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Auburn system, by a variety of objects ergy of which very few are capable. The during the day, they cannot feel the same feeling usually produced in any man, by inducement to reflection as under the any punishment, is that of offended pride, pressure of constant solitude. It is diffi- of irritated self-love. The prisoner, at eult, even for a man accustomed from his the moment of conviction, does not reyouth to retiection, and to a mode of life flect on the justice of his punishment, but wbieh otiers a great variety of objects and places himself in opposition to the rest of subjects, w entertain himself in long-con- mankind, as an injured man, or, if he be tinued solitude. He must occupy his mind of a better nature, with the embittered with himself. The writer may be per- feeling of an outcast. In this state of mitted to refer to bis own experience, mind he enters the prison. If uninterhaving been imprisoned for a considerable rupted solitude awaits him, he will, if be period during a time of political persecu- is capable of reformation by any means don; and, though he was not haunted but the devoted labors of personal friends with remorse, and bad more resources, (in which character, of course, the gov. from the babits of his past life, than can ernment cannot address him, become fall to the lot of most of the inmates of thoughtful. When he has reacbed this prisons, he can testify to the power with state, no new punishment awaits him ; no whieh solitude forces a man to make him- new shame; no corrupting and degrading self the subjeet of his contemplation—a company; no new cause for considering power wbuck can bardly be realized by himself an outcast, and fit associate for one who has not telt it. How strongly the worst. His solitary confinement hangs must it operate on the common convict! over him, indeed, as a severe dispensation, Deprived or most of the resources of edu- but does not daily renew the irritation of eated men; constantly reminded of the his pride. However much he may have cause which brought bim into this situa- been offended by his sentence, the prison tion; undisturbed by any distracting ob- in itself inflicts no further degradation, jeets: enveloped in silence—he needs must The keeper appears as a friend rather than táink. This power ot' solitude was ac- a severe overseer. If he is disposed to rekuowledged by the wisest and best of an- form, his weakness is not constantly put to tiquiry, who retired froin the walks of the trial by offended shame, by the considmen to prepare themselves for great tasks eration that he is an outcast and associate of by undsurbed contemplation. The la- outcasts. We have asked many prisoners, bor which the conviet performs in bis in permanent solitary confinement, whethcell, and which is indispensably necessa- er they would prefer to be placed together ry, does not disturb him, because it soon with others; and they have almost invarialuas the disructing power of novelty; and, bly answered that they considered it as though it will engage bim sufficiently to the greatest privilege to be left alone. It prevent him from sinking into torpid sul- ought not to be supposed that solitude kenness ( as experience shows), it does not bears so hard upon the mind of the pris interrupt his contemplations. When he oner, that he would exchange it for any has once begun to reflect, he must come other situation which would bring him to the conclusion that virtue is preferable into contact with other human beings. to rre, and can tranquillize his troubled When the writer, after an imprisonment mid only by resolving on reformation: of eight months, was offered the compahe must at last seek comfort in the mercyny of another prisoner in his cell, conor that Being who created him in his fined also on political grounds, he refused gownluess, and who will receive him, not- the offer, though it was repeated at serwithstanding his guilt, if he is sincere in eral different times. If the prisoner has his repentance. This will be the natural made any step towards reformation, he course of most prisoners in uninterrupted always will wish to remain alone. How solitary confinement, judging from the ob- different from this is the operation of the servation which we have made on con- Auburn system ! As soon as the convict viets thus confined. All agree that prison leaves his cell

, he sees and feels anew discipline ought to be such as to afford a that he is degraded : he knows and is possibility for the reformation of the pris- known by his fellow convicts; the keeper oner; and this seems to us possible only is (and necessarily must be) a severe, inin the Pennsylvania penitentiary system. exorable overseer. He is treated every The cases must be very rare in which a day anew as an outcast from society; his person, in the moment of his conviction, pride is constantly offended ; or, if he has

entire justice of it, and resolves no pride, no opportunity is afforded for
retter: it requires a moral en- the feeling of self-respect to spring up


We bardly see how the slow process of apartment. They are, moreover, so arreformation can go on under these cir- ranged as to be inspected, and protected, cumstances. Yet the most humane of all without a military guard, usually, though systems of prison disciplines that of unnecessarily, employed in establishments Pennsylvania—has been called, and by an of this kind in most other states. excellent man too (Mr. Roscoe), “the these chambers no individual, however most inhuman and unnatural that the humble or elevated, can be confined, so eruelty of a tyrant ever invented, no less long as the public liberty shall endure, derogatory to the character of human but upon conviction of a known and wellnature than it is in direct violation of the defined offence, by the verdict of a jury of leading principles of Christianity." We the country, and under the sentence of a have already shown why we believe that court, for a specified time. The terms of it is not only not “ unnatural,” but found- imprisonment, it is believed, can be aped on the deepest principles of human portioned to the nature of every crime nature; that, so far from being “inhuman," with considerable accuracy, and will, no it is founded on the very principle of mer- doubt, be measured in that merciful decy, because it affords the fullest opportu- gree which has uniformly characterized nity for reformation, and prevents all ex- the modern penal legislation of Pennsylvaposure to shame and contamination. And nia. Where, then,--allow me to inquire,is it cruel? All agree, that contamination is there, in this system, the least resemmust be prevented at any price, or refor- blance to that dreadful receptacle conmation entirely given up. The question, structed in Paris during the reign of then, can only be a comparative one- Charles V, and which, at different periods, What is the cruelty of this compared through four centuries and a half, was with the Auburn system? Perfect soli- an engine of oppression and torture to tude, alleviated only by the permission to thousands of innocent persons? Or by work, and to read the Bible, may be a what detortion can it be compared to the hard situation ; but is it more so than be- inquisitorial courts and prisons that ing placed in the company of many were instituted in Italy, Portugal and fellow-prisoners, with whom all inter- Spain, between the years 1251 and course is prevented by the threat of whip- 1537 so Or is it believed that the influping? This must be torture indeed, like ence of solitary continement on the that of Tantalus, with the tempting viands mind is cruel? that the human mind canconstantly before him, and constantly re- not bear it, and must be driven to madceding from the approach of his famished ness? We believe this by no means to lips. Solitary confinement, as practised be the case. Mr. Vaux's testimony on in the Eastern prison of Pennsylvania, is this point is important. Cases of inrather a deprivation of most of the com- sanity, he says, in the pamphlet just quotforts of life, than the infliction of positive ed, seem not to be more frequent in jails punishment. It is severe; it ought to be so; than among the same number of persons it ought to be feared. Is it cruel in a phys- in the ordinary condition of life. The ical respect? Let us answer this question cells of the old penitentiary are small in the words of Mr. Vaux, page 7 of his and badly contrived, and yet many indiLetter to Mr. Roscoe, who represents the viduals have, for acts of violence comcells to be “ destined to contain an epitome mitted in the prison, been confined in and concentration of all human misery, them for six, nine, and twelve months in of which the Bastile of France, and the succession, generally in irons, and always Inquisition of Spain, were only proto- on a low diet; but no case of mental alientypes and humble models." To which ation has ever occurred there. When Mr. Vaux replies—“ The rooms of the the mind becomes hardened by a career new penitentiary at Philadelphia are fire- of vice, ultimately reaching a point of proof, of comfortable dimensions, with degradation which fits it for the perpetraconvenient courts to each,* built on the tion of those crimes that are punishable surface of the ground, judiciously lighted under the penal statutes, no fear of excitfrom the roof, well ventilated and warm- ing its tender sensibilities need be entered, and ingeniously provided with means tained, by its mere abstraction from equal for affording a continual supply of ex- ly guilty minds, so as to induce either cellent water, to insure the most perfect melancholy or madness. All experience eleanliness of every prisoner and his proves how difficult it is to make any

The exact size of the chambers is 8 feet by impression whatever upon the feelings 12 foet, the highest point of the ceiling 16 feet. The of the benighted and unhappy subjects yards are 8 feet by 20 feet.

of criminal punishment. As to the influence of this system upon the health, minating the life of the culprit in the gether fails to accomplish. Besides this midst of his wickedness, or making a abatement of expense in maintaining mockery of justice by forming such into prisoners, very few keepers will be recommunities of hardened and corrupting quired on the new system ; and the fetransgressors, who enjoy each other's so- males should be intrusted wholly to the ciety, and contemn the very power which custody of suitable individuals of their thus vainly seeks their restoration, and own sex, whose services can, of course, idly calculates to afford security to the be secured for less compensation than state, from their outrages in future. In those of men. Such of the prisoners as separate confinement, every prisoner is may be employed, will necessarily labor placed beyond the possibility of being alone; and, the kinds of business in which made more corrupt by his imprisonment. they will be engaged not being as rough In separate confinement, the prisoners and exposing as those now adopted, the will not know who are undergoing pun- expenditure for clothing must be much ishment at the same time with them- diminished. On the score of cost, thereselves, and thus will be afforded one of fore,-if that indeed be an object in a work the greatest protections to such as may of this magnitude,—the solitary plan rechappily be enabled to form resolu- ommends itself to the regard of the pub tions to behave well when they are dis- lic economist. But the problem of excharged. In separate confinement, it is pense, in my inion, can only be truly especially intended to furnish the crimi- solved by showing the cheapest method nal with every opportunity which Chris- of keeping prisoners to be, that which is tian duty enjoins, for promoting his res- most likely to reform them, to deter othtoration to the path of virtue; because ers, by the imposing character of the seclusion is believed to be an essential in- punishment, from preying upon the honest gredient in moral treatment, and, with re- and unoffending members of society, afligious instruction and advice superadd- terwards involving heavy judicial costs ed, is calculated to achieve more than has to establish their guilt, and becoming, at ever yet been done for the miserable last, a charge to the country as convicted tenants of our penitentiaries. In separate felong." confinement, à specific graduation of PÉRIER, Casimir, died at Paris, May 16, punishment can be obtained, as surely, 1832. and with as much facility, as by any other PETS. (See Funfkirchen.) system. Some prisoners may labor- PHANARIOTS. (See Fanariots.) some may be kept without labor—some PhaNsYGURS, or Thugs; a remarkable may have the privilege of books—others race of professional murderers in some may be deprived of it—some may expe- parts of Hindoostan. Having been comrience total seclusion-others may enjoy pelled, in a great measure, to abandon such intercourse as shall comport with their sanguinary trade in the original teran entire separation of prisoners. In ritories of the British government, they separate confinement, the same variety of have, of late years, pursued their operadiscipline, for offences committed after tions principally in the newly-acquired convicts are introduced into prison, which provinces of North-western and Central any other mode affords, can be obtained India, where, from the scantier popula(though irregularities must necessarily be tion, and comparatively backward state less frequent), by denying the refractory of the country, they run less hazard of individual the benefit of his yard, by tak- interruption. A thug is a Hindoo of a ing from him his books or labor, and low caste, or a Mussulman, who, at the lastly, in extreme cases, by diminishing conclusion of his agricultural labors, about his diet to the lowest rate. By the last the commencement of the hot season, in means, the most fierce, hardened and des- March and April, quits bis village, and perate offender can be subdued. From goes forth to make a little money by separate confinement other advantages of strangling-an art in which he sometimes an economical nature will result: among becomes a great proficient, always, if these may be mentioned a great reduction dexterous, performing it with a pocketof the terms of imprisonment; for, instead handkerchief, in preference to a noose, to of from three to twenty years, and some- avoid suspicion. The hot season is times longer, as many months, excepting chosen for this excursion, because then for very atrocious crimes, will answer all people travel by night, and thus afford the ends of retributive justice, and peni- better opportunities for attack. When tential experience, which, on the actual the rainy season begins, in July or Auplan, the greatest detention in prison alto- gust, the thug returns, with bis share of

we re- life of honest industry is not so rare in fer the reader to doctor Franklin Bache's released convicts as most persons supletter to Mr. Vaux, contained in No. 8 of pose, provided the prisoner has not been the Journal of Law (Philadelphia, Octo- kept in a state of constant contamination. ber, 1830), which concludes with the A vicious life is not comfortable ; generalwords—“We may assert that the entire ly the causes which make a wicked person seclusion of criminals from all associa- prefer the path of crime to an honorable tion with their fellow criminals, is alto- life, are twofold-idleness, reluctance to gether compatible with their profitable regular labor, and the love of excitement employment at useful trades, and with If you can overcome these two disposithe preservation of their health.” And in tions; if you can instil into the convict a his letter to bishop - White and others, love of labor, and make it a habit with Mr. Vaux adduces facts to confirm this him; and if you can cure him of the statement. Not one case of the Asiatic craving for excitement,—you will, in most cholera appeared in the Eastern prison cases, have laid the firmest foundation of Pennsylvania, whilst the disease swept for a thorough reformation. Now, labor away numbers in the city of Philadelphia appears to the prisoner in solitary conand its environs ; and the prison stands finement as the sweetest comfort. He close by the city.* The report mentioned asks, he begs for it; and no punishabove will be, we understand, entirely ment could be harder than denying him satisfactory on the point of the health of the comfort of labor in his lonely cell

. the prisoners. The expense of the Penn- They all will tell you so. And as regards sylvania system has always been consid- the second point, what more effectual ered a great objection to it. It is true means can be found of curing a man of a that the Eastern prison has cost much; vitiated love of excitement (such as is but another prison could be built much found in robbers, pirates, burglars, &e.) more cheaply; and, probably, experience than uninterrupted confinement in soliwill show the possibility of further re- tude for years? It is a severe infliction, ductions, though this system may always indeed; but it is effectual, and not more be more expensive than the other. Yet the severe than is necessary. Another obadvantages are so great; the final saving jection to perpetual solitude is, that the of the government, by preventing all the convicts cannot worship together; but in prisoners from leaving the prison worse the Eastern prison of Pennsylvania, they than they were at the time of entering it, have preaching addressed to them. Å and by dismissing many who will return to curtain is drawn along the corridor, the duty and usefulness, is so decided; and sound-hole of each cell is opened (see the necessity of the system, if any of the the description of the building in the ardesirable objects are to be obtained, so ticle Prison Discipline), and the preacher imperious,—that we believe the greater ex- stands at one end of the corridor, from pense ought not to be considered an ob- which he may be heard by all the prisonjection wherever means exist to meet it. ers in that corridor, though no convict We shall quote Mr. Vaux also respecting can see into the opposite cell, being prethis point. It is certain that the prisoners vented by the curtain.-In our opinion, do not leave the Pennsylvania penitentia- the Pennsylvania penitentiary system is ry worse than they entered it, are not irri- the creation of a spirit of enlightened hutated and embittered against mankind, manity, which reflects the greatest honand, if they have truly resolved to become or on the disciples of Penn, and has better, are not exposed to be driven by solved one of the most difficult probleros associates in the prison to the commission presented to the lover of mankind. If of new crimes, which has hitherto been widely adopted, as it probably will be, it 80 common an occurrence, as every one bids fair to accomplish all that can be knows who has paid attention to the his- attained in the way of prison discitory of convicts. Men confined in com- pline. We would direct our reader's afmon prisons, or even in those conducted tention to an interesting letter on the subon the Auburn system, find it extremely ject of solitary confinement, written by a difficult, after their release, to disentangle convict, and appended to Mr. Vaux's letthemselves from the net of vice, though ter, quoted above, and will conclude our they may earnestly wish to do so. But remarks with a summary taken from Mr. the Pennsylvania system does not even Vaux's letter to Mr. Roscoe: By sepeallow the convict to know the names of his rate confinement, it is intended to punisha fellow prisoners. The wish to return to a those who will not control their wicked

* See note, p. 527, post, respecting the report of passions and propensities, and, moreover, Messrs. Beaumont and Toqueville to the French gov. to effect this punishment without ter

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the booty which the gang have accumu- the Greeks and Amazons. There is great
lated, to his usual residence, and takes to ability displayed in the execution of these
ploughing the field, like a peaceable hus- marbles, although some heaviness and
bandman. In this alternation of agricul- disproportion are observable in the fig:
tural and homicidal pursuits, the thugures. The conception of the whole, and
lives on, often undetected, till age obliges the composition of the various groups, are,
him to remain at home, and send out his however, remarkably fine, and compen-
son in his stead. “I am a thug of the sate, in a great measure, for the defects
royal records (meaning one of sufficient above mentioned. The circumstance
notoriety to have been recorded as such), which renders these marbles particularly
and my forefathers before me, for seven interesting is the knowledge of the time
generations, have followed this profes- at which they were executed; for Pause-
sion,” was the boast of one of these nias (Arcad., c. 14) says that the temple
wretches, who attach some pride to the of Apollo Epicurius was built by Ictinus,
number of generations through which the architect who superintended the con-
they can trace the adherence of their struction of the Parthenon at Athens; and,
family to this pursuit. In the wild and though the Phigalian marbles want the
unsettled parts of the country, their asso- purity of design and execution which dis-
ciations assume a more distinct and sepa- tinguish the Athenian works, the high
rate character; and in such places the qualities they do possess give them an
leaders are to be found, around whom, elevated place among the remains of a-
at the beginning of the season, the mere cient art.
operative thugs assemble. The abodes Phrygian CAP. (See Mitre.)
of the latter, however, are often mingled PIE. (See Magpie.)
with those of the inhabitants of the most Pine-SNAKE. (See Serpent.)
civilized stations and villages, where their Pithecus. (See Ape.)
conduct is usually quiet and inoffensive. PITHYUSÆ. (See Baleares.)
On assembling at the beginning of the Plea, PLEADINGS. (See Issue.)
season, the line of road which they are to PLINLIMMON. (See Snowdon.)
pursue is settled, and then they separate PLUVIOMETER. (See Rain-Gauge.
into small parties, under all sorts of dis- POLECAT. (See Skunk.)
guises, sometimes travelling as sepoys re- Poliziano. (See Politianus.)
turning home on a furlough; sometimes Pont du Gard. (See Gard.)
appearing, one as a merchant and anoth- PRAIRIE Dog. (See Marmot.)
er as his attendant ; sometimes personify- PRESUMPTIVE Heirs. (See Apparent.)
ing pilgrims. In these characters they in- PRIMER SEisin. (See Tenures.)
sinuate themselves into acquaintance with PTARMIGAN; a species of grouse. (See
travellers, and, if they find them to be Grouse.)
rich, take an opportunity of despatching Prisan. (See Tisan.)
them, either by means of some stupefying Pycnite. (See Topaz.)
drug, which they use in the tobacco of PYRENEITE. (See Garnet.)
their hookahs, and the dagger, or else by PYROPF. (See Garnet.)
throttling them with a pocket-handker- PYROTARTARIC ACID. (See Tartaric
chief, when they have persuaded them to Acid.)
halt, at some convenient spot, under pre- Python. This enormous genus of ser-
tence of being fatigued, or wishing to take pents, which is very often confounded
rest. The bodies of the victims are then with the boas of the new continent, is
buried, or thrown into a well or neigh- found only in some of the hot regions of
boring cavern. In this manner, a single the eastern continent. The pythons have
gang, consisting of twenty-five thugs, has the ventral plates narrow, like the boss,
been proved, on trial, to have, in an ex- but differ from the latter in having double
cursion of six weeks, despatched thirty plates under the tail. Their head has

plates on the end of the muzzle ; and Puigalia: MARBLES; a series of sculp- there are fossets to their lips. Some spe tures, in alto relievo, in the British muse- cies of this genus approach, and even um, so called because they were discov- equal, the boas in size; and the ancients ered in the year 1812, near Paulizza, sup- appear to have had some acquaintance posed to be the ancient town of Phigalia, with several of them. Aristotle speaks in Arcadia. They are from the temple of African serpents as long as vessels, by of Apollo Epicurius ; and the subjects which a galley with three oars might represented are the battle of the Centaurs be overturned. Pliny talks of Indian and the Lapithæ, and the contest between serpents capable of swallowing deer.

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