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In a few minutes, the tree came thunder- that state, June 4, 1734. He took his ing past the men, and plunged into the degree at Yale college, in 1756, and, in lake. The lowest board was then turned 1758, was ordained pastor of the second dow, which was tolowed immediately society in Berlin, a situation which he reby all the res ; and thus the workmen attained until his death, June 1, 182, in the wp were informed of the safe descent the eighty-sixth year of his age. In 176, of the tree. The same operation was re- he published bis Sermons on Natural and pearedi jurng the rest of the day; and it Moral Ioability, which were soon after was so arranged that a tree should de- republished in England. A translation send every ove or six minutes. When of them also was made, it is believed, an the smeness of the tree was impeded by Germany. His other works are two any posiadde, or when it started out of the Discourses on Universal Salvation; . ruuga be board was only half depressed; Concio ad Clerum ; an Election Sermoo: and as the workinen knew by this signal and Sermons (in 2 vols., 8vo.). that something was wrong, those who SMALLWOOD, William, a governor of merupad the stations above and below Maryland, served with great distinction the piece where the tree had struck, came in the revolutionary war. In 1776 be and sssisted in removing the obstruction, received the appointment of brigadierwhich was generally occasioned by the general, and was present, with the brigade springing of a beam in the trough. In of Maryland troops under his command. order to prove the enormous force which at the battles on Long Island, near Camthe trees acquired by the rapidity of their den, and at Germantown. In 1785, be descent, M. Rupp caused some of them was elected a delegate to congres, and do spring from the trough. The result the same year, governor of the state. His was that they penetrated the earth by death occurred in February, 1792 their thickest ends to the depth of eighteen SMEATON, John, an eminent civil en and sometimes twenty-four feet ; and gineer, was born May 28, 1724, at Ane one of them having accidentally come in thorpe, near Leeds. The strength of bis contact with another, cleft it from top to understanding and the originality of be bottom, with the violence and rapidity of genius appeared at an early age. His lightning. In order that none of the father was an attorney; and being desiroes small wood might be lost, M. Rupp con- to bring up his son to the same professor, structed several extensive manufactories he carried him to London, in 1742, where in different parts of the forest, for the he attended the courts in Westminster purpose of reducing it to charcoal. He hall; but, after some time, finding that also built magazines for preserving it the law was not suited to his disposition, when made. The trees, after having he wrote a strong memorial to his father reached the lake, were made up into on the subject, who immediately desired rafts, and floated down the Reuss, by the the young man to follow the bent of his Aar, into the Rhine. By this rapid con- inclination. In 1751, he began a course verance, they generally arrived at Basle of experiments to try a machine of his a few days after they had left Lucerne. own invention, to measure a ship's way A: Basle they passed out of the hands of at sea, and made two voyages, income the company. They were still floated pany with doctor Knight, to try the effects down the Rhine in rafts to Holland ; and of it, and also for the purpose of making thus performed a journey of about 4000 experiments on a compass of his own miles, in less than a month from the time construction, which was rendered met they left Pilatus, until they arrived at the netical by doctor Knight's artificial Inne German ocean. We are sorry to add, nets. In 1753, be was elected a fellow that this stupendous work of art is now of the royal society; and a number of totally destroyed, and that almost every papers which he published in their Tran trace of it is obliterated on mount Pilatus. actions, show how highly he deserved The great demand which formerly exist the bonor. In 1755, the Eddystone light edd for the timber having entirely ceased, house was burnt down, and Mr. Smeaton uwing to political causes, the cutting and being recommended to the proprietors of transporting of the timber was necessarily that building as an engineer in every way discontinued, and the slide was suffered calculated to rebuild it, he undertook the to go to ruin. (See Playfair's Works, vol. work, which was completed in 175, Appendix, No. 9, p. 89)
much to the satisfaction of the parties (See Plum.)
concerned. (See Light-House.) 'After John, doctor of divinity, an this, Mr. Smeaton was employed as pregational clergyman of many works of great public utility. He was born at Lebanon, in made the river Calder navigable - weet
that required talents of the very first way over the rushy tussocks as they aporder, owing to the impetuous floods in pear before him. If his foot slips, or if that river; and planned and attended to he ventures to desert this mark of securithe execution of the great canal in Scot- ty, it is possible he may never more be land, for conveying the trade of the coun- heard of. On the south, Solway moss is try either to the Atlantic or German bounded by a cultivated plain, which ocean. Mr. Smeaton was appointed en- declines gently, through the space of a gineer to Ramsgate barbor, and brought mile, to the river Esk. This plain is it into a state of great utility by various lower than the moss, being separated operations, of which he published an ac- from it by a breastwork formed by digcount in 1791. He constructed a variety ging peat, which makes an irregular, of mills, built a steam-engine at Aus- though perpendicular line of low, black thorpe, and made a vast number of ex- boundary. It was the bursting of the periments with it to ascertain the power moss through this peat breastwork, over of Newcommen's engine (see Steam-En- the plains between it and the Esk, that gine), which he improved and brought to occasioned the dreadful inundations that a far greater degree of perfection, both in destroyed so large a district. The more its construction and powers, than it had remarkable circumstances relating to this before. During many years of his life, calamitous event, were these : On the he was a frequent attendant upon par- thirteenth of November, 1771, in a dark, liament, his opinion on various works, tempestuous night,* the inhabitants of the begun or projected, being continually plain were alarmed with a dreadful crash, called for. He died in 1792. He was which they could no way account for: mafond of science for its own sake, and ny of them were then in the fields, watchspent much of his leisure in the study ing their cattle, lest the Esk, which was of astronomy; for which purpose, be then rising violently in the storm, should fitted up an observatory, in his house, carry them off. In the mean time, the furnished with curious contrivances of enormous mass of fluid substance, which bis own invention. He was a friend and had burst from the moss, moved slowly on, encourager of merit wherever he dis- spreading itself more and more as it got cerned it; and many persons were in possess.on of the plain. Some of the indebted to him for important assistance habitants, through the terror of the night, on entrance into life. Mr. Smeaton was could plainly discover it advancing like a the institutor, in 1771, of a society of civil moving hill. This was, in fact, the case ; engineers, which was dissolved at his for the gush of mud carried before it, death, but afterwards renewed. They through the first two or three hundred published, in 1797, a volume of bis Re- yards of its course, a part of the breastports. (For his labors in constructing work, which, though low, was yet several bridges, mills, harbors, engines, &c., see feet in perpendicular height; but it soon his Reports, in 3 vols., 4to.). Of his in- deposited this solid mass, and became a ventions and improvements of philosophi- heavy fluid. One house after another it cal instruments, an idea may be formed spread round, filled, and crushed into from the list of his writings, which is in- ruins, just giving time to the terrified inserted in Hutton's Dictionary.
habitants to escape. Scarcely any thing SMEW. (See Merganser.)
was saved except their lives; nothing of SOLWAY Moss ; a tract of land in their furniture, few of their cattle. Some Cumberland, celebrated for an eruption people were even surprised in their beds, of a very remarkable kind, which is thus and had the additional distress of Aying described by Mr. Gilpin :-“Solway moss naked from the ruins. The morning is a flat area about seven miles in circum- light explained the cause of this amazing ference. The substance of it is a gross scene of terror, and showed the calamity fluid, composed of mud and the putrid in its full extent; and yet, among all the fibres of heath, diluted by internal springs, conjectures of that dreadful night, the which arise in every part. The surface mischief that really happened had never is a dry crust, covered with moss and been supposed. Lands which, in the rushes, offering a fair appearance over evening, would have let for twenty shilan unsound bottom, shaking, with the lings an acre, in the morning were not least pressure. Cattle, by instinct, know worth sixpence. On this well-cultivated and avoid it. Where rushes grow, the plain, twenty-eight families had their bottom is soundest. The adventurous dwellings and little farms, every one of passenger, therefore, who sometimes, in which, except, perhaps, a few who lived dry seasons, traverses this perilous waste,
* Three days' rain, of unusual violence, preto save a few miles, picks his cautious ceded the eruption.
near the skirts of it, had the world totally with relaxation, is properly termed spark to begin again. . Who could have im- When the contractions alternate with red agined that a breastwork which had axation, and are frequently and preterstood for ages should at length give way? naturally repeated, they are called concutor that these subterraneous floods, which sions. Spasms are distinguished by suhad been bedded in darkness since the thors into clonic and tonic spasms. Ir memory of man, should ever have burst clonic spasms, which are the true confrom their black abode? This dreadful vulsions, the contractions and relaxatne inundation, though the first shock of it are alternate, as in epilepsy ; but in tonu was most tremendous, continued still spasms, the member remains rigid, as it spreading for many weeks, till it covered locked jaw. (See Convulsion, and Tetthe whole plain, an area of 500 acres, and, anus.) like molten lead poured into a mould, SPASMODIC CHOLERA. (See Cholera filled all the hollows of it, lying, in some in this Appendix.) parts, thirty or forty feet deep, reducing SPECTRES. (See Visions.) the whole to one level surface.” Gilpin's SPÆENE. (See Titanium.) Observations on the Mountains and Lakes Spinning FRAME. (See Cotton Marsof Cumberland. - In order to clear the ara- facture.) ble and pasture land of this accumulation Spirits. (See Visions.) of moss, Mr. Wilson, from Yorkshire, SPIRITS, FAMILIAR. (See Family adopted a very ingenious plan. He formed, Spirits.) in the higher grounds, two large reservoirs, SPURZHEIM, Gaspard. Since the put which he filled with water, the whole lication of the eleventh volume, wleri force of which he directed against a contained an imperfect notice of this dis large knoll in front of Netherby house, tinguished man, he has visited this counand afterwards against the accumulated try, and paid the great debt of nature r masses, which he succeeded in washing the midst of us. He arrived in the l'. away into the channel of the Esk. Doc- States in August, 1832, with the intentne tor Graham, of Netherby, had sent for a of remaining about two years in the person to survey the ground, and estimate country, lecturing in the principal town the expense of removing the moss in the and visiting the different tribes of Inordinary way. The estimate was £1300; dians within our territory. He began his but while the matter was under consider- lectures in Boston, where he delivered ation, Wilson suggested that it might be one course on the anatomy of the brain. done cheaper ; and by the method which designed principally for medical men. He we have mentioned, he effected it for less bad nearly, likewise, completed two popthan £20.-Another account of the erup- ular courses of lectures on phrenology, tion of this moss, by Mr. J. Walker, of one in Cambridge, and the other in Base Moffat, will be found in the Philosophical ton, when death interrupted his labors Transactions for 1772, vol. Ixii, p. 123. Nov. 10, 1832. From the beginning cam According to Mr. Walker, the mossy ridge his popular course in Boston, the numler was reduced no less than twenty-five of his hearers continually increased. feet; but what is not easily explained, he and, towards the latter part of the time. makes the eruption take place on the six- had become so great that it was found teenth of December, 1772, whereas Gilpin necessary to change the room in which places it on the thirteenth of November, they were commenced for a larger hal.. 1771. Mr. Walker mentions the remark- Doctor Spurzheim had, during his sker: able case of a cow, the only one, out of residence in Boston, won the affectior eight in the same byre, that was saved. of a large number of his hearers, by ti It had stood sixty hours up to the neck urbanity and gentleness of his manner in mud and water; and when it was and the benevolence and enlarged philat taken out, it did not refuse to eat, but it thropy of his sentiments and disposiina would not taste water, nor even look at it, while his elevated morality and scientis without manifest signs of horror. It was acquirements commanded the genera. soon, however, reconciled to it, and was respect. His funeral obsequies were, then likely to recover.
therefore, solemnized in one of the SORBETTO. (See Sherbet.)
churches of that city; and a eulogy was Spanish Black. (See Oak.)
pronounced over his remains by professor Spasu (from onaw, to draw); a cramp, Follen, of Harvard university. His body, or convulsion. An involuntary contrac- which had been embalmed, was depas tion of the muscular fibres, or that state ited in such a situation that it might be of the contraction of muscles which is transmitted to his friends in Europe, if not spontaneously disposed to alternate desired, with the intention that it should
otherwise be permanently entombed at and Spurzheim went to Paris, where Mount Auburn, and that a monument they demonstrated their theory of the should be erected over it at the public brain, in the presence of Cuvier, and beexpense. The following works of doctor fore many other distinguished men. CuSpurzheim have been republished in vier, at first, expressed his approbation Boston :-Phrenology, or the Doctrine of of the general features of the new docthe Mental Phenomena (2 vols.); Outlines trine, but, in a report to the institute on of Phrenology; Elementary Principles the subject, in 1808, spoke of it with less of Education; and Philosophical Cate- favor. In Paris, they published their chism of the Natural Laws of Man. great work on the Anatomy and PhysiFrom doctor Follen's Funeral Oration ology of the Nervous System (1810), and (published in Boston, in 1832) we extract continued to lecture and labor together the following additional notices of doc- till 1813, when Spurzheim went to Engtor Spurzheim's life:—He was the son land, and began to lecture in London. of a farmer, and received his classical Mr. Abernethy acknowledged the superieducation at the college of Treves, being ority of his anatomical demonstration destined, by his friends, for the profession over the previous mode of dissecting the of theology. In consequence of the war, brain. After lecturing in several cities of in 1795, the students of that college were England and Ireland, doctor Spurzheim dispersed, and Spurzheim went to Vienna. went to Edinburgh, where he was parHere he devoted himself to the study of ticularly desirous of exhibiting his demmedicine, and became the pupil
, and onstrations and explaining his doctrines, afterwards the associate, of doctor Gall, in consequence of the appearance of an who was at that time established as a abusive article on phrenology, in the Edphysician at Vienna. (See our articles inburgh Review (June, 1815). During Gall
, and Phrenology, in the body of the the three years which he spent in Engwork.) It was here, in 1800, that Spurz- land, he published several of his works heim first attended a private course which on phrenology, among which was one doctor Gall had repeated from time to under the title of the Physiognomical time, during the four' preceding years, in System. In 1817, he returned to Paris, order to explain, to a select audience, his where he gave lectures on the anatomy, new theory of the organs and functions physiology and pathology of the brain, of the brain. The dissection of the brain and also devoted himself to the practice itself still remained very imperfect until of medicine; and, in 1821, became doctor 1804, when Spurzheim became his asso- of medicine of the university of Paris. ciate, and undertook especially the ana- In 1825, he again visited England, where tomical department. From that time, in he lectured to crowded audiences; and, their public as well as in private demon- in 1828, once more returned to Paris. stration of the brain, Spurzheim always There he again renewed his lectures ; and made the dissections, and Gall explained he remained there till his visit to this them to the audience. The great interest country. excited by these lectures in Vienna, and Stars, FIXED. (See Fixed Stars.) throughout Germany, roused the fears STEENWYCK. (See Stenwyck.) of that inveterate enemy of all innova- STIRRUP. The ancients were tions, the government of Austria. An acquainted with the use of this conveimperial decree, which prohibited all nient article of equestrian costume, the private lectures unless by special per- emperor Mauritius, who flourished tomission, silenced the two teachers, and wards the end of the sixth century, being induced them, in 1805, to quit Vienna. the first writer who makes mention of it, They travelled together through Germa- in his Treatise on the Military Art. The ny, explaining and demonstrating their Roman youth were accustomed to leap physiological discoveries in the principal upon their horses sword or lance in hand. universities and cities, particularly in A jasper, explained by Winckelmann ; a Berlin, Dresden, Halle and Munich. basso-rilievo, engraved by Roccheggiani ; Their anatomical demonstrations excited, and the painting of a Greek vase, publishevery where, great interest and applause. ed in Millin's Recueil de Monumens, all The peculiar physiological doctrine on exhibit warriors mounting on horseback the organization of the brain being adapt- by the help of a cramp-iron attached to ed to various innate qualities of the mind, the pike or lance. Distinguished persons found many opposers, but also some and old men had servants to place them warm adherents, and gave rise to a great on their horses, and conquered sovereigns number of publications, in which the sub- were often coinpelled to perform this ofject was discussed. In the year 1807, Gall fice for their vanquishers. Caius Grac
chus caused to be placed at certain dis- This great truth limits the size and moditances along the high roads, after the ex- fies the shape of most productions of naample of the Greeks, large stones to assist ture and of art,-of hills, trees, animals, the horsemen in mounting.
architectural or mechanical structures,&e. Stone, John Hoskins, governor of Ma- Hills. Very strong or cohesive materi ryland, distinguished himself in the revo- al may form bills of sublime elevatior lution. In early life, and at an early peri- with very projecting cliffs and very lofty od of the war, he was first captain in the perpendicular precipices; and such ar celebrated regiment of Smallwood. At seen, accordingly, where the hard granite the battles of Long Island, White Plains protrudes from the bowels of the earth, as and Princeton, he behaved with great in the Andes of America, the Alps of E:gallantry; and, at that of Germantown, he rope, the Himalayas of Asia, and the received a wound which disabled him for Mountains of the Moon in Central Africa. the residue of his life. But he still exert- But material of inferior strength exhibits ed himself in the service of his country, more humble risings and more rounded as a member of the executive council of surfaces. The gradation is so striking Maryland, until 1794, when he was chosen and constant from granite mountains governor, and remained so for three years down to those of chalk, or gravel, or sand. (as long a time as was allowed by the that the geologist can generally tell the constitution). He died at Annapolis, in substance of which a hill is composed by 1804, leaving behind him the reputation the peculiarities of its shape. Even in of an honest and honorable man, an in- granite itself, which is the strongest of trepid soldier, and a liberal, hospitable and rocks, there is a limit to height and pro friendly citizen.
jection; and, if an instance of either, STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. [The fol- much more remarkable than now remains lowing article is extracted from Amou's on earth, were by any chance to be proElements of Physics.] “ Strength depends duced again, the law which we are conon the magnitude, form and position of sidering would prune the monstrosity. bodies, as well as on the degree of cohesion The grotesque figures of rocks and mounin the material.”—Of similar bodies the tains seen in the paintings of the Chinese, largest is proportionally the weakest. Sup- or actually formed in miniature for their pose two blocks of stone left projecting gardens, to express their notions of perfrom a rock that has been hewn, of which fect sublimity and beauty, are caricatures blocks one is twice as long, and deep, and of nature, for which originals can never broad, as the other. The larger one will have existed. Some of the smaller islands by no means support as much more in the Eastern ocean, however, and sorne weight at its end than the other, as it is of the mountains of the chains seen in the larger; and for two reasons: 1. In the voyage towards China, along the coasts of larger, each particle of the surface of at- Borneo and Palawan, exhibit, perhaps tachment, in helping to bear the weight the very limits of possibility in singular of the block itself, has to support by its shapes. In the moon, where the weight cobesion twice as many particles beyond or gravity of bodies is less than on the it, in the double extent of projection, as a earth, on account of her smaller size. particle has to support in the shorter mountains might be many times higher block; and, 2. both the additional sub- than on the earth; and observation proves stance, and any thing appended at the that the lunar mountains are much higher outer extremity of the larger, are acting than ours. By the action of winds, rains. with a double lever advantage to break it
, currents and frost upon the mineral masses that is, to destroy the cohesion. Hence, around us, there is unceasingly going on if any such projection be carried out very anundermining and wasting of supporis, far, it will break off or fall by its own that every now and then immense rocks weight alone. What is thus true of a block or almost hills, are torn by gravity fron supported at one end, is equally true of a the station which they have held siger block supported at both ends, and, indeed, the earth received its present form, and of all masses, however supported, and of fall
in obedience to the law now explained. whatever forms. That a large body, The size of vegetables, of course, is obre therefore, may bave proportionate strength dient to the same law. We have do trees to a smaller, it must be made still thicker reaching a height of 300 feet, even when and more clumsy than it is made longer; perfectly perpendicular, and sheltered in and, beyond a certain limit, no proportions forests that have been unmolested from whatever will keep it together, in opposi- the beginning of time; and oblique or
on merely to the force of its own weight. horizontal branches are kepe within ven