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occasion to mention, have exhibited na. both. Linnæus, proceeding on the geoture under different aspects. Aristotle eral arrangement of Ray, but with many bas shown us the profound combination extensions and improvements, divided the of its laws; Pliny its inexhaustible riches; animal kingdom into six classes, founded Linnæus its wonderful details ; and mainly on the differences in the respiraioBuffon its majesty and power. Since ry and sanguineous systems. the time of Buffon, all the departments of zoology have been cultivated with a zeal,

Class I.-Mammalia. All suckle ibeir a minute accuracy, and an extensiveness young; the heart has two auricles and of research, before unequalled. Our limits two ventricles; blood red and warın; will not allow us to mention all those viviparous. who have distinguished themselves in

Class II. Aves (Birds). Characters the cultivation of the whole field of the of sanguineous system as in first class ; science, much less those who, confining viviparous. themselves to particular branches of it, Class III. Amphibia. Heart one auhave yet rendered most important ser- ricle and one ventricle ; blood red and vices by the exactness of their researches cold ; respiration voluntary. and the novelty of their views. Ainong the Germans, Illiger and Blumenbach blood as in amphibia ; respiration by gilk

Class IV. Pisces (Fishes). Heart and hold the first rank as zoologists; but it

Class V. Insecta. Heart one ventriis to France that we are chiefly indebted for the strong impulse which has been cle and no auricle ; sanies cold, colorless; given, in our times, to the progress of antennæ, or feelers. natural science, and of zoology in par

Class VI. Vermes (Worms). Charticular. The name alone of Cuvier, acters as in V, except no antennæ, but whose recent death (1832) science des tentacula. plores, sufficiently indicates the brilliant

He then subdivides the Mammalia into triumphs of natural history in that seven orders, the distinctions of which country. We have already treated, at

are taken from the difference in the numsome length, of some parts of this ber, form and situation of the teeth, withextensive subject, under the general heads Animals, Anatomy, and Physiology, and

out, however, neglecting the feet. of the nomenclature of particular classes ORDER 1. Primates. Four jpcions of animals under those of Insects, and in each jaw, and one canine.-GENERI: Entomology, Conchology, Fishes, and Ich- homo, simia, lemur, vespertilio. thyology, Ornithology, Reptiles, Serpents, ORDER 2. Bruta. No incisors. &c.; and we shall now proceed to give GENERA: rhinoceros, elephas, trichechus, some notice of the principal methods bradypus, myrmecophaga, manis, dasypus. pursued by eminent zoologists, with a

ORDER 3. Feræ. particular view of mastology, or the classi

Six conical incification of the mammiferous animals. The GenerA : phoca, canis, felis

, viverra, mus

sors in each jaw, for the most part.immense number of facts embraced by natural history could never be retained tela, ursus, didelphis, talpa, sorez, eriin the memory without an arrangement of divisions and subdivisions founded upon

ORDER 4. Glires. Two incisors in some distinguishing characteristics. Aris- each jaw; no canines.-GENERA : Aystotle's system of arrangement was simple, trix, lepus, castor, muş, sciurus, myoras resting on divisions derived mainly from cavia, arctomys, dipus, hyrar. the external structure, food, habits and ORDER 5. Pecora. No fore-teeth in Jocality. But though neither human nor the upper jaw; six or eight in the under, comparative anatomy was then sufficient- -GENERA: camelus, moschus, girao, ly cultivated to enable him to make the cervus, antilope, capra, ovis, bos. internal structure of animals the basis of

ORDER 6. Belluæ. Obtuse fore-terth his divisions, yet Aristotle was not insensi- in each jaw.–GENERA : equus, hippopot 3ble to the advantages of a more scientific mus, sus, tapir. distribution, and, with his usual sagacity,

ORDER 7. Cete. No uniform characrecommends to succeeding writers to turn their attention in that direction. Ray fol- ter of teeth ; aquatic pectoral fins : spirarlowed the advice of the great master, and

ula.—Genera: monodon, balana, physremarked the great distinction, that some

ter, delphinus. animals possessed lungs and a sanguine- The other classes are subdivided in : ous system, while others were destitute of similar manner. We shall enumerate

naceus.

only the orders. The distinctions of the The arrangement of Linnæus, with all Aves are taken chiefly from the beak; but its advantages, had its defects. By conthe tongue, nostrils, feet, and other parts, fining himself too much to one kind of are sometimes called in.

character, he often throws together subORDER 1. Accipitres.

jects widely remote in their general ap

pearance and economy; but he has car2. Picæ.

ried the art of distribution, and the man3. Anseres.

agement of characters, to such a degree 4. Gralla.

of clearness and brevity, that any person 5. Gallinæ.

familiarized to his language may easily 6. Passeres.

find the name and place of any being he

wishes to observe. "It still remained a de(See Ornithology.)

sideratum to arrange the facts, of which The Amphibia are divided into two orders. the science treats, in a series of proposi

ORDER 1. Reptilia. Furnished with tions, so graduated and successively subfeet, and breathing through the mouth. ordinate, that the whole might represent (See Reptiles.)

the actual relations of living beings. For ORDER 2. Serpentes. Destitute of feet, this purpose, it was necessary to group and breathing through the mouth. (See erties or organizations, so that those con

animals according to their different propSerpents.)

tained in such a group should bear a The fourth class, Pisces, is subdivided stronger natural resemblance to each othinto six orders, the characters of which er than to any individual of a different are taken from the belly-fins.

group. This arrangement is termed the ORDER 1. Apodes. No ventral fins; natural method, for the formation of embraces the eel kind, torpedo, &c.

which zoology offers great facilities. In ORDER 2. Jugulares. Ventral fins the arrangement of Cuvier, the complaced before the pectoral; cod, blenny, &c. pletest and most scientific yet presented

to the world, the great division of the anORDER 3. Thoracici. Ventral fins imal world rests on the nervous and senunder the pectoral ; sucking-fish, goby, sorial, and not on the circulatory and plaice, doree, &c.

respiratory, systems. From the study of ORDER 4. Abdominales. Ventral fins the physiology of the natural classes of placed behind the pectoral; skate, salmon, vertebrated animals, Cuvier discovered pike, &c.

the respective quantity of respiration, the ORDER 5. Branchiostegi. Gills des- reason of the quantity or degree of motitute of long rays ; sun-fish, pipe-fish, &c. tion, and, consequently, the peculiar naORDER 6. Chondropterygii. Cartilagi- to the peculiar form of their skeletons

ture of that motion. This last gives rise nous gills ; lamprey, ray, shark, &c.

and muscles; and with it the energy of The fifth class, that of Insects, is di- their sensations, and the force of their vided into seven orders, the characters of digestion, are in a necessary relation. which are mostly taken from the differ- Thus zoological arrangement, which had ences observed in the number and texture hitherto rested on observation alone, asof the wings.

sumed a truly scientific form. Calling in ORDER 1. Coleoptera.

the aid of comparative anatomy, it in

volves propositions applicable to new 2. Hemiptera.

cases, and thus becomes a means of dis3. Lepidoptera.

covery as well as a register of facts ; and, 4. Neuroptera.

by correct reasoning, founded on copious 5. Hymenoptera

induction, it partakes of the demonstration 6. Diptera.

of mathematics, and the certainty of ex7. Aptera.

perimental knowledge. Having exam

ined the modifications which take place The sixth class, Vermes, is subdivided in the organs of circulation, respiration into five orders.

and sensation in the invertebrated aniORDER 1. Intestina.

mals (a title first given by Lamarck, in2. Mollusca.

stead of the erroneous one of white-blood

ed animals, by which they were previous3. Testacea.

ly distinguished), Cuvier has formed a 4. Zoophyta.

new division, in which these animals are 5. Infusoria.

arranged according to their actual rela

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FAMILY 2.

al Descriptions (1st vol., London, 1827; COMMON PACHYDERMATA. not yet completed). Hippopotamus.

Zoophyte (from {wov, animal, and ouro, Sus (Hog).

plant), in a wider sense, comprises the Phacochærus.

five classes of animals included by CuDicotyles (Peccary).

vier in the fourth great division of the Anoplotherium (fossil).

animal kingdom, to which he gives the Rhinoceros.

name of radiated animals, from their Hyrar.

often exhibiting a radiated form of the Palæotherium (fossil).

whole body, or of some of its parts. We Lophiodon (fossil).

have described the general characters of Tapir.

this division, and the five classes of which it consists, in the article Animal. They

are termed apathica (a, without, nabos, feelFAMILY 3.

ing) by Lamarck, from their all being SOLIPED.

destitute of organs of sense, and even of Equus (Horse).

nerves, and from his considering their motions to be mere automatic phenomena,

not accompanied with feeling. They ORDER VIII.

form the division called acephala (a, withRUMINANTIA.

out, Kepadn, head) by Latreille, from their (Without horns.)

having no part analogous to the head of Camelus.

the articulated classes. In a narrower Moschus.

sense, the term is applied to the fourth (Horned.)

class of this division, wbich we have deCervus (Deer).

scribed in the article Polype.

Zootomy. (See Anatomy.) Camelopardalis (Giraffe).

ZOPYRUS ; a Persian, son of MegabyAntelope.

zus, who, to show his attachment to DaCapra (Goat). Ovis (Sheep).

rius, the son of Hystaspes, while he beBos (Ox).

sieged Babylon, cut off his ears and nose, and fled to the enemy, telling them that

he had received such treatment from his ORDER IX.

royal master because he had advised him CETACEA.

to raise the siege, as the city was impreg

nable. This was credited by the BabyFAMILY 1.

lonians; and Zopyrus was appointed HERBIVOROUS.

commander of all their forces. When Manatus (Lamantin),

he had totally gained their confidence, he Dugong (Halicorus, Illig.)

betrayed the city into the hands of DaStelleras (Rytina, Illig.)

rius, for which he was liberally reward

ed. Darius used to say that he had rathFAMILY 2.

er have Zopyrus not mutilated than twen

ty Babylons. COMMON CETACEA.

ZORNDORF, BATTLE OF; the bloodiest, Delphinus (Dolphin).

and, in many respects, one of the most Narwhal (Monodon, L.).

remarkable battles in the seven years' Cachalot (Physeter, L.)

war (q. v.), fought on Aug. 25, 1758, beBalana.

tween the Prussians commanded by Fred

eric the Great, and the Russians under Class II. Aves. (See Ornithology.) general Fermor, the latter 50,000 men Class III. Reptiles. (See Reptiles.) strong, the former 30,000. Frederic was

victorious. The Russians lost towards Class IV. Pisces. (See Ichthyology.) 19,000 killed, and 3000 taken prisoners ;

The second general division of Cuvier the Prussians 10,000 killed. Frederic comprises the molluscous animals (see was obliged, immediately after, to hasten Conchology), the third the articulated to Saxony. animals (see Entomology), and the fourth ZOROASTER, or ZERDUSHT ; the distinthe radiated animals (see Zoophytes).— guished reformer of religion in Media, Consult Fleming's Philosophy of Zoology whose doctrines also spread into Persia. (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1822), and Griffith's There are no certain accounts of bim: Animal Kingdom of Cuvier, with addition- his history is mostly enveloped in dark

ness. It is highly probable that he was spirits. Again he ruled in this world of by birth a Median, and lived under the innocence and happiness 3000 years. In Median king Gustasp, who, according to the next period of equal length, begins Hammer, was the same as Darius Hystas- ' the contest between light and darkness, pes, but, according to others, Cyaxares I. Ormuzd and Ahriman, who, in a continIf the last supposition is correci, he lived ual struggle, divide the dominion of the not much before the time of Cyrus. The world. The following 3000 years exreligion introduced by him ought not to tend and confirm the power of Ahriman : be considered as entirely new. From the afterwards his power declines; the ders investigations of Hammer, it would ap- sink to nothing; their former prince does pear that pure fire-worship (in which, homage to Ormuzd; the bad disappear. however, the fire was only symbolical) The dead arise; the primitive kingdom was the oldest religion of the Bactro-Me- of happy souls, under the government of dian race; and from this the worship of Ormuzd, returns. Thus the world is made the planets sprung. Zoroaster refined to continue 12,000 years. The twelve this fire-worship. It is not settled wheth- signs of the zodiac play a part: to each er his improvements were, at first, adopt- is assigned a thousand years. The numed by the magi only, or whether they ber seven, as presented in the seven amwere received by the Medians gener- shaspands, and seven arch-devs, including ally, and afterwards communicated by Ormuzd and Ahriman, refers to the planthem to the Persians, their conquerors. ets. The subordinate geni of the maThe latter supposition has much in its terial world are the personified parts and favor, particularly the circumstance that elements of nature. The spirits of men the Persians showed a great readiness to pass through a state of happiness before adopt foreign religions, which may have they reach the body; and, in that heavenly arisen, in a great measure, from their dei- state, contend with bad spirits, protect the fication of the powers of nature. Short- good upon earth, and are reverenced by ly after the time of Socrates, the religion them. “Men themselves are either the of Zoroaster had spread throughout Per- servants of Ormuzd, through wisdom and sia. The following are its principal doc- virtue, or the slaves of Ahriman, through trines :-From eternity there have existed folly and vice. The former pass, after cwo beings, Ormuzd and Ahriman, the death, over the bridge Shinevad, into the principles of the universe. Ormuzd is dwelling of the happy; the latter fall pure, eternal light, the original source of into hell. When Ahriman is conquered, all perfection. The nature of Ahriman, the resurrection of the body follows, and likewise, belonged originally to light; and the earth is adorned for the residence of so far he was good ; but because he en- the virtuous. The essential doctrines of vied the light of Ormuzd, he obscured his Zoroaster are found in the Zend-Aresta, own, became an enemy of Ormuzd, and the most sacred record of his religion. the father of evil, and of all bad beings, The discovery of this ancient monument who join with him in a contest with the by Anquetil du Perron, did not, at first, good. Ormuzd and Ahriman performed receive credit. He left Paris in 1755, to the work of creation at different epochs, investigate the religion of all the nations and brought into existence various spe- of Asia not professing the Mohammedan cies of beings. Ormuzd created, by his faith, particularly the inhabitants of Indisliving word, that is, the power of his will, an undertaking which he successfully erthe community of good spirits—first, six ecuted, notwithstanding numerous obetaimmortal spirits of light, for the service cles. (See Anquetil du Perron.) At Suof his throne (Amshaspand); then twen- rat, he obtained, from some learned Perty-eight subordinate spirits, representa- sians, a copy of the books of the Zend. tives of the months and days; and, at Avesta, in the Zend and Pehlvi languages last, a multitude of human souls. Ahri- The latter he studied himself, and trans man produced a number of bad spirits, lated, in conjunction with learned natives six arch-devs, spirits of darkness, and in- the Zend-Avesta into modern Persian. numerable devs of lower rank. The good Having returned to France, he gave to dwell with Ormuzd in light. Ahriman the library in Paris the manuscripts which lives with his creatures in the kingdom he had collected in India, and published of darkness. 3000 years Ormuzd ruled a translation of the Zend-Avesta into the alone ; after which he created material French language, with notes. The cele beings, in their various degrees; at last, brated Orientalist sir William Jones erman, and, after the labor, celebrated the pressed himself warmly against the extrafirst festival of creation with the good ordinary account of Anquetil; but Kleu

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