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freeholders, or voters, in 1825, was 3066, ing to only twenty in each burgh, or, in as stated in the following statistical table. all the sixty-six burghs, to 1920. By the The number in 1811 was only 2429. In late reform act, five members are added 1796, the number of real voters in the to the representation of Scotland; and Scottish counties was estimated at 1390. the representation is now distributed as In two counties, there were only three follows: To the thirty-three counties, real voters in each, and in seven not more twenty-eight members ; to Edinburgh than ten. The nominal and fictitious and Glasgow, two each; to Aberdeen, voters were said to amount to 1202. The Dundee, Greenock, Leith and Paisley, number of persons who actually voted at one each; and to thirteen districts of borthe elections of the boroughs was very oughs, one each; total, fifty. The right inconsiderable, consisting, in general, of of voting is also placed on the same footthe magistrates and town council, amount- ing as in England.
Representation of Ireland. Since the the representation, one to each of the legislative union with England, in 1801, towns of Belfast, Galway, Limerick and Ireland has heretofore sent one hundred Waterford, and one to the university of members to the British parliament, sixty- Dublin. The following table exhibits the four for the thirty-two counties, two each; Irish cities and boroughs which return for the cities of Dublin and Cork, two members, together with their population, each ; for thirty-one other cities and the former number of voters, and the boroughs, one each; and one for the uni- present number under the reform act. versity of Dublin. By the late reform The first six cities send two members acı, five members have been added to each, the rest one each.
-See, further, the Extraordinary Black the pledges to be required from candidates Book (2d ed., 1832), and Key to both for parliament. Houses of Parliament (1 vol., 8vo., 1832). PATTERSON, William, a governor of - The old parliament has just been dis- New Jersey, and one of the associate solved, and the writs for new elections is- judges of the supreme court of the [. sued; but the results are yet unknown to States, was born in that state, and gradeus. But we subjoin, in a note, a documentated in its college in 1763. In 1787, be was which will show our readers what is un- a member of the convention which framt derstood by reform, by at least some of the the constitution of the l'. States, and af English reformers. It is from an address fixed his name to that instrument le of the national political union in England 1789, when the new goverument con to the electors of the United Kingdom, on menced its operations, he was a member
"The pledges that candidates should be re- the abolition of all monopolies, and more espe quired to give seem to be, 1. Parliamentary re- cially the * com law" monopoly ; the free en
form. This includes, first, shortening the dura. sion of all sorts of produce for manufacturers and ton of parliaments ; second, voting by ballot. If indeed, of free trade in every respect, that the the whole nation were divided into electoral dis- greater number may no longer be compelled s tricts, and the votes taken by ballot, parliament purchase any thing at an advanced pnce that the could not be too short, nor the right of voting too profits of a very small comparative members extensive. At present, the duration of parliainent be unduly increased.-5. Church refers Tshould be limited to three years.-2. Lane reform. includes, first, equalization to a great extent of the This includes a thorough revision of all laws, church establishment. Every digtutary of the common, statute, civil, criminal, ecclesiastical, eburch preaches poverty and wallows a wra local, parliamentary and municipal; the abolition Great wealth being condemned as incompass of all arbitrary jurisdictions; the abridgment, as with the true religion, none of its minister som much as may be possible, of vexation, delay and therefore, be wealthy. Secood, ceasing to cum expense; the detection of crimes, and the cer- pel any one to pay for the maintenance od tainty of speedy punishment; abolition of barba: particular doctrine he does not approve. T rous and cruel punishments; and the adoption of abolition of tithes in the fairest w way and a such punishments only as are commensurate with shortest time possible.-6. Abouton a offences.-3. Financial reform. This includes This includes the freedom of every persona, se reduction of taxes to the greatest possible extent; ry color and every shade of color. Holg reduction of all over-paid salaries and pensions, sons in slavery is unjust, atrocious amulerande as well as payment of every kind, from the high-olition of slavery without compensalica to slava est office in the state to the lowest'; the total aho- holders is also unjust; but it's inevita de mi, lition of all sinecures, all useless offices, and all therefore, less unjust than retarung them unearned pensions. It is advisable that indirect slaves. It becomes, then, the duty of their taxes, and especially those which press beaviest !ature to emancipate all slaves, with the brut on trade, manufactures, commerce, and the com- justice, as well to the slave-bolder at en forts of the people, should be repealed in prefer themselves, and in as little tine as porabe. ence to direct taxes. Had there been done but patible with the smallest amount of el- Tu direct taxes, the publie never would have submit. es on knowledge. These are the stamp duty ted to be taxed to one half the amount they are at newspapers, the excise duty on paper, and priment taxed.-4. Trade reform. This includes duty on advertisements."
of the senate from New Jersey, and, in Vaux, of Philadelphia, addressed to him the following year, was chosen governor. a Letter on the Penitentiary System of He subsequently was appointed to the Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1827), from bench of the supreme court, and con- which, and from another production of tinued to sit upon it until his death, at this gentleman, we shall present to our Albany, on the 9th of September, 1806. readers various extracts in the course of He was an able statesman, an upright this article. We would also refer the judge, and a disinterested patriot. reader, for more particular information Pavois. (See Shield.)
than our limits will allow, to other publiPEARL SPAR. (See Dolomite.)
cations of Mr. Vaux, who is indefatigaPenco. (See Conception, La.) ble in promoting the education of chil
PENITENTIARY SYSTEM OF PENNSYL- dren and the correction of criminals. VANIA. One of the points which have The publications to which we allude are occasioned the greatest division of opin- Notices of the Original and Successive ion among the friends of the penitentiary Efforts to improve the Prison Discipline system, relates to solitary confinement. in Philadelphia, and to reform the Penal One party contend that this should be Law of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1826); made the very basis of prison discipline, a Discourse delivered before the Historiand have carried their principles into ef- cal Society of the State of Pennsylvania fect in the Eastern penitentiary of Penn- on New Year's Day, 1827 (Philadelphia, sylvania: others strenuously oppose it. 1827); and a Letter to Bishop White, the
The opinions expressed in the article President, and other Members of the PhiPrison Discipline, in this work, are rather ladelphia Society for alleviating the Misunfavorable to the plan adopted in Penn- eries of Public Prisons, in No. 8, vol. i, of sylvania. As the question is one of great the Journal of Law (Philadelphia, 1830). interest
, and as many misconceptions on - Before going into the subject of this artithis subject exist among those who are cle, we would remark that it is believed by sincerely devoted to the reformation of many foreigners, that the Pennsylvania prisons, we have thought it not improper penitentiary system has been abandoned to give, in this place, a view of some of in the very state from wbich it takes its the arguments which may be urged in name. The following passage from the support of the principle of uninterrupted message of the governor of Pennsylvania solitary confinement. All that will be at- to the legislature of that state (Dec. 6, tempted will be to touch upon the main 1832), shows that this is a mistake, and features of the question, and to offer some throws light upon other points in quessuggestions, derived from the writer's own tion :—“Our penitentiary system,” says experience, with the view of making it governor Wolf, “as immediately connectappear that the system of solitary contine- ed with the administration of criminal ment, as now practised in the Eastern justice, is to be regarded as being of the penitentiary in Philadelphia, is the only first importance, in reference as well 10 effectual mode of making prisons schools the security of the persons and property, of reformation, instead of schools of cor- as to the general morals of our citizens ; ruption. The more light there is thrown and, so far as regards the Eastern peniupon this subject, the better for the cause. tentiary, the philanthropic advocates of Strong, and, in our opinion, unfounded penitentiary reforın may justly congratuprejudices against the system of solitary late themselves upon the success with confinement, are entertained even by which their exertions have been crowned, men justly esteemed for their enlight- in bringing so near to perfection a system ened views and strenuous labors for the good of mankind. The late William in vain.”. And yet—to such mistakes are great Roscoe, for instance, was extremely hos men liablowe believe that Mr. Roscoe had
a very imperfect knowledge of the effects of solilatile to the system, as appears from sev- ry confinement, and that his conclusions on the eral pieces which he has written on the subject were drawn from unfounded suppositions. subject of prison discipline. Mr. Roberts These writings are known beyond the limits
of the U. States. We find them mentioned with • We learn, from doctor T. S. Traill's memoir respect in the Lectures on Prisons, &c., by Nichon that distinguished scholar, read before the lit- olas Henry Julius (Berlin, 1828), and in the Anerary and philosophical society of Liverpool, in nals of Institutions for Punishment and CorrecOctober, 1832, that he said " that no literary dis- tion of Paupers, their Education, &c., published tinction had ever afforded him half the gratifica- monthly at Berlin, by the same author' (both in tion he received from the reflection on the German)-works 'little known in this country, on part he had taken on this great question; and he account of the language in which they are writexpressed his satisfaction that he now might be ten, but which contain a great mass of informapermitted to think that he had not lived altogether tion on the subjects mentioned in their titles.
surrounded by so many difficulties. The worse ; here thought and reflection will
* The governor continues as follows : * From the all except the salaries of the officers; and tentiary, as well as from a partial personal inspec it is not doubted that, as soon as the pris- tion of it, I am satisfied that its condition, and the on shall have been fully organized, the fruits of the course of discipline there exereised, entire expenses will be defrayed out of
are directly the reverse of that which I have past the proceeds of the establishment. The attempted to describe. From the imperfect pias
of the building itself, and the inconvenient, ingu experiment made in the Eastern peniten- dicious arrangement of the cells, the discipline at tiary has demonstrated the fact, that soli- solitary confinement with labor cannot be entere tary confinement with labor does not im- ed; the prisoners cannot be restrained from compair the health of those subjected to that versing with each other ; every prisoner may arspecies of discipline. The prisoners work quire å knowledge of the individuals contined
within its walls ; contamination from conversa to more advantage : having no opportuni- with his fellow prisoners may take place; the ty for conversation or amusement, they cell of the prisoner cannot, as in the case of the eagerly desire employment; here all Eastern penitentiary, be used as his workshop. mm communication is cut off; no one knows which he may always be usefully and prostały his fellow prisoner; no acquaintance is ed with the several cells, which renders it neces
employed; there are no separate yards conseciformed; no contamination takes place; sary, for the health of the prisoners, to allow them the convict sees no one, holds commu- frequently to associate with each other in the nion with no one, except such as will give common yards. Many other defects exist, and him good advice; he is placed in a situa- many important alterations will be required to be tion where he has every inducement to discipline so successfully practised in the Eastera
this establishment for the same course of salutary grow better, but little temptation to grow penitentiary."
pline, in the body of this work, it is said the Introductory Report to the Code of that," unless some decided advantage is to Prison Discipline, explanatory of the be gained by a more expensive system Principles on which the Code is founded, (the Pennsylvania plan of separate con- being Part of the Penal Law prepared for linement), it (the Auburn system) ought to the State of Louisiana, by Edward Livbe preferred.” We believe that the Penn- ingston; printed separately by Carey, sylvania system affords many advantages Lea and Carey (Philadelphia, 1827).—But which can be but partially attained by all this severity is avoided in the system the Auburn system, or not at all; and of permanent separate confinement. Comthat it is the best suited, of all the prison munication, and consequent contaminasystems yet devised, to the demands of tion, cannot take place; and yet the systhe age. All persons agree that it is of tem requires neither stripes nor any punthe first importance to prevent prison- ishment in order to enforce it. It works ers from contaminating each other. It calmly and steadily, without subjecting is a melancholy fact that, wherever a the convict, by continually repeated punnumber of persons, who have openly ishment, to a continual recurrence of distransgressed the laws of society, or whose grace for misdemeanors which the comcharacters are corrupt, are brought to- mon principles of human nature are suffigether, and allowed to have free inter- cient to induce him to commit. But even course with each other, each individual if we could obtain entirely the desired end has a tendency to sink to the level of the -interruption of communication-by the worst. The intercourse of the vicious is Auburn system, would this system be demutually corrupting, in the same manner sirable on other accounts? The article on as the intercourse of good men is mutual- Prison Discipline, speaking of solitary conly improving. To prevent this contami- finement, says, “ In the silence and darknation, all agree that, during the night, ev- ness of night the voice of religious instrucery prisoner should be separately confin- tion is heard ; and, if any circumstances can ed; but many have thought that, during be imagined, calculated to impress the the day time, the criminals engaged in warnings, the encouragements, the threats common work may be so strictly watched or the hopes of religion upon the mind, that no communication can take place it must surely be those of the convict in among them. In order to effect this his cell, where he is unseen and unheard, wbich is the system followed at Auburn and where nothing can reach him but the -a very severe discipline has necessa- voice which must come to him, as it were, rily been resorted to. "No criminal is al- from another world, telling him of things lowed to speak to a fellow prisoner: the which, perhaps, never entered into his meals are taken in the separate cells. Beat- mind; telling him of God, of eternity, of ing by the keepers must be allowed, or the future reward and future punishment, of discipline cannot be enforced ; and it can suffering far greater than the mere physieasily be imagined how severe a disci- cal endurances of the present life, and of pline is required to suppress that desire of joy infinitely beyond the pleasures he may communication which is so deeply plant- have experienced." This effect certainly ed in human nature, and to counteract the may take place; but it cannot occur often artifices of a host of adepts in cunning, to if the convict is in his cell only during the suppress looks, signs, &c. Mr. Lynds, night, when his time will be principally who built the prison at Sing-Sing, in the spent in sleep; and, though the nights of state of New York, and who must be winter afford much more time than is reconsidered as the inventor of the system quired for this purpose, men can accusof discipline pursued in the prisons of Au- tom themselves to very protracted slumburn and Sing-Sing, says that his greatest bers, especially if they have never been difficulty has been to find keepers who accustomed to reflection, which must be were not too lenient. We would also re- the case with most convicts. The great fer the reader to a letter written by Mr. object referred to in the above passage Edward Livingston (the present secretary can be obtained, in our opinion, only by of state, and the framer of the code of separate confinement day and night. The Louisiana) to Mr. Roberts Vaux, Oct. 25, greatest step, we believe, which a convict 1828 (and which appeared at the time in of the common sort can make towards the public prints), concurring in the opin- reformation, is from thoughtlessness to ion that communication can be prevented thoughtfulness. Few of those committed only to a certain degree, and only by the to prisons are accustomed to think: it tise of very great severity, if the convicts is for want of thought that they became work together in the day time. See also guilty. Surrounded as they are, in the