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ing years, with alternate advantage; have the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the ing been, during the latter portion of that river Calder. The parish church is a interval, allowed to slumber, owing to the Gothic structure: the spire is upwards of struggle made by the Greeks in the Mo- 237 feet in height. There is a handsome rea, to recover their liberty. In this war, stone bridge over the Calder, built in the Mohammed Ali (q. v.) first put in prac- reign of Edward III, in the centre of tice his improved system of tactics, on which is a chapel, in the richest style of the European method ; and his success, as Gothic or Saracenic architecture, ten in his recent campaigns in Syria, was ow- yards in length, and about eight in breadth. ing to his being provided with soldiers Wakefield is one of the greatest corn disciplined by European officers.-See markets in England, and contains imPlanat's Histoire de la Régénération de mense corn warehouses. Population, l'Egypte (Geneva, 1830), for an account 12,232 ; nine miles south of Leeds. By of these campaigns against the Wahabees. the reform act of 1832, Wakefield is con
WAHLENBERG, George, lecturer on bot- stituted a borough, returning one member any in the university of Upsal, and super- to parliament. intendent of the museum of the society WAKEFIELD, Gilbert, a distinguished of science in that place, was born in the scholar and critic, son of the reverend province of Warmeland, in 1784. While George Wakefield of Nottingham, was a student at the university, he distinguish- born in 1756, and entered, in 1772, Jesus ed himself by his progress in scientific college, in Cambridge, where he pursued studies, and, soon after leaving the univer- his studies with great ardor, in 1776 gradsity, was enabled, by the assistance of the uated bachelor of arts, and was soon after Swedish patriot baron Hermelin, and of elected a fellow. In the same year, he the scientific societies of Upsal and Stock- gave the public a small volume of Latin holm, to enter upon a course of botanical poems, with a few critical notes upon Hoand geological inquiries, which led him mer. În 1778, he received deacon's orto make excursions into the remote parts ders, and, on leaving college, engaged in of the Scandinavian peninsula, through a curacy at Stockport, in Cheshire, and Swedish and Norwegian Lapland, and to subsequently at another near Liverpool. Gothland. Having examined Scandinavia, The dissatisfaction which he entertained he set out upon similar scientific expedi- at the doctrines and liturgy of the church tions to foreign countries. In 1810, he of England progressively increasing, bu visited Bohemia and Hungary, examined determined to take the first opportunity of the Carpathian mountains, travelled in resigning bis situation in it; which design Switzerland, and, after visiting the princi- he fulfilled in 1779, and accepted the office pal German universities, returned to Upsal, of classical tutor at the dissenting acadein 1814. His
Flora Lapponica, Flora Car- my at Warrington. He had early formed pathorum, Flora Upsaliensis, and Flora a design of giving a new version of the Suecica (2 vols., 1824), take a high rank New Testament, and published, in 1782, among works of this nature. Wahlen- his New Translation of the Gospel of St. berg has likewise written some geological Matthew, with Notes Critical, Philological essays of value.
and Explanatory (4to.). On the dissoluWAHLSTADT; a generic German term tion of the Warrington academy, he refor field of battle (from Wal, which means moved to Bramcote, in Nottinghamshire, fight, and also dead body; hence Walhal- with a view of taking private pupils. la, or Valhalla). As a geographical name, Here he published, in 1784, the first volit belongs to a large village in Silesia, ume of an Enquiry into the Opinions of near Liegnitz (q. v.), on the Katzbach the Christian Writers of the First Three 19. v.), where Henry II, duke of Silesia, Centuries concerning the Person of Jesus fought a bloody battle, April 9, 1241, Christ, a work which he never concludagainst the Tartars, in which he lost his ed. He subsequently removed to Richlife, and the latter were victorious. In mond and Nottingham, until, in 1789, he memory of this battle, the place and vil- commenced his Silva Critica, the object lage were called Wahístadt. In the same of which was to illustrate the Scriptures place, Blucher (9. v.) was victorious over by the philology of Greece and Rome. the French, Aug. 26, 1813 (see Katzbach), Of this learned performance, five parts and, in reward of this and other victories, appeared in succession, until 1795, the was made prince of Wahlstadt.
three first from the Cambridge press. In Wanoo. (See Elm.)
1790, he quitted Nottingham, in order to Waifs. (Šee Estrays.)
accept the office of classical tutor at the WAKEFIELD; a town of England, in dissenting college at Hackney. Here his services were highly esteemed, until he sides the works already mentioned, and a advocated the superiority of private to few more of minor importance, a Collerpublic worship, and wrote a book in sup- tion of Letters, in a correspondence beport of his opinions, which tended to dis- tween him and the right honorable C. J. solve the connexion. In 1792, he gave Fox, has been published since his death, the world his Translation of the New Tes- chiefly relative to topics of Greek literature, tament, with Notes Critical and Explanato- WAKEFIELD, Mrs. Priscilla ; well known ry (in 3 vols., 8vo.) and, in 1795, published for the ingenious works which she has wriMemoirs of his Own Life (2d ed., 1804, ten for the instruction of youth, and as the 2 vols., 8vo.)
, a characteristic performance. original promoter of banks for the savings He next defended revealed religion by of the poor, which are now become su his Evidence of Christianity, in answer to general. She has published Juvenile InPaine's Age of Reason, and planned a provement (1795); Leisure Hours (2 volo, new edition of Pope's Works, in which 1796); an Introduction to Botany, in a he was anticipated by doctor Warton. series of letters (1796); Mental ImproveHe, however, proceeded so far as to pub- ment (3 vols., 1797); Reflections on the lish a tirst volume, and a volume of Notes present Condition of the Feniale Sex, on Pope; as also an edition of his ver- with Hints for its Improvement (1798}; sions of the Wiad and Odyssey. He fol- the Juvenile Traveller (1801); a Familiar lowed up this labor with editions of Select Tour through the British Empire (1804; Greek Tragedies; of Horace; of Bion Domestic Recreation (1805); Excursions and Moschus; of Virgil; and, finally, of in North America (1806); Sketches of Lucretius (in 3 vols., 410.), a work which Human Manners (1807); Variety (1809); has ranked him among the most erudite Perambulations in London, &c. (1810): and industrious of critical cditors. He Instinct Displayed (1811); the Traveller soon after entered the path of politics, and in Africa (1814); an Introduction to the censured the policy of the war against Knowledge of Insects (1815); and the France, produced by the French revolu- Traveller in Asia (1817). tion, in a pamphlet written in 1798, en- WALACHIA, or WALLACHIA ; a province titled a Reply to the Bishop of Llandaflos under the protection of the Porte, lying Address to the People of Great Britain; on the northern bank of the Danube, with for which he was subjected to a crown Moldavia and Transylvania on the north, prosecution for libel, which terminated in and Servia on the west. Its area is equal a trial and conviction in February, 1799, to about 25,000 square miles, with a popwhen he was sentenced to two years'ulation of 950,000 souls. The capital is imprisonment in Dorchester gaol. He Bucharest. The other principal towns are endured the whole of this sentence, Brailow, the key of the Danube, Tergo which was, however, alleviated by a sub- vista, and Giorgiev. The face of the scription amounting to £5000, that took country is considerably diversified: in the away his anxiety for the future support north it is mountainous; the central and of bis family. On his restoration to lib. southern parts are less uneven, consisting erty, he opened a course of lectures upon chiefly of fertile valleys and extensive Virgil, in the metropolis, but, in August plains. Few countries are more indebled of the same year, was seized with a typhus to nature; but the bad government and infever, which terminated his life, Sept. I, security of property have left it nearly a 1801, in the forty-sixth year of his age. waste. Corn, tobacco, flax, horses, sheep Mr. Wakefield was a zealous and indus- and salt abound; but the rich soil is little trious scholar, who followed what he cultivated, and the mineral treasures of deemed truth, without regard to conse- the country are undisturbed. The inquences, wherever it might lead him: habitants are chietly Walachians and gyphence his abandonment of the church, sies. The former, the original inhabitants, and of public worship, and forination of are a mixture of different nations-Daa system of divinity of his own; for he cians, Bulgarians, Sclavonians, Goths and never formally joined any body of dis- Romans. They call themselves Romans, senters. His classical emendations occa- and speak a corrupt Latin. Their summer sionally exhibit strange singularities of dress also resembles that of their ances. taste and opinion; and, in conjectural crit- tors in the period of the Roman empire, icisin, indeed, he evinced much of the as appears by the figures on Trajan's colbold character of Bentley and Markland. umn, in Rome. They are rude, ignorant His private character was amiable and estic and stupid. The gypsies, who are very mable, and far removed from the asperity numerous, resemble those found in other of his controversy and his criticism. Be- countries. The mountaineers, who have
the right to bear arms, are called, in Mol- tress; and Veere; and numerous villages. davia and Walachia, Pandoors (a Moldavi- Middleburg is the capital. Lon. 3° 29 an word, signifying frontier guards.), The E.; lat. 51° 34' N. The English attemptreligion of the inhabitants is Greek, and ed to land there in 1809. (See Napoleon, the upper classes speak the Greek lan- and Otranto.) guage, and in general have the manners WALCKENAER, Charles Athanasius, barof the Greeks. Walachia is under the on of, member of the royal French acadprotection of the Porte, which has the emy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, right of naming its hospodar or prince. was born at Paris, in 1771, and, after Tbe hospodars were formerly appointed having studied there, made a tour, at the
a for seven years, during which time they period of the revolution, in the Nethercould not lawfully be removed ; but pre- lands and Great Britain, and prosecuted tences enough were always found for his studies for some time at Glasgow. suspecting them, and they were rarely Being in independent circumstances, he suffered to die a natural death. By the lived, after his return to France, on his treaty of Adrianople, in 1829, it was stipu- estate, eight leagues from Paris, devoted lated that the office should be held for to scientific pursuits. In October, 1813, life; that the inhabitants should enjoy he was chosen a member of the imperial the free exercise of their religion, freedom institute, of the class of history and anof trade, and a separate administration; cient literature. Louis XVIII conferred that no Mohammedan should be allowed upon him the cross of the legion of honor to reside in Walachia, and that the yearly in 1814, and, by the ordinance of March tribute to the Porte should be fixed at a 21, 1816, reorganizing the institute, named certain sum, beyond which that power him member of the academy of inscripshould claim no further contributions. In tions. In 1823, he received the place of the time of the Romans, Walachia formed maître des requêtes, with the title of baron. a part of Dacia. In the twelfth and thir- Walckenaer has acquired reputation as teenth centuries, it was governed by an author in several departments of liteprinces dependent on the Byzantine rature and science. Among his works court, and, in 1421, was rendered tribu- are to be remarked the Faune Parisienne, tary io the Turks. It still, however, re- on the plan of Fabricius (2 vols., 1802); tained its own princes, and a separate ad- Géographie Moderne, a rifacimento and ministration, the Turks occupying only translation of Pinkerton (6 vols., 1804); the three fortresses of Brailow or Ibrail, Histoire naturelle des Àranéides ; ReGiorgiev and Thurnu). Sull it was often cherches · Géographiques sur l'Intérieur de plundered by the Turks, and subjected to l'Afrique Septentrionale; Notice sur la forced contributions; and the hospodars Vie et les Ouvrages de Don F. Azara ; made the best use of their precarious au- Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Lathority to pillage the people. In 1716, fontaine (2 vols.); and numerous other Mavrocordatus was appointed hospodar. geographical, archæological and scientific He was the first Greek who had received treatises different publications. He this post, and, with his successors, who has likewise been a contributor to the were also Greeks, did much towards Biographie Universelle (Paris, 1811-1828, civilizing and improving the condition of 53 vols.), and the Dictionnaire Géothe country. The insurrection of 1821 graphique Universel, now publishing at (see Hetaireia, and Greece, Revolution of) Paris (ninth vol., 1832). was quelled, and only rendered the state WALDECK ; a sovereign principality of of the province more deplorable, until the Germany, bordering to the south and war of 1828, when it was occupied by east on Hesse-Cassel, and to the west and the Russians, and delivered from the iron north on the Prussian province of Westyoke of Turkish despotism.
phalia. It has a superficial area of 455 WALCHEREN, or WALCHERN; an island square miles, with 56,000 inhabitants. of the Netherlands, the most important The soil is mostly stony, but yields grain and the most westerly of the Zealand in abundance, and affords good pasturage. islands, about thirteen miles from north The religion of the inhabitants, who are to south, and eight from east to west, industrious, but poor, is Lutheran. The situated in the German sea, at the mouth county of Pyrmont (q. v.) belongs to Walof the Scheldt. It lies low, protected deck, though territorially separated from from inundation by strong dikes; is well it. The Waldeck estates are composed cultivated, but not healthy. It contains of certain landed proprietors, deputies three towns, Middleburg, ihe chief plaee, from the thirteen towns of the principality, with 13,200 inbabitants; Flushing, a for- and ten deputies of the peasants. Waldeck, as a member of the German con- separate religious society. They were federation, has one vote in the general therefore excommunicated as bereties, a assembly (plenum), and, in conjunction the council of Verona, in 1181; but thes with the Hohenzollern, Lippe, Reuss, and did not suffer a general persecution untal Lichtenstein houses the sixteenth vote the war againsi the Albigenses 17. 1., in the diet. (See Germany.) The chief atter they had spread and establishment town is Corbach, with 2200 inhabitants. themselves in the south of France, under The residence of the prince is Arolsen, the protection of the counts of Toulon 1750 inhabitants. The revenue of this and Foix. At that time (1204_1*. petty principality is about $200,000 ; many Waldenses tied to Arragon, suros public debe about $600,000 ; quota of and Piedmont. spain would not to be troops to the arıny of the contederacy, 518 rate them. In Languedoc they were al men. The house is one of the most an- to inaintain themselves till 1350; cient in Germany. Waldeck was one Provence, under severe oppression, tu! of the shambles, as Chatham appropriately 1515, when the parliament nt Air caused called them, to which the British govern- them to be exierminated in the me ment had recourse for purchasing troops cruel manner; still longer in Dauphiny: in the American war.
and not till the war of the Cevennes were WALDENSES. This Christian sect, the last Waldenses expelled from France. celebrated as the precursor of the refor. In the middle of the fourteenth century, mation, appears, from old manuscripts in single congregations of this sect went to the university of Cambridge, to have ex. Calabria and Apulia, where they were isted as early as 1100. According to the soon suppressed ; others to Bobemia, common opinion, it owes its origin and where they were called Grubenheimer, naine to Peter Waldus (Waldo, Vaud), a because they used to conceal themselors rich citizen of Lyons, although some of in caverns. These soon became amalgatheir writers derive the appellation Wal mated with the Hussites : and from them denses from valle (valley), and call them the Bohemian Brethren derive the apa Vaudois, or dwellers in the valleys. tolical consecration of their bishops on About 1170, Waldo, from reading the the other hand, they found a retreat, for Bible and some passages from the fathers titied by nature, in the valleys of western of the church, which he caused to be Piedmont, where they founded a detinet translated into his native tongue, came to church, which has remained, till the the determination to imitate the mode of present day, the main seat of their sert lite of the apostles and primitive Chris. Their doctrines rest solely on the gorsuri tians, gave his goods to the poor, and by which, with some calechisins, they hair his preaching collected numerous follow- in their old dialeci, consisting of a mixture ers, chetly from the class of artisans, of French and Italian. In this language who, from the place of their birth, were their simple worship was performed, tai called Lyonists; or Poor Men of Lyons, their old Barbes (uncles, teachers berarti on account of their voluntary poverty ; extinct, in 1003. They then recentesi Sabatati, or Insabatali, on account of preachers from France, and since thar their wooden shoes or sandals (sabots); time their preaching has been in French Humilialists, on account of their humility; There ieacher, however, form no distinct and were often confounded with the priesthood, and are supplied from the Cathari, Patarenes, Albigensis, and other academies of the Calvinistie churches heretics, whose fate thory shared. In their Their riles are limited to baptism and th.. contempt of the degenerate clergy and supper, respeting which they entertais their opposition to the Roman priesthool, the notions of ('alvin. The cutsututori the Wallenses resembled other sects of of their congrrgations, which are chuti the mudelle agru; but, going beyond the employed in the cultivation of vine varla design of their founder, which was merely and in the breeding of cattle, and wirata to improve the morals of men, and prach are connected by searly sy nouls, is repub. the Word of God freely to every one in liran. Cachcongregation is superintet» his native language, they made the Bible ed by a consistory con.perseet oteller and abour the rule of thrir faith, and, rejecting deacons, under the presidency of the whatever was not founded on it, and con. pastor, which maintains the strictos m. formable to apostoliai antiquity, they aidisciplines
, and adipisis small duli renera are the first upluse to a rrform of From the time of their ongin, the Withe whole (hinsun church, renounord deners hair | +11 distinguin trom their entirely the doctrines, usages and trus ('atholie heighbura br their pure morale Luns of the Roman church, and formed a anube ir sus ry, and have been seened
is the best subjects. After they had 1823, by W. St. Gilly, an English clerentered into a religious communion with gyman–Narrative of an Excursion to the the Calvinists, in the sixteenth century, Mountains of Piedmont, and Researches they were also exposed to the storm among the Vaudois, Protestant Inhabitwhich was intended to sweep away the ants of the Cottian Alps, &c. (second reformation, the doctrines of which they edition, London, 1825, 410.). Also see had already cherished for upwards of Hugh Dyke Akland's Sketch of the Histhree centuries. This was the cause of tory and y'esent Situation of the Waltheir extirpation in France, and their denses in Predmont (London, 1826), and chequered fute in Piedmont. Those who the same author's History of the glorious bad settled in the marquisate of Saluzzo Return of the Vaudois to their Valley, in were totally exterminated by 1733; and 1689 (from the original accounts of their those in the other valleys, having received pastor, H. Arnaud), with a Compendium trom the court of Turin, in 1654, new of the History of that People, &c. (Lonassurances of religious freedom, were don, 1827, 1 vol.). treacherously attacked in 1655, by monks Waldis, Burkard. (See Burkard Waland soldiers, treated with brutal cruelty, dis.) and many shamefully murdered. The WALDSTÆDTE(i.e. the Forest Towns), or rest of their male population took up VierwALDSTÆDTE (1. e. the Four Forest arms; and their bravery, aided by the me- Towns); a name given, in Switzerland, to diation of the Protestant powers, finally the cantons of Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, procured them a new, though more lim- and Unterwalden, probably on account ited ratification of their freedom by the of the number of forests found in them. treaty concluded at Pignerol, August 18, (See the articles.) 1635. New oppressions, in 1664, gave
(See Vierwaldrise to a new contest and treaty. The städtersee.) persecution exercised in 1685, through WALDSTEIN-WARTEMBERG; a BoheFrench influence, obliged thousands to mian family, known since the thirteenth emigrate into Protestant countries. In century, and from which sprung the faLondon, they united with the French mous Wallenstein. (q. v.) There are at Huguenots ; in the Netherlands, with the present two lines, with large possessions, Walloons; in Berlin, with the French in Bohemia and Moravia, containing congregations: nearly 2000 went to Swit- 90,000 inhabitants. The late Francis zerland. Some of these returned by force Adam, count of Wallenstein, after having
' to Piedmont, in 1689, and, with those served in several wars, travelled for seven who had remained, maintained them- years in Hungary, to study the plants of selves, under many oppressions, to which the country, and published, in 1812, Delimits were finally put, in 1725, in conse- scriptiones et Icones Plantarum rariorum quence of Prussian mediation. They Hungariæ (Vienna, folio), which procureil now enjoy religious freedom and civil him the membership of several learned rights in their old valleys of Lucerne, societies. Wildenow (q. v.) called a plant, Perusa, and St. Martin, in western Pied- after bim, Waldstenia, in bis Species tuont, where they have thirteen parishes, Plantarum Linnæi. He died in 1823. containing about 20,000 souls. Their Wales; a principality in the west of church service is under the direction of a Great Britain, washed on the north and synod. After long negotiations, in the way west by the Irish sea, and on the south of which great difficulties were thrown and south-east by the Bristol channel. It by the religious zeal of the Tübingen is from 130 to 180 miles in length from theologians, several hundred of the above- north to south, and from 50 to 80 in mentioned fugitives settled in Würtem- breadth, comprising an area of 8125 square berg, in 1699, where their descendants miles. The population, in 1811, was have ten parishes, and are 1600 in num- 611,788 ; in 1821, 717,438 ; in 1831, ber. They are next to the Calvinists in 805,236. It is divided into North and the simplicity of their worship, and in South Wales, containing twelve counties, their ecclesiastical constitution, but in in- Anglesey, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, tellectual cultivation, they are behind the Merioneth and Montgomery in the forOther Protestants. In later times, Eng- mer, and Brecknock, Cardigan, Caermarland and Prussia have afforded aid to the then, Glamorgan, Pembroke and Radnor Waldenses. By contributions which they in the latter division. The general aspect collected from all Europe, in 1824, they of Wales is mountainous, affording nuerected an hospital. The latest accounts merous views of wild scenery, interspersof them were collected on the spot, in ed with delightful valleys. The loftiest