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than one deity of the name of Vulcan. were various, and differed essentially. A One he calls son of Cælus, and father committtee was appointed to prepare a of Apollo by Minerva. The second he proper text; but, the pope not liking it, it mentions as son of the Nile, and called was abandoned. Pius IV, Pius V and Phthas by the Egyptians. The third was Sixtus V then took the greatest pains to son of Jupiter and Juno, and fixed his form a correct Vulgate. The latter pubresidence in Lemnos; and the fourth, lished his edition in 1590, with anathemas who built his forges in the Lipari islands, against any who should venture to make was son of Menalius.

changes; but this edition had scarcely apVULGAR ERA; the common era used peared, when pope Clement VIII pubby Christians, dating from the birth of lished a new one, in 1592, accompanied by Christ. (See Epoch.)

a similar bull. Another improved edition Vulgar Fractions. (See Fractions.) was printed in 1593. The differences in

VULGATE; the name of the Latin trans- these editions are very considerable. The lation of the Bible, which has, in the decree of the council above mentioned Catholic church, official authority, and gives the list of the canonical books, as which the council of Trent, in their fourth given in our article Bible. St. Jerome insession, in May 27, 1546, declared "shall serted, it is true, the apocryphal books; be held as authentic, in all public lec- kut it is clear that he only considered tures, disputations, sermons and expo- those canonical, which are now regarded sitions; and that no one shall presume to as such by Protestants. reject it, under any pretence whatsoever.” VULPINITE. (See Anhydrite.) Even in the early period of the church, VULTURE (vultur). The vultures have a Latin translation of the Old Testament been referred, by ornithologists, to the acexisted, called Itala, made after the Septu- cipitres, or rapacious birds, the same famagint. (q. v.) St. Jerome found that this ily with the hawks and owls, although translation was not always accurate, and they differ in many important points. The made a new Latin translation from the feet of the vultures are incapable of graspHebrew, which, however, was only par- ing and bearing off living prey, although tially adopted by the church, about the sufficiently powerful to permit them to year 387. In the sequel, the translations rest on trees: the mouth is also much were combined, and formed the Vulgate, smaller, the angle not extending beneath so called. This grew up between the the eyes; the head is disproportionately eighth and sixteenth centuries. Only the small, compared with the size of the body, Psalms were retained in the ancient form. and the neck long and slender; the eyes That its Latin phraseology is impure, if are even with the surface of the head: in the Latin of the classical Roman authors short, their general aspect is widely differis taken as the standard, is not, in all ent from the hawks and owls, and most cases, an objection. New ideas require unexpectedly approaches, in some renew terms; but the Vulgate does not give, spects, the gallinacea; which similitude in many passages, the sense of the origi- is expressed in many of their common nal, and does not correspond to the pres- names. The head and neck of the vulent advanced state of philology and ar- tures are more or less deprived of feathchæology. Many Catholics have often ers, and covered with short and scattering represented the necessity of a new trans- down. The beak is straight, more or less lation, as much of the old one was made stout, and the superior mandible curved at when scriptural philology was in a very the extremity. Their wings are very long low state; and all of them admit that the and pointed, and their flight exceedingly church does not consider the Vulgate as a powerful, so much so, that they often soar perfect translation, but only as the most beyond the reach of sight. They are vosatisfactory of all the Latin editions. Car- racious and cowardly, feeding chiefly on dinal Bellarmin maintains that all which carrion, but sometimes attack young or the counsel of Trent says, is, that the sickly animals. Their bodies exhale a Vulgate contains no errors which affect disgusting odor. They usually live in points of faith or morals: he does not companies; and many of the larger spepretend that it is without fault. The cies do not quit the lofty chains of mounProtestants, however, were of opinion tains, where they build in inaccessible that the Vulgate was to be absolutely re- places. Their piercing sight enables them jected, if they desired to rest their faith to discover carrion at a great distance. on the Bible. But what edition of the The condor, or great vulture of the Andes, Vulgate was to be adopted by the Catho- is particularly described in a separate arlics, after the decree mentioned above, ticle. (See Condor.) The king of vultures, became a question, because the editions V. papa, is about as large as a small tur

key. It is found throughout the greater alike. In the towns and villages of the part of tropical America. The head and Southern States, they are protected by neck are ornamented with brilliant colors. law as scavengers, and may be seen sunThe general color of the plumage is red- ning themselves on the roots of houses, or dish white, with the wings and tail black. sauntering about the streets, as familiarly This and the preceding species are re- as domestic poultry. The lammergeyer markable for having a comb and fleshy inhabits only the loftiest mountains of the caruncles on the head of the male. Two eastern continent. It approaches, if, inother small species of vulture are found deed, it does not equal, the condor in size. throughout tropical America, as well as It differs, however, in some points of in a great part of the U. States, viz. the structure, from the true vultures. There turkey buzzard and the carrion crow of are, besides, several other species of vul. the Southern States. The latter is rarely ture in various parts of the eastern confound north of lat. 35°; but the former tinent. comes into the Middle States. The plu- Vyasa. (See Indian Literature.) mage of both is black, and they are much

W.

W; the twenty-third letter of the Eng. nounce w, use a g instead of it, and say lish alphabet, representing a sound form- guee for we. (See G.) W, like other ased by opening the mouth with a rounding pirates, often does not belong to the root, of the lips, and a somewhat strong emis- but only serves to strengthen the tone; sion of the breath. It is one of the for instance, the Swedish, Danish and Icesounds which the Germans call Blaselaute landic ord, English word, German wort; (breathing sounds). (See F.) The Eng. the Icelandic and Swedish andra, Gerlish pronunciation of w is a peculiarity of man wandern, English wander; the Swethat language, though some other lan- dish ila, German weilen (10 tarry), the root guages have a sound coming pretty near of the English verb to while ; the Gothie it, as ou, in the French oui : this, howev- ourt, Swedish ört, German wurz, the same er, is not precisely the same, as the sound which is found in the English comof oo is heard in the pronunciation of pounds, liver-wort, &c.; the Swedish oui before the sound of our w. In Ger- önska, in German wünschen, in English man, w has the sound of our v. Gram- to wish, and so on. But w is by no means marians are not agreed respecting the always to be overlooked by the etymolocharacter of ro. Doctor Webster says it gist : it often belongs to the root of words, is a vowel; others say it is sometimes a and in many cases it is an onomatopeia, as vowel, sometimes a consonant, like y. . It in wave. It has this character particular. seems to us that it must be classified with ly in German, which has numerous onoh. The Romans called the h neither a vow- matopeias. W is now pronounced by the el nor a consonant, but simply a breathing: Germans like our v; but it was not also the w is a breathing, though stronger ways so pronounced. It had, with the and somewhat modified. If we consider early Germans, a sound composed of u it, however, as a letter, it is undoubtedly a and v, or f, as we may conjecture from a consonant, as much as h is, and cannot be passage of Oufried, in his preface to the said to be the same with the Spanish, Gospels (he says, Nam interdum tria r o German and Italian u, though, as stated 0, ut puto, quærit in sono, priores due in the article U, that letter is used to indi- consonantes, ut mihi videtur, tertium rocali cate the pronunciation of the English w. sono manente); and also from the former The w, being a strong breathing, is nearly orthography of the German words Frare, related to all aspirated sounds, and through shawen, &c., now written Frau, schauen. them again to the gutturals, so that we ·This passage of Ottfried is interesting, as find w and g often interchanged in differ- respects the English w. In ancient times, ent languages, as in the words William, an h was also written before the w in GerGuillaune; Wales, Galles, &c.; and we man, as hwil, at present welle (wave), have heard Spaniards, unable to pro- hwelcher, at present welcher (Scotch tohilk,

a

sons,

who). This was done particularly in An- studied theology, philology and history. glo-Saxon. At a later period, the h was In 1788, he was made professor extraordiput after the w, though the pronunciation narius in Brinteln. In 1801, he was remained huo, for when is pronounced made professor of philosophy in Marhwen. It is a peculiarity of some Ger- burg, and, in 1802, professor ordinaman vulgar dialects to put m instead of w, rius of theology. In 1805, he went, as and say mir for wir, and Mörsing for Wir- professor of history, to Breslau. His sing. W is a letter peculiar to the alpha- writings are numerous: they are on theobets of the Teutonic and Sclavonic lan- logical, philosophical and historical subguages: those of Latin origiu have it not, jects. Some of the last sort have much except in proper names of foreign per- merit, though the writer may sometimes

fall into indistinct generalities. Among WAADTLAND, or DIE WAADT ; German his works are Lehrbuch der Geschichte names for the Pays de Vaud. (See Pays (1816 ; 5th ed., 1828); Philomathie (3 vols., de Vaud.)

1819–21); Manual of the History of LitWAAL; a branch of the Rhine. (See erature (4 vols., 1822–24); History of Rhine.)

Historical Inquiry and Art, since the ReWABASA, a river of Indiana, waters vival of Letters in Europe (Göttingen, the middle and western part of the state, 1812—20); Manual of Literary History and flows into the Ohio thirty miles above (1827); his Theological Annals, and Cumberland river. It is upwards of 500 New Theological Annals (completed in miles lopg, and affords good steam-boat 1823). navigation, for most of the year, 150 Wad, or Wadding, in gunnery; a stopmiles; to Vincennes, and for smaller boats ple of paper, bay, straw, old rope-yarn, 250 miles farther, to Ouiatan. Very small or tow, rolled up like a ball, or a short boats ascend to within eight miles of the cylinder, and forced into a gun, to keep the Maumee. It receives several large riv- powder close in the chamber, or put up ers, and meanders through a valley of re- close to the shot, to keep it from rolling markable fertility. The Little Wabash is out. one of its principal branches, and unites WAD BLACK. (See Manganese.) with it only a few miles from the Ohio. WAFER. (See Cements, and SealingThis stream may be rendered navigable, Waz.) We only add here, that an antifor a long distance, by removing a few quarian of the eighteenth century, Mr. obstructions. It is eighty yards wide Spiess, a German, says that the oldest where it joins the Wabash. It rises in seal with a red wafer, which he had ever Illinois, about forty miles south-east of found, is on a letter written at Spire, in the Kaskaskia.

1624, to the government at Bayreuth. Wach, William Charles, professor of –See Beckmann's History of Inventions historical painting in Berlin, was born in and Discoveries (London, 1797).— The use that city, in 1787. In 1813, he entered of sealing-wax is universally considered the army as a volunteer ; but as soon as more polite than that of wafers, because peace was restored, he returned to paint- the latter is easier and less formal, hence ing. From 1815 to 1817, he studied in more appropriate for the business style. Paris, under David and Legros. The WAGENAAR, John, historiographer to plastic character of his pieces, and his the city of Amsterdam, where he was large masses of shade, show the influ- born in 1709, and died in 1773, is one of ence of the French school; but he has the most distinguished scholars of his carefully avoided its exaggerations. In country, and, in particular, one of the best 1817, he went to Rome, and, in 1819, re- historians of Holland. His principal turned to his country, after having exe- work, De Vaderlandsche Historie vervatcuted, in Italy, several fine paintings. In tende de Geschiedenissen der Vereenigde 1819, he was made a member of the sen- Nederlanden, or History of the United are of the academy of fine arts at Berlin. Netherlands until 1751, was published at Among his paintings are the resurrection Amsterdam, in 21 vols. (1749–60). In of Christ, for the altar of the Protestant 1788, a continuation of this work, from church in Moscow, and a symbolic rep- 1776 to 1802, appeared, at Amsterdam, resentation of Christianity; also the under the title of Vervolg van Wagenaar Muses, in the ceiling of the Berlin the- Vaderlandsche Historie (48 vols.), and, in atre.

1789, volumes 22, 23 and 24, containing WACHLER, John Frederic Louis, pro- the history of the period from 1751 to fessor of history in the university of 1774. His other works are a description Breslau, was born, in 1767, at Gotha, of the United Provinces (12 vols., 1739),

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and a Description of Amsterdam (3 vols., precisely the same proportions among the folio, 1760), and some polemical treatises several interests, the compensation will on theological subjects.

be twice as great in one case as in the WAGERING Policies. (See Insu- other. This effectiveness of the labor rance.)

and means of production in a communiWages. The cost of an article is made ty, is a matter of the most weighty conup of that of the materials consumed, sideration, and goes far in determining and the compensation for the use of the the condition of the population. This land, buildings and implements employ- gives us two modes of comparison, as to ed, and the labor, skill and superintend- the rate of wages in any two communience requisite in its production, with in- ties, the results of which may be very terest on these outlays until the product different. If we ask whether labor is completed and ready for the market. and skill, taking the whole mass of both, When we inquire respecting the rate of of all descriptions, be better rewarded in wages, we are first to consider what extent England or in Spain, the answer may be, we give to the term ; whether we compre- that a greater quantity of corresponding hend the compensation given for skill articles goes to compensate the same labor and industry, of all descriptions, employ- and skill in England, but that a greater ed in the production, distribution, and proportion of the whole mass of annual even use and consumption, of all sorts of products goes to compensate labor and commodities; for wages are paid to a skill in Spain. To make the distinction servant who waits at a table, or a coach- more plain—a laborer in England may man who drives a pleasure coach, as well earn a yard of cloth, and one in Spain as to a miller, teamster, or seaman, though but half a yard, of the same quality, in a the former are not, like the latter, em- day; so that the English laborer gets absoployed in giving any additional value to lutely twice as much compensation as the any article by, producing or transporting Spanish. But, owing to greater skill and it. If we divide the whole annual value advantages, the English laborer may proproduced in a community into three parts, duce four times as much cloth, or materiand assign one to pay rent, another to pay als for cloth, as the Spanish laborer in the for the use of capital, and a third for wa- same time. Therefore, though the Engges,-taking wages in its most compre- lish laborer gets twice as great a quantity, hensive sense, as including all that is the Spaniard gets twice as great a propaid for industry and skill of all descrip- portion of the whole product. The tions,—then the first material considera- wages of one will accordingly be twice tion is, What is the mass of the products as great as that of the other, and ria in proportion to the land, capital and labor versa, according as we make the compariemployed? for the same quantity and son in one or the other way. The ordinaquality of land, capital and labor will ry mode of comparison has reference to yield a greater annual product in one the absolute compensation, that is, the community than in another. What is the quantity of valuable vendible things aggregate mass or fund out of which the commanded by the same labor. All labordividend is to be made? The aggregate ers want food, clothing and shelter ; and productiveness of England, for instance, he that can command the best for the will vastly exceed that of Spain in all same labor is the best paid. In making these particulars; for the lands are made the comparison, we may regard the more productive, the labor is more skil- money that each can earn; but then we fully applied, and the capital is more rap- must go further, and inquire what the idly carried through the different forms same weight of silver or gold will purof production, and transported through chase in each of the two countries. the different places in its way to that of "To the man who expends his wages final consumption; and, consequently, the where they are earned, a given amount same capital is more effective, or, in other of silver or gold is valuable only in words, contributes to a greater mass of proportion to the things that he can production in the same time. We insti- produce in exchange for it. To all tute this inquiry as to the aggregate mass practical purposes, therefore, labor may of annual production in comparing the be higher paid in the U. States at a condition of one community with that dollar than in the West Indies at two of another. One community may have dollars. It is, therefore, surprising to se twice as great a fund to divide as another, economists making comparisons of the from the same aggregate means of pro- money rate of wages in different coun duction; and if the distribution is made in tries, as if that gave any practical satisfactory result, without also inquiring ucts, and yet have a higher rent for his further what the same money will pur- ground every successive year, because chase in each of the two countries. For the quantity which he does receive, on acinstance, a laborer at Buenos Ayres can count of its increased comparative value, earn an ox in three days, which, in New will command, on the whole, more of the England, would cost him from one to things for which he wishes to exchange it. three months' wages, and in England During the same time, the laborer will restill more ; whereas the English or New ceive, for the same labor, a less quantiEngland laborer can earn more cloth in ty and less proportion of the raw products; the same time than the one at Buenos and yet, taking into consideration all that Ayres, though the money price of wages he wants to consume, he may, on the is highest in the latter place. In all the whole, continue to have as high wages as speculations and treatises upon this sub- at first, whether we regard the absolute ject, we do not know of any full and sat- quantity of consumable things which isfactory comparison of the real rate of he can command by his labor, or the wages, for the corresponding kinds of proportion which it will bear' to the labor, in different countries. If we whole annual product of the community. limit the inquiry to the same community, Though some parts of his food, and all we first ask what is the aggregate pro- his fuel, may cost him more labor, other duction, and how great a proportion of parts of his food, particularly that brought the whole annual product goes to labor from abroad, and his shelter and clothing, and skill, and how much to rent and cap- and especially all those articles that come ital. And here we readily perceive a under the class of moderate luxuries, will gradual change in the course of the prog- probably cost him less labor. In the ress of a community; for, in the early progress of a community in which propstages of improvement, and while the pop- erty is well protected, accumulation gradulation is comparatively thin, as in the U. ually reduces the rate of interest, thus reStates, the rent, and so the value, of lands ducing the proportional amount of the is low; that is, the holder of a particular cost of production, as far as it depends on piece of cultivated land receives but a the use of capital, whereby a compensasmall proportion of the annual products; tion, in part at least, is made for the enbut, as the population thickens, the pro- hancement of rents. All the inventions prietor of the same tract will receive a and facilities to production, transportagreater proportion of the whole products tion and exchange, also contribute to of the same cultivation than his prede- make a similar compensation. From cessors. Take the instance of the same these causes, it may happen that, in the crop of grass, on the same piece of ground, advancement of the population, wealth, for a hundred successive years, from the arts and industry of a community, though time of felling the forest, until a populous a smaller proportion of the whole prodtown has grown up in the neighborhood; ucts goes to compensate mere labor, still the wages for cutting and securing the a greater absolute amount of products crop will, at first, be one half or three may go to compensate the same labor ; quarters of its value, and will diminish, that is, a laborer may be able to supply by degrees, to one fifth or one tenth, and himself, by his industry merely, with a the value and rent of the land will rise greater quantity of necessaries and luxuaccordingly; that is, land becomes com- ries. In some respects, the laborer suffers paratively scarce in proportion to the by the advancement of a community; in population, and the demand for its use ; others, he is benefited. But another view and all raw products, that is, all products of the subject is of the very greatest imthe value of which consists mostly of portance in considering the condition of rent, will rise in comparative value. This a people, namely, the distribution of that * may take place, in a great degree, through portion of the annual products that is ala whole country, as has been the case in lotted to industry and skill among the England. But the whole territory does different classes of the industrious. It is 710t continue to produce merely the same not possible to estimate exactly what proquantity, since, as the wants and con- portion the compensation for making out sumption of the community increase, the a legal process, visiting a patient, officiatlabor bestowed upon the same area will ing at the celebration of public worship, be increased for the purpose of augment- superintending the concerns of a bark, ing the quantity of products, so that the commanding a ship or a regiment, &c., land-owner may, in fact, receive a less ought justly, or for the best interests of a quantity, and a less proportion of the prod- community, to bear to the wages of mere VOL. XIII.

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