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ounces. The management of the bleed- ing, followed, in three hours, by a dose of ing must, therefore, be left to the discretion castor oil, if it do not operate previously of the medical attendant. If the pulse to the expiration of this time. During rise, as it is wont to do under this condi- the whole disease, the bowels should be tion of the system, by the loss of blood, kept open by the milder purgatives, but its abstraction should be continued until especially by oil, or by injections; for it become soft under the finger. Nor purging is uniformly hurtful, unless it can any rule be laid down for the repeti- be on the decline of the disease, and after tion of the bleeding, but one-namely, the liver has begun to secrete large quanthat recourse must be had to it, whenever tities of bile, which requires to be carried the system reacts with force, by which off. The mildest drinks should be given every symptom becomes aggravated, even during the whole attempt at cure, and if this occur several times in the twenty- these cold, almost always; that is, unless four hours. It is mainly owing to not cold drinks be . less acceptable to the taking down the excess of action of stomach than tepid, which is sometimes the heart and arteries when it occurs, the case. Ice swallowed frequently, in that fatal disorganization takes place so small portions at a time, is both acceptfrequently ; therefore, every paroxysm able and useful, and should never be should be carefully watched, that no one withheld when it can be procured. All may pass without having the force of the the drinks may be rendered cold by this pulse abated, by the loss of blood; for it substance ; and these should consist of may be confidently said, that the system gum-arabic water, barley water, linseed never reacts forcibly in this disease, when tea, slippery-elm bark tea, &c. Drinks it will not bear the abstraction of blood, should always be given in small quantieither generally or topically. If topical ties at a time, lest the stomach reject bleeding be resorted to, it must be from them. If there be much sickness of stomthe epigastrium ; therefore, either leech- ach, attended by much tenderness upon ing or cupping must be the mode of ab- pressure, the epigastrium should be leechstraction. This state of the system is ed or cupped ; and this may be followed rarely found, however, after the expiration by a blister if the nausea or vomiting conof eight-and-forty hours, unless the dis- tinue. Should the headache be great ease have been vigorously treated by pre- after due depletion from the arm, the vious blood-letting. Should this period temporal artery may be opened, or leeches have been lost, bleeding from the general or cups be applied to the temples, behind system can rarely be successful: topical the ears, and to the back of the neck. bleeding alone pow promises relief; and Under these circumstances, if the feet be this may be tried at almost any period of cool or cold, they should be placed in the disease, if the sensibility of the epi- hot water, with which is mingled a quangastrium remain active. As regards the tity of the flour of mustard, and the feet feebleness of reaction, as just stated, we suffered to remain in it for fifteen or must not be mistaken in its cause, in the twenty minutes. This may be repeated, beginning of this disease; as it is almost pro re nata. Fresh air should be admitsure to depend upon the depressed state ted freely into the room; the bed clothes of the pulse. For after blood has been and body linen changed as often as practaken in an appropriate quantity, the heat ticable; light excluded, and noise proof the skin and activity of the pulse will hibited. If there be much determinaboth increase; but if stimulants be used, tion to the head, cold applications should both will be diminished. But it is al- be made to it, after reducing the quantity ways proper, when reaction is feeble, the of hair, should this be thick. Partial skin cooler than natural, and the extremi- heat may be reduced by sponging. Docties perhaps cold, but certainly preternat- tor Jackson, in his treatise on fever, recurally cool, to use external stimuli with ommends large bleedings, in the first a view of aiding the powers of the system eight hours of attack, even ad deliquium in their efforts to produce a warmth upon animi. This, in robust constitutions, and the surface. Bottles or jugs of hot water, when the disease commences with high heated bricks, sinapisms, Cayenne pepper, excitement, has been found very bene&c., should be applied to the feet and ficial; but it rarely can be proper where legs, and used until a proper warmth be the disease is of a highly malignant charrestored. The bowels should be freely acter, as is almost always the case where opened, but not violently purged: for this much indirect debility suddenly shows purpose, eight or ten grains of calomel itself, and, consequently, where the powshould be given immediately after bleed- ers of the system are inadequate to produce a quick and sufficiently powerful re- is not to thwart or prevent their efforts action. In this case, however, stimula. We must, therefore, be rather the spectation would be more quickly and certainly tors of the conflict of the system, than acfatal than bleeding, even indiscreetly tive agents against the disease ; taking care, urged ; for, by the former, you cannot however, constantly to remove, as much fail to increase the inflammation of the as it may be in our power, any obstacle mucous membrane of the stomach, which that may appear to interfere with the genwill necessarily augment the danger ; eral progress recovery, as an irregular while the latter only diminishes the power condition of the bowels, of the stomach, of reaction ; therefore, by the first prac- of the state of air, &c. &c. Nausea and tice, the cause of the disease is increased; vomiting are troublesome conditions of by the second, the effects of this cause the stomach, and its relief should be asare only augmented. For the first, there tempted by leeching, cupping and blis may be no adequate remedy; for the sec- tering, over its region, by Seltzer water, ond, a remedy may be found : hence, the effervescing draught, lime water and when, in the early stage of yellow fever, milk, &c., but never, or but very rarely recourse is had to internal stimulants, the in the beginning of the disease, by stimecase is almost uniformly fatal ; whereas, lants : after decided marks of debility, bleeding, even when injudiciously employ- clove tea, mint tea, or strong coffee, with ed, only depresses the system, which may mustard to the epigastrium, may be tried recover by the aid of external stimuli; and When black vomit has come on, the spirit the case is not as desperate as when stim- of turpentine, with the oil of cinnamon, uli have been thrown into the stomach in thirty drop doses, has been certainly of during the state of active inflammation. temporary use, and occasionally of perIn the case, however, under considera- manent benefit. Thirst may be abated tion, it is only an abuse of the proper by small quantities of very cold water, ar remedy; for, if the abstraction of blood by frequently swallowing small portions be judiciously made in this state of the of ice, as directed above: sometimes the system, the system, instead of becoming feeling of the stomach is in favor of warm prostrate, will react promptly; for the drinks; when this is the case, the craving pulse, in the beginning of this disease, is or instinct should be indulged. Hiccough in a state of depress on, as has already is sometimes extremely distressing in this been explained, and not of absolute weak- complaint. Camphor, in doses of from ness ; for there have been instances of five to ten grains, will sometimes relieve recovery, as already stated, after spontane- it. Should it offend the stomach, it may ous hæmorrhages from various parts of be given very advantageously in a gill of the body, but where the abstraction of rich flaxseed tea, and thin starch, or mublood from the general system by the cilage of gum-arabic, as an enema. The lancet would certainly have proved fatal. utmost attention must be constantly paid Does not this flow of blood intimate to to the patient by the nurse : he should us the propriety of imitating it, by the have the luxury of fresh air constantly, application of a leech or two to various and the frequent renewal of clean, fresh parts of the body ? One thing is very body linen and bed clothes. certain in the generality of cases of yel- YORCK, GENERAL. (See York.) low fever, that when bleeding, either general or topical, fails to afford relief, stimulants never succeed: therefore, when the

Z. time is past for both general and topical bleeding, it is in vain to attempt the relief of the patient by the exhibition of stimu- ZAARA. (See Sahara.) lants. By doing little or nothing at this ZARAGOZA. (See Saragossa.) time, the recuperative powers of the sys- ZEBAOTH. (See Sabaism.) tem, if left to themselves, may restore the Zeid. (See Seyd.) patient; for all that art can do, at this time, ZETLAND Isles. (See Shetland.)

WITHERSPOON, John, D. D., LL. D., the constitution of New Jersey, and, in president of the college at Princeton, 1776, was appointed a member of conNew Jersey, was born in Yester, Scot- gress, and retained a seat in that body till land, February 5, 1722, and educated at the conclusion of peace. His name is Edinburgh. He was settled in the min- affixed to the Declaration of Indepenistry, first at Beith, and afterwards at dence, and the Articles of Confederation. Paisley, and became one of the most After the war, the college was re-opened, distinguished of the Scottish clergy for and he returned to his duties there. talents and influence. He published During the last two years of his life, he while there his Characteristics, and be suffered the loss of his sight. He died came the leader of the orthodox part of November 15, 1794, in the seventy-third the clergy. He was invited to remove to year of his age. He possessed a mind of several distinguished cities in Europe, great vigor and activity, of uncommon but, at length, accepted an appointment shrewdness and humor. His learning was to the presidency of the college at Prince- very various and extensive, and his diston, New Jersey, and came to that state, cernment of character singularly keen. with his family, in 1768. The war of His preaching was characterized by perthe revolution dispersed the students, and spicuity and energy.

He was an able left him at leisure to engage in civil politician, and a zealous friend of liberty, employments, to which he was almost and a highly amiable, amusive, and immediately called. He was elected a instructive companion. His works have member of the convention which formed been published in 4 vols., 8vo.

Note referred to on page 502 of this Volume. Since this volume was put in type, we have received the work of Messrs. De Beaumont and De Toqueville on the Penitentiary System in the United States (Paris, 1833). These gentlemen were sent by the French government to inquire into the state of the American prisons, and to give a report on the systems here adopted. Their work (a translation of which is now making in this country) contains, as may be supposed, much valuable information on the Auburn system, as well as on that practised in the Eastern penitentiary, near Philadelphia ; and the report on the health of the convicts in solitary confinement, according to the Pennsylvania plan, is highly satisfactory.

ERRATA.

The following list contains the errata which have been found during the preparation of this

work. These have been corrected as fast as discovered, so that they do not appear in the later copies.

VOL. I.

p. 491, 1. 9, for "3000' read · 30,000.'

p. 492, 1. 15 from bottom. Cape Haytien is erronePage 16, running title, for ‘Abial,' read ‘Abrial.' ously stated to be the capital of Hayti.

p. 53, line 3, had been previously,' read was subsequently,' and after Massachusetis,' insert ‘in 1775.'

VOL. III. p. 55, !. 47, Angelicanæ'read · Anglicanæ.' p. 89, I. 32, Berberd' read • Berber.

Page 30, 1. 1 and 2, Burying-Ground' read · Buryp. 92, l. 37, Kurerchanee' read 'Kureechanee.' ing-Places.' p. 108, 1. 31, Sigismondi' read. Sismondi.' p. 184. The view of the expense of the clergy in

p. 177, ' Aliment' is placed by mistake after All- England, compared with that of the clergy in the Souls.'

rest of the world, was taken from a statement made p. 190, ' Almond' is put by mistake after 'Almoner.' during the short sway of the constitutional governp. 194, 1. 4, Rhætian' read. Rhætian ;'-1. 14, ments in Spain and Portugal, when the income of • 12,859' read 14,859.'

the clergy in those countries was much reduced, and p. 202, 1. 38, Pasco' read Vasco.'

therefore is true only of that time. p. 208, 1. 16, 1497' read ' 1499 ;-). 17, omit the p. 226, 1. 15 from bottom, Clerfati' read · Clerfait.' Dord likewise.'

p. 346, 1. 10 and 11, Columbarii' read "Colump. 211, !. 48, Hartford, Connecticut' should be baria.' « New York.'

p. 351, 1. 23, "2 vols.' read '4 vols.,' and - 1825 p. 224, 'Ana Santa, a comma is wanted after 'Ana.'

read 1828. p. 240, 1, 1, 24,441' read .21,441.'

p. 479. The qualifications of voters in New p. 250, 1.21 from bottom, strike out 'S. Tomas de York should be stated thus :-Citizenship, resiAngostura ;'-i. 18 and 19 from bottom, strike out dence of a year in the state, and six months in the

140 miles N. of Santa Fe de Bogota, on the Mag- county, immediately preceding the election. For dalena river,' and insert south side of river Orono- people of color, a freehold of $250 (the taxes on co, about 90 leagues from its mouth.'

which have been paid), and three years' citizenship, p. 259, I. 22, Bidke' read. Bielke.'

with residence one year immediately before the p. 260,1. 5 from bottom, port' read' fort.'

election, p. 285, 1. 40, Lamothe read 'Lamotte.'

p. 526, !. 9 from bottom, 'Quatremères' read p. 360, 1. 2, bishop' read 'presbyter.'

Quatremère.' p. 375, 1. 28, .Socinius' read Socinus.' p. 410, Ashmole' is placed by mistake before *Ashantee.'

VOL. IV. P. 450, Atooi is said to be supposed to contain 54,000 inhabitants. The population is probably not Page 28, in the paragraph headed Sentences of over 12,000.

Death,' the words annual average' belong only to p. 474, l. 43, 125' read "275.'

the first three lines. The word total' should be P. 497, I. 41, for 'by Charlemagne to,' read 'to substituted in the following lines, and the words Charlemagne by.'

' in the whole,' now set against Scotland, in the 4th p. 499, l. 43, for expelled from Moravia,' read line, struck out. destroyed by the Moravians.'

p. 96, I. 15, Methodicus' read · Methodius.' p. 584, 1. 25, 1661' read 1611.'

p. 108, 1.9 from bottom, ‘Bürgschafs' read · Burgschaft.'

p. 189, !. 29, Opite' read 'Opitz.' VOL. II.

p. 199, l. 2, Bauer' read • Baner.'

p. 211. The lives of the two earls of Essex will Page 20, 1. 16 from bottom, - 1530' read 1546." be found on page 211, under the head of Devereux.' p. 75, 1. 29, Dessaix' read Desaix.'

p. 292, 1.9 from bottom, -1,0000' read • 10,000." p. 93, 1. 4 from bottom, -4291 ' read '3733."

p. 314, 1. 11, 'miles square' road square miles.' p. 181. Some mistakes on this page are corrected p. 348, 1. 23 from bottom, Lutzen' read · Bautzen.' in the note to the first page of the article. Joseph p. 371, 1. 29, for after March 14' read followBonaparte.'

ing the first full moon after the vernal equinox.' p. 208, I. 4, for 'has described his own life at p. 396, 1. 12, for '2 hours' read 4 hours 29 minlength,' read his life has been written by M. de utes 44 seconds.' Bausset ;-). 20 from bottom, 48,281' read 58,281.' p. 399, I. 27 from bottom, miles' read · feet.'

p. 248, 1. 20 from bottom, for "are administered by p. 524, I. 15 from bottom, put the word Memorial" the representatives of the people,' read rest on a after 'Las Cases.' transfer of power by the people.'

p. 573, 1. 37, Erastostratus' read · Heralostratus.' p. 329, 1. 35, 883' read •888.'

p. 608, in note, 6 lines from bottom, 214 should be p. 354, I. 15 from bottom, ‘Dover' read London.' p. 357, 1. 17 from bottom, Paris' read . Pisa." p. 412, 1. 13, Machmud' read Mahmud.' p. 609. In this table (as given in many copies of P. 486, 1. 30, Moravia' read • Moldavia.' this work), owing to an accident in printing the VOL. XIII.

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