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ker, the German translator of the Zend- amounted to 3000 men. The Turks Avesta, has combated the doubts enter- bombarded, day and night, the “old city," tained on the subject with much force. which was būt slightly fortified. The Late inquiries into the religions of an- besieged made many daring sallies ; but, tiquity, particularly those which relate to after they had defended the place, inch India, have illustrated many points in the by inch, and repulsed several assaults, doctrines of Zoroaster. The literary they were obliged to burn it, and to retreat treasures which the celebrated linguist to the “new city." The Turks now Rask has lately brought from India, raised mounds of earth, from which they promise new light, and tend to confirm could fire over the whole city. Zrinyi the genuineness of the Zend-Avesta. (See made every effort to prevent the Turks Zend-Avesta.) But the books which are from filling up the fosse ; but they were known under the name of the Oracles of too numerous and indefatigable. He Zoroaster, and which have stood in high now gave up the "new city” to the flames, repute, particularly among mystics, and and threw himself into the castle. The students of the secret sciences, by which fire of the Turks was incessant, and they men hoped to discover the philosopher's were also active in excavating mines. stone, are, obviously, forgeries of a later Zrinyi had no miners. The Hungarians period.

made a sally, repulsed the Turks, spiked ZRINYI, or Zrin, Nicholas, count of, several of their cannons, but suffered a general of the emperor Ferdinand I, ban considerable loss. From August 26 to of Croatia, Dalmatia and Sclavonia, a September 1, seven assaults, or more, were modern Leonidas, was born in 1518. made daily; but the Hungarians always When but a boy of twelve years, he dis- drove back the Turks. Many proposals tinguished himself so much during the for capitulation were made to Zrinyi ; siege of Vienna that Charles V gave him but he rejected them all; and even the a horse and gold chain. He also distin- sultan's threat to kill his son, whom the guished himself in the wars against John Turks pretended to have in their power, of Zapolya, and sultan Suleyman (Soli- could not change bis purpose. Soliman, man), the ally of Zapolya, and did much exasperated at his obstinacy, offered 1000 to improve light cavalry. His noble fig- gold guilders for Zrinyi's head, and finalure, his vivacity, liberality, and strict jus- ly died of rage, September 4. The grand tice, gained him the love of his soldiers vizier kept his death a secret. Septemto an uncommon degree. In 1542, at the ber 5, the Turks succeeded in burning battle of Pesth, his sudden arrival struck the outer castle. Zrinyi retired to the dismay into the enemy, and decided the inner works. These, however, contained victory. For twelve years, he defended no provision nor ammunition. On the Croatia, over which he presided as ban, seventh, the Turks undertook a general against the Turks, and repelled them, in assault." The cinders fell even into the 1562, from Szigeth. (q. v.) The greater apartments of the count. The castle was part of Hungary, however, was already a in flames. Zrinyi now assembled his folTurkish pachalic, and the rest was obliged lowers, and said, “ Remember your oath. to pay tribute. Suleyman the Invincible We must go forth, or burn, or perish with was desirous of taking Szigeth. A defeat hunger. Let us die like men. Follow which the vanguard of the sultan sustain- me, and do as I do.” Saying this, he ed, at Sziklos, from the troops of Zrinyi, rushed out: his men, now reduced to 600, excited his wrath. The famous grand followed. He received two balls, but vizier, Mehmed Sokolowich, a renegade continued fighting until a third ball killed of Croatia, marched, with 65,000 men, to him. The whole garrison shared the the attack of Szigeth. A bridge was fate of their commander. The Turks thrown over the swollen Drave, under thronged into the burning castle, but Zrindifficulties such as could be overcome yi had fired trains leading to the powder only by the iron will of the Turkish des- chambers. These exploded, and a large pot; and the army passed over the river number of the enemies perished. Above between August 1 and 9. Zrinyi col- 20,000 Turks had been killed or died of lected his soldiers, 2500 in number. sickness during the siege. The Turks They swore—first he himself, then each retained the place until 1689. The aga soldier to his captain, and then all the of the janizaries fixed the head of Zrinyi captains to him to die for their faith, before the tent of the sultan; but it was their emperor and their country. Szigeth afterwards sent to the imperial general lies between two rivers, as on an island. count Salm. The family of the Zrinyis When Zrinyi mustered his troop, they became extinct in 1703.

Zschokke, John Henry Daniel, was Egeri. The inhabitants are employed born in Magdeburg, in Prussia, in 1771. almost exclusively in the breeding of He lost his parents early, and, having re- cattle, and the cultivation of orchards. ceived bis education in the gymnasium The constitution is democratic, the suof that city, quitted it suddenly, and re- preme power being exercised by popular mained, for some time, with a strolling representatives in different bodies. The troop of actors, for whom he prepared quota of the canton in the army of the pieces. He subsequently entered the confederacy is 250 men, and the pecunsuniversity of Frankfort on the Oder, ry contingent 1250 Swiss francs. Tbe where he studied, without any regular chief place is the town of the same namne, plan, philosophy, theology, history and with 2800 inhabitants, on lake Zug, in a belles-lettres.' In 1792, he appeared as a delightful situation, at the foot of a mourpublic teacher, but was unable to obtain tain of the same name, surrounded by a fixed appointment. Some dramatic fertile meadows, orchards, vineyards, and productions of his were published. In pretty country houses. The lake bates 1795, he was again disappointed, when the foot of Righi on the south : bebund he applied for a professorship in the rises mount Pilate; and, in the distance, university of Frankfort, having previ- the snowy summits of the Bernese Alps ously written against the religious edict are seen towering up into the sky. The of Wöllner. (9. v.) He now travelled, lake is about ten miles long and from two and, while on his way to Italy, was in- to three wide. duced to stay in Switzerland, in order ZUIDERSEE, or ZUYDER-ZEE (i. e. Souda to take the direction of a seminary in sea); an inland sea or gulf of the North Reichenau. During the disturbances sea, or German ocean, surrounded chiefwhich agitated the Helvetic republic ly by the Dutch provinces of Holland, in consequence of the French 'revo- Overyssel

, and Friesland. Its lengib, lution, he received a great variety of from north to south, is about 80 miles; its appointments, some of an important breadth varies from 15 to 30; superficial character. He continues to live in Switz- area, 1200 square miles. It is said to erland. Of his numerous works, we have been, in remote ages, a lake, until mention his History of the Grisons; the barrier on the north-west, separating Miscellany of the latest Information--a it from the German ocean, was swallowed periodical which appeared from 1807 to up by some inundation of the sea. This 1813; his History of the Bavarian People opinion is confirmed by the position of and their Rulers, written from 1812 to the islands Texel, Vlieland, &c. wbiety

, 1818, and much esteemed; Contributions with intervening shoals and sand-banks, to the History of our Time—a periodical still form a kind of defence against the begun in 1817, and which ceased in 1823; ocean. The trade of Amsterdam is car. History of Switzerland for the Swiss ried on along the Zuyder-Zee, the esPeople, perhaps his best work, of which trance to which is at the Texel. The 5000 copies were sold immediately in communication of this sea with the lake Switzerland alone ; Pictures of Switzer- of Harlem is by the south, the inlet ou land (2 vols., Aaraw, 1824); and a great the banks of which Amsterdam is buir. number of novels, tales, sketches, and in so level a country there are few rivers small historical pieces. A collection of to flow into this sea: of those that do sa, his writings appeared in 1825 et seq., in the Yssel is the largest. The extent of forty small volumes.

the Zuyder-Zee exposes it to great agitaZug, the smallest of the Helvetic can- tion in tempestuous weather; yel, on tons, lies between the cantons of Zürich, proceeding from South Holland to Fries Schweitz, Lucerne and Aargau. It has land, it is usual to sail across the southern a superficial area of 116 square miles, and part of it, called the Lemmer, instead of contains 14,710 inhabitants, of German making the circuit by land. The Y is a origin, and of the Roman Catholic re- gulf of the Zuyder-Zee, which fonus the ligion. In regard to its natural charac- connexion with the lake of Harlem, and ters, it may be divided into two distinct of which a part is called the Pampus. parts, of which the north-western is com- Zuinglius. (See Zwingli.) posed of fertile valleys, and the south- ZüllichAU, a town in the government eastern of a mountainous land, in which, of Frankfort, in the Prussian province of however, none of the summits rise above Brandenburg, 112 miles from Berlin, 17 an elevation of 5000 feet, and the descent miles east of Crossen, lon. 15° 44' E., lat is gentle. A considerable part of the 52° 8' N., a league from the Oder, bas surface is occupied by lakes Zug and 4700 inhabitants, an academy, an orphan


| asylum, and a seminary for school-masters. Zürich; a city of Switzerland, capital

(See Schools.) It was formerly a thriving of the above canton, on the Limmat, at town, having many manufactories of the north extremity of the lake of Zürich, broadcloth, large quantities of which were in a narrow valley, between hills, 36 sent into Poland, Russia, and even China; miles south-west of Constance, 55 northbut, since Russia has protected the Polish east of Berne; lon. 8° 32 E.; lat. 47° 22 manufactures, Zöllichau has much declin- N. It is pleasantly situated, fortified with ed. The manufacture of silk, however, has a wall and ditch, tolerably neat and clean, in some measure supplied the place of that though most of the houses are old-fashof cloth. On the banks of the Oder, ioned. It has four Reformed churches. much wine is made ; but its quality is less Its public buildings are not remarkable, to be commended than the industry of but the scenery around is striking, and the cultivators. The town belongs, with there are beautiful promenades. There the circle of the same name (300 square are numerous private gardens; and in po miles, with 30,000 inhabitants), to the place in Europe, except Haarlem, is more duchy of Crossen, which, in 1538, fell to attention paid to fine flowers. Having Brandenburg.

the advantage of water communication ZUMBO. (See Wax Figures.)

by means of its lake and river, it has long ZUMSTEEG, John Rodolphus, a German been a place of manufacture and trade. composer, the son of a servant, was born Woollens, linens, cottons, leather and silk in 1760, in Sachsenflur, in Würtemberg, are its chief manufactures. Few places and educated in the ducal school near of the size of Zürich have surpassed it Stuttgart, enjoyed the instruction of the in the cultivation of literature. For five members of the ducal chapel, and, when centuries it has been a town of literary yet a pupil, composed several operettas, distinction. It has a public library of cantatás and songs for the Robbers of Schil- 40,000 volumes, collegium humanitatis, ler, whose friend he was. He was then ap- gymnasium Carolinum, a school for the pointed violoncellist in the chapel of the deaf and dumb, and one for the blind, a duke, and, in 1792, concert-master and society of physics, economics, and natural director of the opera. He died in 1802, history, a military school, a medical semiof apoplexy. His songs and glees are nary, and various other institutions. Nasome of the best which the Germans pos- tives, Conrad Gesner, Solomon Gesner, sess. He also composed operas and a John James Gesner, J.C. Lavater, Hirzel, mass, &c.

and Pestalozzi. Population, 14,000. ZüZürich; a canton of Switzerland, rich has, in recent times, been the theatre bounded north by_Schaffhausen, north- of some interesting political events. In east and east by Thurgau, south-east by the war carried on by the second coaliSt. Gall, south by Schweitz and Zug, tion against the French republic (1799), west by Aargau, and north-west by Ba- Zürich became an important point in the den (see Switzerland); square miles, 953; military operation. On the fourth and population, 224,150.' The general aspect fifth of June, the archduke Charles is pleasant, abounding in hills and valleys, gained some advantages over the French but destitute of the magnificent scenery forces here, and, on the seventh, occuthat marks the interior and south of pied Zürich. In August, it became the Switzerland. The climate is mild, and theatre of new conflicts; and, on the the soil is tolerably fertile, and well culti- twenty-fourth of September, Masséna devated. Rich pastures and extensive or- feated here the allied forces of Russia chards abound, and, in some parts, there and Austria, and compelled them to are fine tracts of wooded country. Corn, evacuate Switzerland. wine, cattle, butter and cheese are some ZÜRICH; a lake of Switzerland, exof the principal products. The manufac- tending, in the form of a crescent, chiefly tures are considerable, of cotton, silk through the canton of Zürich, but partly stuffs, linen, woollen and leather. The also between those of Schweitz and St. inhabitants are of German origin, and, Gall. It is divided into two parts by the with the exception of two societies, are strait of Rapperswyl, a quarter of a mile Calvinists. The government, which was over, crossed by a bridge. In other aristocratico-democratic in its adminis- places, the breadth varies to nearly five tration, was new-modelled in 1831. The miles. The length is thirty miles. This legislative power was vested in a great lake, without rivalling that of Geneva in council of '212 members, 25 of whom its sublime scenery, is one of the finest in formed an executive council, and court Europe, being surrounded by a popuof final appeal.

lous and well cultivated country, and the prospects on its banks being richly varied. 1783, when an earthquake had devastated Behind and above the vine-covered hills many parts of the kingdom, and men of which enclose it, loftier summits rise merit were wanted to heal the wounds of : gradually higher and higher, till the eye the provinces, Zurlo was sent into Calafinally rests on the glaciers of Glarus, bria. He was afterwards made judge. Schweitz and the Grisons. The pros- and, in 1798, was invited to become miopect is finest from the lake itself, where, ister of finance; but he declined the other. as you sail along, the scene is ever shift- The king, however, when he fled to sit ing and changing. Upon the little island ly, left him in the administration of the of Usnaa, was formerly seen the tomb of finances. The people, entertaining un. Von Hutten, who died here in 1523. founded suspicions against him, seized bus

ZURLA, Placidus, cardinal and vicar- person, and destroyed his house. After a general of pope Leo XII, born in the Ve- few months, when the royal governmer: netian territory, at Legnago, in 1759, and was reëstablished, he was made minisier appointed cardinal May 16, 1823, is of finance. The country was inundast known by his scientific labors. He spent with paper money, the credit of the several years in investigating the accounts government destroyed, and large suis of the discoveries of the Venetian travel- wanted to meet the public exigencies fers in the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- Zurlo reëstablished the finances, and returies, who opened the way for Columbus fused the rewards offered him for his ser and Vasco da Gama. He published the vices, saying that he had always found result of his inquiries in his treatises re- himself honored by his poverty. In 18 specting Marco Polo (who penetrated as his ministry came to an end. He refused far as China, and first brought to Europe every offer of the new government, unti, inforination of Japan), and a few other in 1809, Joseph made him minister of Venetian travellers (2 vols., 410., with justice. He did much within the few notes on subjects of natural history, by months that he remained in this otñce; but Rossi,1823). Ile maintains, in these works, the government, wishing to give him a that the brothers Zeno (q. v.) discovered, more extended sphere of action, made him in the northern parts of the Atlantic, the minister of the interior. This departcoasts of Newfoundland, and other parts ment required an entire reorganization. of America, a hundred years before Co- Zurlo took the best measures for the prolumbus, and that the Scandinavian nations motion of agriculture, manufactures, pubmaintained an intercourse with the new lic instruction, the fine arts, finances, &c. world as late as 1380, which they had He also put the hospital for the inside, a: been acquainted with as early as 980 or Aversa, on an excellent footing. On the 1000. The brothers Zeno collected their restoration of the old government, be arinformation on the island of Friseland, companied the queen (madame Mura: 19 which Columbus also is said, by his son, Trieste, where he separated from her: fu to have visited for the same purpose. sick in Venice, and, during his recovery, Zurla also gives the earliest Venetian made a translation of Anacreon, wtuch chart, which confirms many statements appeared there anonymously. He tter of the Icelandic saga. The cardinal has lived for three years in Rome, and, in also written treatises on the travels of 1818, received permission to retum to Cadłamosto and Rionciniotti in Eastern Naples, where he was made minister of Africa. Zurla bas had, for several years, the interior in 1820, but, in consequence the chief direction of the propaganda. of the attacks of fanatics, lost the otic From materials contained in the archives within a few months. After that time, be of this society, he prepared a discourse on lived as a private man, in Naples, where the advantages which the sciences, par- he died in 1828. ticularly geography, owe to the Christian Zurzach; a small town in the canton religion (1823).

of Aargau, in Switzerland, with 800 ir Zurlite; an imperfectly-described habitants ; 33 miles east of Basle. Here is mineral, found in mount Vesuvius, with a church dedicated to St. Veronica, who calcareous spar. It occurs in rectangular is said to have wrought many miracles i prisms, or in botryoidal masses, of an Zurzach, and to have been buried there; asparagus-green color. It yields to the whence it became a place of pilgrimage knife, but emits sparkles with steel. Spe- much resorted to by devout Catholics cific gravity, 3.274; melts with borax into (See Veronica.) It still has two fairs a black glass.

which originated from the former pilgriinZurlo, Giuseppe, count de; an Italian ages, and are much frequented by Gerpolitician, born, in 1759, at Naples. In man, Italian and French traders.

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349 ZUYDERSEE. (See Zuidersee.) tion of raising money by the sale of indulZWEIBRÜCKEN. (See Deux-Ponts.) gences. _Zwingli

, who was then preachZWINGLI, or (as it is often Latinized) ing at Einsiedeln, opposed him there, ZUINGLIUS, Ulrich, the Swiss reformer, and afterwards in Zürich, with all the was a contemporary of Luther, and was power of his eloquence, and brought the born at Wildenhausen, in the Swiss coun- indulgences into so much odium that ty of Toggenburg, Jan. 1, 1484. Ulrich Samson was not even permitted to enter was the third of eight sons of the bailiff Zürich; and the bishop of Constance, to of that place. He studied at an early age whom the vile arts of the monk were in Basle and Berne, and continued his offensive, supported Zwingli in this measstudies in Vienna, where he occupied ure. From this time, Zwingli gradually himself with philosophy, and again in went further in his plans, with the approBasle, where he devoted his attention to bation not only of the Zurichers, but of theology, under the direction of Wytten- the great body of the Swiss in general. bach. In 1506, Zwingli became parish In Zürich, his reforms were so far propriest at Glarus, and here employed his moted by the government, that, in 1520, a time, as Luther had done in the Augus- decree was issued, ordering that the Holy tine monastery at Erfurt, in the diligent Scriptures should be taught without hureading of the Holy Scriptures. He cop. man additions. In 1522, the reformation ied the letters of Paul in the original was extended to external ceremonies. In Greek, and even learned them by heart- that year, Zwingli wrote his first work an acquisition which afterwards proved against the fasts of the church, and began of great service to him in his public dis- the study of Hebrew. The offers of procussions. He accompanied the forces of motion which he received from pope Glarus during the campaigns of 1512, Adrian VI had not power to make him 1513 and 1515, in Lombardy, in the cause waver. In 1523, the government of Zű of the pope against the French, in the ca- rich invited all theologians to a public pacity of chaplain, and was rewarded for conference in Zürich, to convict, if possithis service by the grant of a pension ble, Zwingli of an error in doctrine. from the pope.

In 1516, he became About six hundred persons, clergy and preacher in the convent of Einsiedeln, laymen, were present at this disputation. then a celebrated place of pilgrimage. Zwingli exhibited his opinions in the form Here he showed a spirit far in advance of sixty-seven propositions, which were to of the age, raising his voice not only form the subject of discussion ; but the against the corruptions and abuses that objections of the celebrated John Faber, had crept into the church, and infected afterwards bishop of Vienna, appeared so the public morals, but even against the unsatisfactory to the magistracy of Zürich, pilgrimages in honor of Our Lady of that they adhered still more zealously to Einsiedeln, and calling upon the bishops the preachings of Zwingli. The second of Sion and Constance to promote a ref- dispute, in which Zwingli urged his obormation of religious doctrines, in con- jections to images and the mass with such formity with the dictates of the divine force that the former were soon after reword. At this time, however, his con- moved from the churches, and the latter duct was so far from exciting suspicion, abolished, was held in the same year, in that, in 1518, the papal legate, Pulci, gave the presence of nine hundred persons. him the diploma of acolyte chaplain to In 1524, Zwingli married Anna Reinhard, the holy see. He was, not long after, in- a widow, and, the next year, published his vited to Zürich, and entered on bis office Cornmentary on true and false Religion. of preacher in the cathedral, Jan. 1, 1519, The reformation in his native land was with a discourse in which he declared now fixed upon a firm base; and he conhimself for the use of the Scriptures in tinued the work with undiminished zeal, their genuine form, without regard to the warmly supported by the public authoriprescribed texts and lessons. At Zürich, ty, which suppressed the mendicant orZwingli delivered a series of sermons on ders, required all questions of marriage to the Holy Scriptures; and these discourses, be settled by the civil tribunals, and eswith those against error, superstition and tablished a better administration of the vice, laid the foundation for his future church revenues. In general, Zwingli work of reformation. The occasion which agreed in his opinions with the German called him forth was similar to that which reformers: like them he assumed the had aroused Luther. In 1518, Bernardin Bible as the only rule of faith, rejected all Samson, a Franciscan monk of Milan, human additions, attacked the ambition appeared in Switzerland, with the inten- and rapacity of the clergy, as well as the VOL. XIII.


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