor of his character. He was twice se- was constituted a borough, returning one lected to deliver the oration on the anni- member to parliament. versary of the Boston massacre, on which WARSAW (Polish Warszawa ; called occasion he manifested his characteristic by the Germans Warschau, and by the warmth and energy. On the evening be- French Varsovie); capital of the late fore the affair of Lexington, he obtained kingdom, formerly capital of the whole intelligence of the intended expedition country of Poland, on the west bank of against Concord, and, at ten o'clock in the the Vistula, 300 miles east of Berlin ; lon. night, despatched an express to Hancock 20° 3' E. ; lat. 52° 14' N. The populaand Adams, then in the former town, to tion, which, in 1830, was 140,000, is now warn them of their danger. In the battle reduced to about 60,000. Warsaw has a itself he was very active, and is said to pleasant situation, not very elevated, yet have lost a part of his ear-lock by a hall. sufficiently so to be secure against ihe His influence was of great use in pre- overflowings of the Vistula. It is an serving order among the troops confused- open town, having neither gates nor walls, ly assembled at Cambridge. When Han- but is enclosed with lines. It covers a cock repaired to the congress at Philadel- great extent of ground, being between phia, he was chosen his successor in the three and four miles long, including its presidentship of the provincial congress; four suburbs, and between two and three and four days previous to the affair of broad; but this extent includes large Bunker's hill, he received the commission spaces occupied by gardens. The city, of major-general
. On the day of that formerly but little better than a collection memorable engagement, he joined the of cottages, received considerable immen within the lines, to encourage them, provements from its Saxon sovereigns of as a volunteer; and just as the retreat the last century. Still it was an irregular commenced, he was struck by a ball on and unpleasant place, exhibiting a singuthe head, which terminated his career in lar contrast of ostentation and poverty, the trenches. He was thirty-five years having, in a few quarters, mansions of of age at the period of his death, and was such splendor as to be entitled to the the first victim of rank in the struggle name of palaces; in others, a succession between the two countries. In the spring of miserable hovels. The streets were of 1776, his bones were disinterred and formerly wholly without pavements, and entombed in Boston, on which occasion exceedingly filihy; but several of them an eloquent funeral eulogy was pro- have been paved, kept clean, and well nounced by a member of the society of lighted. The town is divided into old masons, of which he had been grand and new, exclusive of the four suburts master in America. General Warren pos- one of which, Praga (q. v.), lies on the sessed a clear and vigorous understand- east bank of the river. The old town, ing, and a humane and generous disposi- with the exception of a few public edition. His qualities of head and heart, fices, is miserably built ; but there is a accompanied, as they were, by manners greater proportion of good houses in the affable and winning, caused hiin to be al- new town and suburbs. The largest edmost idolized by the army and his friends. ifice is the palace of the kings of the He published an oration in 1772, and an- house of Saxony, the residence of the
viceroy, who represents the emperor of about 1207, between six of the most disRussia. The city was in an improving tinguished German poets-Henry the state, and increasing in population and Clerk (Henry von Rispach), Walther von trade, previously to the insurrection of der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschen1830. "It then contained thirty-nine bach, Bitterolf, Henry von Ofterdingen churches, six hospitals, a military acade- and Reimer von Zweten or Zwetzen, asmy, a gymnasium, a lyceum, and a uni- sembled at the Wartburg, under the proversity, founded in 1816, consisting of tectiou of the landgrave. This poem exfive faculties, theology, jurisprudence, po- ists, in two manuscripts, in the Manesse litical economy, philosophy, and the fine (q. v.) collection, and in the Jena manuarts, with a library of 150,000 volumes, script of the Minnesingers (q. v.); from among which were 15,000 Polish works, which Zeune printed it in 1808. Opin7000 incunabula, and 1260 manuscripts. ions differ respecting the writer. Its situation, for an inland town, is favor- WARTENBURG, BATTLE OF, October 3, able for trade. The Vistula is navigable 1813. Wartenburg is a small place on to a great extent, upwards as well as the left bank of the Elbe. Blücher havdownwards. It has manufactures of ing resolved to give a turn to the war, by woollen stuffs, soap, tobacco, gold and sil- transferring the scene of conflict to the ver wire, carriages, harness, and carpets. left bank of the Elbe, left his camp at Since 1817, two great annual fairs have Bautzen, September 26, and made a membeen established. In 1566, the diet of orable march to the Elbe. The river was Poland was transferred from Cracow, the wide and rapid, and the pontons were old capital of Poland, to Warsaw. (For thrown over it in the midst of the fire of an account of the insurrection of 1830, the enemy. The Prussians were 24,000 and the war which followed, see Poland, strong; the French corps, under Bertrand, and Russia.) Warsaw was captured by who opposed them, 20,000. The French Paskiewitch, September 7, 1831, after two were defeated with much loss. days' fighting. The scenes of horror ex- Warton, Joseph, son of the reverend hibited there need not be detailed. Rus- Thomas Warton, professor of poetry at sia is at present erecting a citadel at War- Oxford, was born in 1722, at Dunsfold in saw, to overawe the country for the fu- Surrey. At the age of fourteen, he enture, the cost of erecting which (20,000,000 tered on the foundation of Winchester florins) is to be extorted from the unhap- school, and, in 1740, at Oriel college, Oxpy citizens.
ford. He left the university after taking Wart (verruca); a thickening or in- his first degree, and became curate to his duration of the cuticle. These little tu- father, afterwards exercising the same ofmors form most commonly on the face fice at Chelsea. He was created M. A. by and hands, and either drop off spontane- diploma in 1757, and, in 1768, was adously or may be removed by the applica- mitted to the degree of D. D. He pubtion of caustics.
lished, in 1744, a small volume of Odes, WARTBURG; an ancient mountain cas- and, in 1748, was presented, by the duke tle, balf a league from Eisenach, belonging of Bolton, to the rectory of Winslade, to the grand duke of Saxe-Weimar. It Bucks. Soon after, he married. In 1751, was built between 1069 and 1072, was the he accompanied bis patron, the duke of residence of the landgraves of Thuringia, Bolton, to France, as his chaplain, for the and famous for its tournaments, especially purpose of uniting him in the bands of in the first half of the thirteenth century. wedlock to his mistress, Miss Fenton, a The elector Frederic the Wise, of Saxony, public singer, on the occurrence of the caused Luther, who had been outlawed expected death of the duchess. The by the diet of Worms, to be carried chaplain, however, returning to England thither, where he lived from May 4, 1521, before that event took place, another clerto March 6, 1522, engaged in the transla- gyman solemnized the nuptials. In 1753, tion of the Bible. The room in which Warton published a new translation of he labored is yet seen. The disorderly the Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil, acconduct of Carlstadt induced him to leave companied by Pitt's version of the Æneid, this place. (See Carlstadt, and Luther. with dissertations and notes, and became For the meeting of the German students a contributor to doctor Hawkesworth's here, October 18, 1817, see Eisenach.)- Adventurer. In 1754, he was presented The War of the Wartburg, one of the to the rectory of Tamworth, and, the folearliest dramatic poems, or dialogues in lowing year, was chosen second master verse, in the German language, grew out of Winchester school. His Essay on the of a poetical contest which took place Writings and Genius of Pope first appeared anonymously, in 1756; and, twenty. In 1785, Warton became Camden professix years after, be added a second volume, sor of history at Oxford, and succeeded part of which had been printed at the Whitehead in the office of poet laureate. same time with the former. In 1766, he His last publication was an edit.on of the was advanced to the station of head-mas- smaller poems of Milton, elucidated with ter at Winchester, where he presided with curious notes. In his sixty-second year, high reputation nearly thirty years, when he was seized with a paroxysm of the he resigned the mastership, and retired to gout; and though a journey to Bath rethe rectory of Wickham, in Hampshire. moved the complaint, yet it probably laid In 1797, an edition of the works of Pope, the foundation for a paralytic attack, with notes, issued from the press under which occasioned his death at Oxford, his superintendence (in 9 vols., 8vo.); and May 21, 1790. He was interred, with ache then undertook an edition of Dryden's ademical honors, in the chapel of Trinity works, of which he had prepared only college. Among his various literary latwo volumes at the time of his death, bors, not already noticed, were an edition which took place at Wickham, in 1800. of the Greek Anthology (1766); another Memoirs of his Life and Writings were of Theocritus (1770, 2 vols., 4to.); the published (in 2 vols., 4to.) by his pupil, Life and Literary Remains of Doctor doctor Wooll.
Ralph Bathurst (1761, 8vo.); Life of Sir Warton, Thomas, brother of the pre- T. Pope (1780, 8vo.); and an Inquiry ceding, born at Basingstoke, in 1728, re- into the Authenticity of the Poems atceived his education at Winchester school, tributed to Rowley (1782, 8vo.). He puband Trinity college, Oxford, and, in his lished a collection of his poetical produetwenty-first year, distinguished himself by tions in 1777 (8vo.); and his Poetical his Triumph of Isis, a poetical vindica- Works, with an Account of his Life, by tion of his alma mater against the reflec- Richard Mant, appeared in 2 vols., ero. tions in Mason's Elegy of Isis. His Prog- (Oxford, 1802). ress of Discontent, said to have been Warwick; a town of England, in the composed as a college exercise in 1746, county of the same name, on the Avon. added to his fame. In 1750, he took the It is of great antiquity, and celebrated degree of M. A., and, the next year, was for the grandeur of its castle. William chosen a fellow of his college. His Ob- the Conqueror considered this castle of servations on Spenser's Fairy Queen, great importance, enlarged it, and gave it published in 1754, made him advantage- to the custody of Henry de Newburg, on ously known as a critic, and prepared the whom he bestowed the earldom of Warway for his election, in 1757, to the pro- wick. It is, at present, one of the noblest fessorship of poetry at Oxford, which he castles remaining in England. The whole filled for ten years with great ability. He of the apartments are elegantly furnished, was instituted to the living of Kiddington, and adorned with many original paintin Oxfordshire, in 1771, and, several years ings. Population, 9109; ninety miles afterwards, published an account of his north-west of London. parish, under the title of a Specimen of WARWICK, Guy, earl of, an English the History of Oxfordshire (1783, 4to.). champion, now celebrated in nursery tales, The first volume of his History of Eng. is supposed to have flourished in the reign lish Poetry was published in 1774, and of the Saxon king Athelstan. There is a the second and third, respectively, in 1778 tower belonging to Warwick castle, and 1781. His plan was extensive, in which still bears the name of this recluding the period from the eleventh to doubted bero, and a spot called Guy's the eighteenth century; but the history cliff, where the hermitage, to which he goes no lower than the reign of Elizabeth, retired after performing the many valorand a few sheets only of a fourth volume ous exploits recorded of him, is said to were prepared for the press, when he re- have stood. In the suburbs of Warwick, linquished his undertaking. What he has a chantry, with a statue, was erected to executed is, however, very well done, ex- his memory, in the reign of Henry VI, hibiting an extent of research and read. by Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. In the ing, and a correctness of taste and critical castle of Warwick are still shown his judgment, which render it a subject of spear, buckler, spurs and bow, and also regret, that he should have been diverted the slippers of the beautiful Phillis, for from completing his design. A new edi- whom he performed all his wondrous tion of the History of Poetry, with a pre- achievements. Besides many victories liminary essay, and the notes of Ritson, over dragons, wild boars, &c., Guy is &c., was published in 1824 (4 vols., 8vo.). said to have decided the fate of the kingdom in single combat with an enormous ordinary high tide. A spacious canal giant, who stood forth as the cham- unites the Anacostia with the Potomac. pion of the Danes, at Memhill, near the The city is well supplied with good wawalls of Winchester, when king Athel- ter, and is pleasantly situated with a stan was besieged.—The history of War- range of heights in the rear, affording wick may be found in old English and many fine sites, and the Potomac, of more French romances.
than a mile in width, opening towards the WARWICK, EARL OF. (See Dudley.) south. Near the head of tide-water payWasa, Gustavus. (See Gustavus I.) igation, and having an easy communicaWASA, ORDER OF. (See Sweden.) tion with the ocean, it is connected with Wash. (See Brewing.)
a rich back country by the Chesapeake Washes; a large estuary on the eastern and Ohio canal. Steam-boats ply regucoast of England, in the counties of Norfolk larly between Washington and Baltimore, and Lincoln. When the tide is full, the Alexandria, Norfolk and other places ; whole is under water ; but when the tide and eight stage-coaches leave daily for is out, it is passable by travellers, though Baltimore, besides several in other direcnot without danger from quicksands. tions. The city is regularly laid out; but
WASHING OF ORES. (See Mining, vol. a small part of the ground embraced viii, p. 504.)
within the plan is built upon.
Streets WASHINGTON, the capital of the U. , running north and south, are crossed by States, in the district of Columbia, is situ- others running east and west, whilst ated on the left bank of the Potomac and those which are called avenues, traverse the right bank of the Anacostia, or East- these rectangular divisions diagonally, and ern branch. The Tiber, a small stream, are so laid out as to afford the most direct runs through the middle of the city; and communication between those places its waters may be conveyed to the capitol deemed the most important, or which and the president's house. Lat. 38° 32 54" offer the most agreeable prospects. N.; lon. 77° 1' 48" W. from Greenwich Where the avenues form acute angles by (on American maps it is often made the their intersections with the streets, there first meridian); 436 miles south-west of are reservations which are to remain Boston, 226 of New York, 136 of Phila- open. The avenues are named after the delphia, 37 of Baltimore; 553 north- states of the Union, and the streets are east of Charleston, 1260 north-east of designated numerically or alphabetically, New Orleans, and 897 east of St. Louis; beginning at the capitol ; those running 235 miles, by the course of the Po- north and south of it being designated by tomac, from the Atlantic ocean; pop- the letters of the alphabet-A north, A ulation, in 1810, 8208; 1820, 13,247; south, &c.—and those east and west of it 1830, 18,827; population of the district, being numbered—as Ist street east, ist at the last-mentioned period, 39,858, of street west, &c. The avenues and streets which 6056 were slaves. The city of leading to public places are from 120 to Washington became the seat of govern- 160 feet wide; the others from 70 to 110 ment in 1800; and it is the residence of the feet. The public buildings are, 1. the president, and the other chief executive capitol, situated on Capitol square, at the officers of the federal goverument. The head of Pennsylvania avenue. It is of federal congress meets at Washington on the Corinthian order, constructed of the first Monday of December every free-stone, and composed of a centre and year, and the supreme court of the U. two wings. The length of the whole is States holds its annual sittings here, be- 350 feet; depth of the wings, 121 feet; ginning on the second Monday of Jan- height to top of dome, 120 feet. A Coпаrу. Washington is separated from rinthian portico extends the length of the Georgetown by Rock creek, over which centre, which is occupied by the rotunda, there are several bridges, and from Alex- ninety-six feet in diameter and ninety-six andria by the Potomac, over which is a feet in height. The rotunda is ornamentpile bridge upwards of a mile in length: ed with relievos, and contains four paintthere are, also, several bridges over the ings, executed by Trumbull, representing Anacostia. This river has a sufficient the landing of the pilgrims at Plymouth, depth of water for frigates to ascend, the treaty between Penn and the Indians, without being lightened, above the navy- the preservation of Smith by Pocahontas, yard, which is situated upon it: vessels and the adventure of Daniel Boone with drawing fourteen feet can come up to Po- two Indians. Adjoining this, on the west, fomac bridge, whence to the mouth of the is the library of congress. The hall, nineTiber, there are nine feet of water at ty-two feet in length, thirty-four in width, and thirty-six in height, contains 16,000 the county of Westmoreland, Virginia. volumes. The senate-chamber, in the When but ten years old, he was deprived north wing, is a semicircle of seventy- of his father, in consequence of which four feet in length, and forty-two in the care of his improvement devolved exheight. Over the president's chair is a clusively upon his remaining parent, who portrait of Washington, by Rembrandt admirably fulfilled her duty towards him: Peale. The representatives' chamber, in but, from the limited extent of her forthe south wing, is also a semicircle, nine- tune, his education was confined to the ty-five feet in length, and sixty in height. strictly useful branches of knowledge. In The dome is supported by twenty-six 1743, his elder brother married a concolumns and pilasters of breccia, or Po- nexion of lord Fairfax, the proprietor of tomac marble. A colossal statue of lib- the northern neck of Virginia; in coneerty, and a statue of bistory, are the prin- quence of which George was introduced cipal embellishments of the hall. Imme- to the acquaintance of that nobleman, diately beneath the senate-chamber, and who gave him, when in his eighteenth nearly of the same form and dimensions, year, an appointment as surveyor in the is the room in which the sessions of the western part of the territory mentioned. supreme court are held. The president's In 1751, his military bent induced bim to house is two stories high, with a Jofty accept the station of one of the adjutantbasement, and 180 feet long by 85 wide. generals of Virginia, with the rank of Four brick buildings, two stories high, major. Soon afterwards, he was sent, by with freestone basements and Ionic por- governor Dinwiddie, on a perilous misticoes, contain the offices of the principal sion, in consequence of the French troeps executive departments. The general having taken possession of a tract of post-office, 200 feet long, contains also country claimed by Virginia, and comthe patent-office. The navy-yard, on the menced the erection of a line of posts, to Anacostia, with an armory, &c.; the ma- be extended from the lakes to that river. rine barracks, to the north of the navy. After great toil and danger, he reached yard ; an arsenal, public manufactories of the station of the French commander, to arms and military stores, &c., are among whom he delivered the governor's letter; the other public establishments. There are and, having received an answer from also, a city-hall, four market-houses, lwenty him, he returned. As no disposition was churches, an orphan asylum, alms-house, indicated to comply with the requisition &c. Columbia college, which was in- which had been made, a regiment was corporated by congress in 1821, is situated raised to maintain the rights of the Bri:a little to the north of the city, and has ish crown, and Mr. Washington was apfour instructers and about fifty students. pointed its lieutenant-colonel. On the There are also two Roman Catholic death of the colonel, Mr. Fry, he sucinstitutions, which are under the care of ceeded to the command, and greatly dis. the sisters of charity. In August, 1814, tinguished himself by bis defence of fort Washington was taken by the British, Necessity against a very superior French under general Ross, who set fire to force. He was obliged, at length, to cathe capitol, president's house, and other pitulate, but on highly favorable terins; public offices. The library of congress and the legislature of Virginia passed a was burned at this time, and that of Mr. vote of thanks to him for his conduct on Jefferson was subsequently purchased to the occasion. In the course of the winreplace it.
ter of 1754, orders were received from Washington, a village about seven Esgland for settling the rank of the offimiles east of Natchez, in Mississippi, is cers of lis majesty's forces; and, those the seat of Jefferson college, which is the who were con: missioned by the king being first literary institution in that state. It directed to take rank of the provincial was established in 1802, but, for many officers, colonel Washington resigned bis years, was not equal to the minor acade- commission in disgust. He then retired mies of New England. It has lately been to a country-seat, which he had acquired converted into a military school, on the by the death of his brother, who, having plan of that at West Point. The build- served in the expedition against Carthageings are commodious, and the situation na, had named it mount Vernon, in honor pleasant. It has ten instructers and 160 of the admiral who commanded the students.
fleet in that enterprise. He did not, howWASHINGTON, George, the third son of ever, remain long in private life. In the Augustine Washington, was born, Feb. 22, spring of 1755, he was invited, by gene1732, near the banks of the Potomac, in ral Braddock, to enter his family as a rol