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Ælian mentions dragons of eighty to one REMORA. (See Echeneis.) hundred cubits in length; and, finally, RÉMUSAT died in May, 1832. Suetonius mentions that there was ex- RENT. (See Political Economy.) hibited at Rome, under Augustus Cæsar, Resins. (See Vegetable Chemistry.) a serpent of fifty cubits in length. With RESUSCITATION. (See Drowning.) its enormous length twisted round a tree, RHOMB SPAR._(See Dolomite.) the python awaits in ambuscade the arri- Ricci. (See Rizzio.) val of its fated victim, which it immedi- Right Side, and LEFT SIDE, in the ately envelopes in its tortuous folds, and French chamber of deputies. (See Coté strangles in its murderous embrace. It Droit, and Coté Gauche.) then breaks its bones by squeezing it, ex- RITUAL. (See Liturgy.) tends it on the earth, covers it with a Roasting Jack. (See Jack.) mucous saliva, and begins to swallow it Roving Cotton. (See Cotton Manuhead first. In this sort of deglutition, the facture.) two jaws of the serpent dilate excessively, Ruota ROMANA. (See Rota.) so that it seems to swallow a body larger RustschUK. (See Ruscsuck.) than itself. In the mean time, digestion RYDER, Dudley. (See Harroioby.) begins to take place in the æsophagus. The serpent then becomes lethargic, and is very easily killed, as he neither offers resistance nor attempts to fly. Among
s. the species of this genus, the one most worthy of remark is the ular sawa (P. SABRINA. (See Severn.) amethystinus, Daud.), Java snake (col. Ja- SACCHOLACTIC ACID. (See Mucic vanicus of Shaw). This serpent, which is Acid.) as large as any boa, reaching to more SACHTLEEVEN. (See Zaftleeven.) than thirty feei in length, inhabits the Saint CLAIR, STRAIT OF. island of Java. The meaning of its troit River.) Japanese name is serpent of the rice fields, Saint Lucia BARK. (See Caribbee because it lives in them habitually. Its Bark.) bite is not venomous. It usually lives on SAINT UBES. (See Setuval.) rats and birds, but sometimes devours Salop. (See Starch.) larger animals, which it finds in the SAMSCRIT. (See Sanscrit.) mountains. Of the P. bora, Russel was Sanction. See Assent.) the first who gave us any account. It is SARDINE. (See Sprat) a native of Bengal, and not venomous,
SARDOIN. (See Sard.) notwithstanding the assertion of the na- SARDONIC Laugh; a convulsive affec. tives, who affirm that persons bitten by it tion of the muscles of the face and lips have a cutaneous eruption over the entire on both sides, which involuntarily forces body in the course of ten or twelve days. the muscles of those parts into a species
of grinning distortion, and forms a spe
cies of malignant sneer. It sometimes Q.
arises from eating hemlock, or other poisons, or succeeds to an apoplectic stroke.
SATI. (See Suttee.). QUARTATION. (See Gold.)
Saws. [The following article is from QUAXAMARCA. (See Caramarca.) the treatise on manufactures in metal Quinsy BERRIES. (See Currants.) in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia.] The
saw is, undoubtedly, next to the axe, the instrument most effectual in the
hands of man when the trees of the R.
forest are to be appropriated to his con
venience. The earliest and most obvious Radius VECTOR. (See Vector.) method of preparing timber for use would RAMADAN. (See Ramazan.)
be to split the trunks with wedges, and RASKOLNICIANS. (See Roskolnicians.) afterwards to smooth and fashion the REBATE. (See Discount.)
planks by means of the hatchet. This REFORM, PARLIAMENTARY. (See Par. wasteful and slovenly process bad allowliamentary Reform, in this Appendix.) edly one recommendation of no small
Reichstadt, duke of, died in 1832. importance in ages when the strength and Reims. (See Rheims.)
management of timber were less perfectly REJOINDER. (See Issue.)
understood than they are at present. In VOL. XIII. 43
riving, the separation of the boards or many species of excellent timber with spars necessarily followed the direction of which the island abounded, and which the grain; and hence the strength of the were afterwards transported to Portugal. material was secured at its maximum ra- About the year 1427, the city of Breslau tio, the disruption of fibre being much bad a saw-mill which produced the yearly less easily effected in split than in sawn rent of three merks; and, in 1490, the timber. It is equally certain that wood magistrates of Erfurt purchased a forest, cut in this primitive manner must often in which they caused a saw-mill to be be crooked and irregular. This, however, erected; and they rented another mill in in many respects, may be no disadvantage, the neighborhood besides. In Norway, but, for some purposes, a desideratum, as which is covered with forests, the first in ship-building; besides, the straighten- saw-mill was erected about the year 1530. ing of it would not always be impractica- This mode of manufacturing timber was ble. It is to the invention of the saw, called the "new art;" and, because the however, that we owe the ease, economy exportation of deals was by means thereof and regularity, with which the largest much increased, this circumstance gave trees are separated into useful portions by occasion to the deal tithe imposed by modern industry. That the saws of the Christian III, in the year 1545. In 1555, Grecian carpenters were pretty similar in the bishop of Ely, ambassador from Mary, form to those at present in use, is satisfac- queen of England, to the court of Rome. torily inferred from a painting found at having seen a saw-mill in the neighbor. Herculaneum, in which two genii are rep- hood of Lyons, the writer of his travels resented at the end of a bench, consisting thought it worthy of a particular deof a long table, each end of which rests scription, from which it appears that the upon two four-footed stools. The instru- motion of the blade was perpendicular; ment in this representation resembles our for, says the account, the wheel " being frame saw: it consists of a square frame, turned with the force of the water, hoise having in the middle a blade or web, the ed up and down the saw." Peter the teeth of which stand perpendicular to the Great introduced the saw into Russia. plane of the frame. The arms, too, in For this purpose policy was necessary. which the blade is fastened, have the The czar, during his residence in Engsame form as that which at present land, and while employed as a carpenter given to them. The piece of wood which in one of the dock-yards, had, in all probis to be sawn extends beyond the end of ability, both seen the advantages of the the bench; and one of the workmen ap- saw, and used it with his own hands. On pears standing and the other sitting on his return to St. Petersburg, the capital the ground. This is probably the most of his dominions, among other things that ancient authentic voucher extant, for the attracted his attention as requiring reform, early existence of an instrument resem- was the practice of riving timber. Peter bling our common saw. Montfaucon has saw the necessity of introducing a more given figures of two ancient saws, though rational mode. Instead, however, of intoo imperfectly delineated to allow their terdicting the old method, he imposed a peculiar formation to be distinguished. duty upon all the split timber that was Palladius describes saws fastened to a floated down the Neva, while sawn deals bandle; and Cicero, in bis oration for were exempted from the impost. By this Cluentius, incidentally mentions one with course, the rude practice of riving was which an ingenious thief sawed out the soon superseded by the more effective bottom of a chest. Since the fourth cen- operation of the saw wrought by matury, if not earlier, the working of large chinery. In the sixteenth century, milis saws, with a reciprocating motion, by became general, in which, by working means of water power, has been more or several saws parallel to each other, å less common in various parts of Europe, plank was at once cut into several deals especially in Germany, Norway, and, at The Dutch have claimed the invention a later period, in England. A succinct of this improvement; and a great number account of these early saw-mills will not of saw-mills
of this kind might formerly be out of place here. According to Beck- be seen at Saardam, in Holland. The mann, there were saw-mills at Augsburg first mill, however, of this description, is as early as 1322. When settlers were believed to have been erected in Sweden, first sent out to the island of Madeira, in the year 1653; and one of the worwhich was discovered in 1420, not only ders of that kingdom was a mill having were the various kinds of European fruits the water-wheel twelve feet broad, and carried thither, but saw-mills were erect- giving motion to seventy-two saws. The
i for the purpose of cutting into deals the common hand-saw, similar to that se universally in use among carpenters, has, SCOLPING, or SCULPING (See Lasker.) no doubt, been known from a remote an- Scott, sir Walter, died at Abbotsford, riquity; in all probability, indeed, it pre- Sept. 21, 1832, and was interred in Drysents the earliest form of the instrument. burgh abbey. In that curious specimen of typography, SCOURGING. (See Flagellation.) the Nuremberg Chronicle, which made SCREECH Owl. (See Owl.). its appearance soon after the invention of
SCREVEN, James, a brigadier-general printing, there occurs, amidst hundreds in Georgia during the revolutionary war, of other wood cuts, a rude picture of the commanded the militia when that state building of the ark, in which two or was invaded from East Florida, in Novemthree saws are introduced, differing but ber, 1778. While a party of the enemy was little from those at present in use with marching from Sunbury towards Savanour joiners. The axes, on the other nah, he had repeated skirmishes with hand, delineated in the print, differ mate- them at the head of a hundred militia. rially from those with which every one In an engagement at Midway, the must be more or less acquainted. That place of bis residence, he was wounded the artist might intend them for antedilu- by a musket ball, and fell from his horse. vian axes may well enough be imagined several of the British immediately came by the reader, when told that, in a pre- up, and discharged their
pieces at him.
He ceding picture of the expulsion of Adam died, soon afterwards, of his wounds. Few and Eve from paradise, the gates of the officers were more zealous in the service garden of Eden are furnished with im- of their country, and few men were more mense scroll hinges, like those sometimes esteemed and beloved for their virtues in seen on old church doors. Saws are private life. manufactured either of iron, which is Sea Eggs. (See Echinus.) hammer-hardened, or planished on an Sea Kings. (See Vikingr.) anvil, to give the requisite degree of stiff- SEA WEED. (See Fuci.) ness and elasticity; or they are made of SEMSEM. (See Sesamum Orientale.) shear steel; or, lastly, of cast steel. The SERJEANTS AT LAW. (See Barristers, last named, of course, are the best, the and Inns of Court.). most expensive, as well as the most dura- SESAC. (See Shishac.) ble, articles the only instruments, indeed, SETINES; the modern name of Athens, in which all the desirable qualities of a (See Athens.) good tool of this kind are found to be SE WALL, Stephen, first Hancock procombined.
fessor of Hebrew in Harvard college, was Say, Jean Baptiste, professor of politi- born at York, Maine, in April, 1734, and cal economy in the university of Paris, graduated at the institution just named, died in November, 1832.
in 1761. In 1762, he was appointed SCARLET SNAKE. (See Serpent.) Hebrew instructer in the college, and SCAINDERHANNES. (See Buckler, John.) June 17, 1765, Hebrew professor. He SCHUYLER, Peter, mayor of the city of continued in the office for more than Albany, was much distinguished for his twenty years. He died in July, 1804. He patriotism, and for his influence over the published a Hebrew Grammar (8vo. Indians. In 1691, with a party of 300 1763); the Scripture Account of the ScheMohawks and about the same number of chinah (1794); the Scripture History, relatEnglish, he made a bold attack upon the ing to the Overthrow of Sodom and GoFrench seulements at the north end of morrha, and to the Origin of the Salt Sea, lake Champlain, and slew three hundred or Lake of Sodom (1796); translation of of the enemy. Such was his authority the first book of Young's Night Thoughts with the Five Nations, that whatever he into Latin; Carmina Sacra, quæ Latine recommended had the force of law In Græceque condidit America (1789). He also 1710, he went to England at his own ex- wrote a Chaldee and English Dictionary, pense, taking with him five Indian chiefs, which is in manuscript in the library of for the purpose of exciting the govern- Harvard college. mept to vigorous measures against the SEYBERT, doctor Adam, was born in French in Canada. The chief command Philadelphia, in May, 1773, and received in New York devolved upon him as the his academical and medical education in eldest member of the council, in 1719; the university of Pennsylvania. In 1793, but in the following year governor Burnet he went to Europe, and pursued his proarrived. He often warned the New Eng- fessional studies in Paris, London, Edinland colonies of expeditions meditated burgh and Göttingen. He became an against them by the French and Indians. intimate friend of professor Blumenbach. Sciatica. (See Rheumatism.) The sciences of chemistry and mineralogy were favorite pursuits with him. His one. He continued his studies at Loncollection which he brought from Europe don, paying particular attention to comwas, perhaps, the first well-assorted cab- parative anatomy, under the guidance of inet imported into the U. States. He the famous John Hunter (in whose famicontributed papers to Cox's Medical Mu- ly he resided), and also to midwifery. He seum, relating to the chemical composi- then went to Edinburgh, where he took tion of the atmosphere, the extraction his medical degree. In 1762, he returned of the metal from the sulphuret of zinc, to his native country. In the autumn of &c., and discovered the best mode of the same year, his first course of anatomy refining camphor. In 1818, he publish- began. He gave three courses unconed, under the patronage of congress, his nected with any institution, when, in large work, entitled Statistical Annals, 1765, a medical school was established embracing Views of the Population, under the auspices of the college of PhiCommerce, Navigation, &c., of the United ladelphia, and he was chosen professor States of America, founded on Official of anatomy and surgery. His anatomiral Documents, commencing March 4, 1789, lectures were regularly delivered until and ending April 20, 1818. In May, the winter of 1775, when they were suis1819, he went to Europe, travelled in pended by the revolution. In 1776, be France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, entered the medical department of the Holland and Ireland, and returned to the army, and, in 1781, resigned the post of U. States, August, 1821. In October, director-general of that department, to 1824, he made a third voyage to Europe, which he had been a second time apby which a chronic disorder, supposed pointed. He had previously, in 1778, by the physicians in Paris to be an inflam- resumed his lectures. During ten or matory affection of the pylorus, was twelve yeurs subsequently, he continued much aggravated. He died at Paris, to practise, with great success, as an aeMay 2, 1225. It having been his opinion coucheur, surgeon and physician; but the that some of the unfortunate convicts, death of an only son, in 1798, affected who are discharged from the Philadelphia him so much as to cause his almost entire penitentiary, atter having undergone the abandonment of his duties as a practipenalty of the law, without having the tioner and lecturer. He partially recormeans to procure a morsel of food or a ered his spirits, and delivered a course of night's lodging, might be prevented from lectures in 1807 ; but his health was greatthe commission of further crimes, were ly broken, and in July, 1808, he died at they provided with a moderate sum of Germantown. As a lecturer, especially money, he therefore bequeathed $500 to as a demonstrator of anatomy, doctor the penitentiary, on condition that the Shippen was highly distinguished; and citizens should make further contribu- as a physician he ranked with the first of tions for that purpose before the expira- the day. tion of six months ; but no additions Shubex Acadie. (See Acadia.) were made towards establishing said fund. SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER. (See Sarra
SHEE. In the article on him, it was cenia.) erroneously stated that he died in 1830. Sieyes died at Paris, Nov. 30, 1830, in He is at present president of the royal the eighty-second year of his age. academy.
SIGLE. (See Abbreviations.) SHELDRAKES. (See Duck.
SINGAPURA. (See Sincapore.) SHERIBON. (See Cheribon.,
SKYPETARS. (See Albania) SHIPPEN, William, was born in 1736, Slide is the name given to an inclined in Philadelphia, and was the son of an plane for facilitating the descent of heavy eminent physician. He graduated, in bodies by the force of gravity. In gene1754, at the college of New Jersey. He ral, they have been objects of no great delivered the valedictory oration at the importance ; but one erected, some years commencement, when he took his bache- since, at Alpnach, in Switzerland, exlor's degree, and acquitted himself so cited great interest throughout Europe. well, that the celebrated preacher White- For many ages, the craggy sides and te field, who happened to be present, ad- deep ravines of Pilatus, a lofty mountain dressed him publicly, and, declaring that near Lucerne, were thickly clothed with he had never heard better speaking, urged vast and impenetrable forests of spruce him to devote himself to the pulpit
. His fir, of the largest size and the finest qualinclinations, however, led him to the study ity, surrounded on every side by the oti tieine ; and, after prosecuting it for most terrific precipices, inaccessible to
ra, under the care of his father, all but a few daring bunters, who, ar the
t'urope, at the age of twenty- risk of their lives, scaled these precipitous
rocks and crags, in pursuit of the cha- by uprights fixed into the ground. It mois. It was from these bold adventure was sometimes carried along the faces of ers that the first intelligence was derived the most rocky eminences; sometimes it concerning the size of the trees, and the went under ground; and again it crossed extent of the forests, until a foreigner, the deepest ravines, where it was supwho had visited their sequestered glades ported by scaffoldings 120 feet high. and gloomy recesses, in pursuit of the The skill and ingenuity which were dischanois, was struck with amazement at played, and the difficulties which were surthe sight, and pointed out to the attention mounted, in this vast undertaking, gained of several Swiss gentlemen the vast ex- a just tribute of admiration to the entertent and superior quality of the timber. prising individual who projected and carThe project of making use of these rich ried it through. Before the work could natural stores was, however, rejected as even be begun, it was necessary to cut down chimerical, by persons whose experience many thousand trecs, to obtain a passage and skill made them competent to judge; for the laborers through the impassable and it was, consequently, abandoned. thickets ; and M. Rupp was himself freThis attempt having failed, these im- quently obliged to descend the steepest mense and valuable forests would, in all precipices, suspended by ropes, at the improbability, have been suffered to flourish minent hazard of his life; and though he and decay, without ever being applied to was attacked by a violent fever, yet his arthe use of man, if it had not been for the dor was so great that he had himself conenterprising genius and the unwearied veyed every day, on a barrow, to the mounexertion of M. Rupp, a native of Wir- tain, in order to superintend the operations temberg, who, owing to some political of his workmen. The expense attending changes which had taken place in his this undertaking was, according to one own country, had settled near the lake account, £9000 or £10,000 ; but accordof Lucerne. His curiosity being strongly ing to another, only £4250. Before the excited by the accounts he had heard of trees were launched into the slide, some the forest, he was induced to visit it. He previous preparation was necessary, which was so much struck by its wonderful ap- consisted in lopping off the branches, and pearance, that he entertained the idea of stripping them of the bark, that they beivg able to convey the trees into the might descend with the greater ease. lake of Lucerne, solely by their own Every thipg being prepared, the tree was gravity. During his long residence in introduced into the trough, with the root Switzerland, his character and talents foremost; and it descended with such were so much appreciated, that, with the velocity as to reach the lake in six minassistance of three Swiss gentlemen, heutes, a distance of about three leagues, or soon formed a company from among the nine miles; but the largest trees perproprietors, with a joint stock, to enable formed the same distance in about three them to purchase the forest, and to con- minutes. In order to prevent the accistruct a road or slide, down which it was dents which might take place if the tree intended the trees should be precipitated was let off before every thing was ready in the lake of Lucerne, an arm of which at the lower end, a regular telegraphic washed the bottom of the mountain, from communication was established between which they could be easily conveyed by the two extremities of the slide ; and the Rhine to any part of the German workmen were posted at regular disocean. This stupendous undertaking tances of about a mile from each other, was finished in 1816. The slide of Alp- and so arranged that every station should nach was composed of between 25,000 be visible from the ones both above and and 30,000 large pine trees, squared by below it. When the tree was launched, the axe, and formed into a sort of trough, the workmen at the upper end hoisted about six feet broad, and from three to their telegraph (which consisted of a six feet deep. In the bottom of the board turning at its middle on a horitrongh there was a groove for the recep zontal axle; the board, when placed tion of a sinall stream of water, let in over upright, was visible from the two stations the side of the trough every now and above and below it, but when it was then, in order to keep the whole structure turned horizontally, it was not perceptimoist, and thereby to diminish the ex. ble from either); the same signal was cessive friction occasioned by the rapidity repeated by all the rest in succession, so of the descent of the tree. The slide that the workmen at the lower end of was sustained by cross timbers; and these the trough received intimation of the apcross timbers were themselves supported proach of the tree almost instantaneously.