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instigation of Zisca, and threw thirteen of by means of the descriptions which were the city council out of the window on the given to him of the country. He had a pikes of the people. King Wenceslaus legion called the invincible brethren, with died of fear in consequence of this affair. which he generally decided the fate of His brother and successor, the emperor actions. He defeated a considerable army Sigismond, delayed undertaking the gov- which the emperor Sigismond sent against ernment of Bohemia, and Zisca gained him, at Deutschbrod (Jan. 18, 1422), and time to make his preparations; yet he even penetrated, in 1422, into Moravia was at first obliged to retreat from Prague and Austria. The citizens of Prague reto Pilsen. Sigismond now began to execute fusing to obey his orders, he humbled the adherents of the new doctrine, and the them by several defeats. "Only once, at Hussites, under Zisca, swore never to ac- Kremsir, in Moravia, he was obliged to knowledge him as king of Bohemia. They retreat. This was the only time that he was erected fortresses, and

Zisca caused a town ever beaten in the open field. Sigismond to be built on mount Tabor, from which offered him, at last, the government of the Hussites are sometimes called Tabor- Bohemia, with great privileges, if he ites. He fortified the new city in a way would declare for him. But during the which reflected honor on his skill

. He is negotiations, while he was occupied with also said to have invented the bulwark of the siege of Przibislaw, in the circle of wagons, by which he protected his infan- Czaslau, a pestilential disorder carried try against the enemy, as he was destitute him off (Oct. 12, 1424). The Taborites, of cavalry. In a short time, he disciplined infuriated at his death, stormed the town, bis ill-armed and licentious horde. A few and killed every living being, and burnt successful engagements procured him bet- every dwelling. Zisca bad won thirteen ter arms, and horses for mounting a part pitched battles, and been victorious in of his men. His enterprises were under- more than a hundred fights, notwithstandtaken from vengeance, religious hatred ing his blindness and age. He considered and love of plunder. He committed ma- himself an instrument of God's wrath, ny cruelties, partly in order to make him- and called the cries of the monks and self feared, partly because he was obliged priests whom he sent to the stake, his sisto yield to the wild passions of his fanati- ter's bridal song. He was buried in the cal followers. In order to defend Prague church of Czaslau ; and his favorite weapagainst Sigismond, who was approaching on (an iron battle-axe) was hung up over with a large army, he repaired thither, his tomb. It is related that the emperor and intrenched himself on the hill of Ferdinand I, more than a hundred and Wittkow. Here, July 14, 1420, he re- thirty years after, when on a journey to pelled repeatedly the assaults of 30,000 Prague, happening to visit the church of men with 4000 ; and the place is still called Czaslau, and being told that Zisca was Zisca's hill. From want of money, the buried there, immediately left the church, ensperor effected little during this cam- and even the town. The tomb was overpaign. In 1421, Zisca took the castle of turned in 1627, by order of the emperor, Prague, and there got possession of the and Zisca's bones removed. The story first four cannons, which, since the inven- of his having ordered his skin to be used tion of gunpowder, had found their way as a drum, is a fable. See Max. Millauto Bohemia. From this time, cannonser's Diplomatic Historical Essay on John and guns (though the latter could be pro- Zisca of Trocnow (Prague, 1827, in Gercured at first only by noblemen) became man); see also the article Huss and Hussites. common among the Hussites and their ZITTAU; a town eighteen leagues from enemies. Zisca continued his system of Dresden, in the Saxon province of Upper plundering in Bohemia, took several for- Lusatia, on the river Mandau, which emptresses, generally by assault

, and treated ties into the Neisse, in the vicinity; popthe conquered cruelly. After the death ulation, 8100; lat. 50° 49' N. Žittau is of Nicholas of Hussynecz, in 1421, all the the centre of an active transit trade, owing Hussites acknowledged him as their lead- to its situation near the Bohemian frontier, er and chief; but he caused the crown of and in the midst of some industrious manBohemia to be offered to the king of Po- ufacturing villages. Here are a gymnasiland. By incredibly quick marches he um, five churches, a theatre, &c. every where anticipated the enemy. Dur- ZIZANIA. (See Wild Rice.) ing the siege of the castle of Raby, an ar- Zraym; a town in Moravia, capital of row deprived him of his only remaining a circle of the same name, near the river eye. He now had himself carried about with Teya, thirty-eight miles porth-west of Vihis army on a car, so that he could be seen enna, and sixty-eight south-west of Olby his men, whom he arranged for battle műtz; lon. 16° 2' E.; lat. 48° 31' N.; population, 6000. It contains a citadel, a constellations do not now correspond to Catholic gymnasium, a Carthusian monas- their proper signs; from whence arises tery, and some good houses, but is gener- what is called the precession of the equaally ill-built.- Population of the circle, noxes. And, therefore, when a star is 135,567 ; houses, 24,298 ; families, 33,578; said to be in such a sign of the zodiac, it square miles, 1260. It is generally hilly, is not to be understood of that constellabut tolerably fertile. In the neighborhood tion, but only of that dodecatemory, or of this town, the armistice between the twelfth part of it. (See Constellations, PreFrench and Austrians was concluded cession of the Equinor, and Denderah.) July 12, 1809, which was followed by ZodiacAL Light; a triangular beam the peace of Vienna. (q. v.)

of light, rounded a little at the vertex, ZOBEIDE, or ZEBD-EL-KHEWATIN (the which is seen at certain seasons of the flower of women), was the cousin and year, before the rising and after the sete wife of the celebrated caliph Haroun al ting of the sun. It resembles the faint Rashid. (q. v.) History records her piety light of the Milky Way, and has its base and generosity, and the Persian writers always turned towards the sun, and its speak of her as the founder of Tauris, one axis inclined to the horizon. The length of the chief cities of Persia : but she per- of this pyramidal light, reckoning from the forms a more important part in the Ara- sun as its base, is sometimes 45°, and at bian Nights, in which she is a more con- others 150°; and the vertical angle is somespicuous character than in history. She times 26°, and sometimes 10°. It is geridied in 831, after having survived her il- erally supposed to arise from an anne lustrious husband twenty years.

phere surrounding the sun, and appears ZOBTENBERG; a mountain in Silesia, to have been first observed by Descartes about eighteen miles from Breslau, near and by Childrey in 1659; but it did not the small town of Zobten, 2318 feet above attract general attention till it was noticed the level of the sea, with a fine extensive by Dominique Cassini (q. v.), who gave it view from the top. According to Bű- its present name. If we suppose the sun sching, the ancient Asciburg, or Aseu cas- to have an atmosphere, as there is every tle (Asgard), stood here, corresponding to reason to believe from the luminous authe mons Asciburgius of Ptolemy. The rora which appears to surround his dise mountain is of a primary character. A in total eclipses (see Sun), it must be very block of from 7000 to 8000 cwt. was taken much flattened at its poles, and swelled oui from this mountain, which, according to at the equator, by the centrifugal force of the wish of marshal Blücher, is to cover his equatorial parts. (See Atmosphere.) his tomb in the shape of a cube.

When the sun, then, is below the horizon, Zodiac (from the Greek {wdia, animals, a portion of this luminous atmosphere because the constellations composing it will appear like a pyramid of light above are represented under the figures of ani- the horizon. The obliquity of the zodiamals), in astronomy; an imaginary ring cal light will evidently vary with the or broad circle in the heavens, in the form obliquity of the sun's equator to the horiof a belt or girdle, within which the plan- zon; and in the months of February and ets all make their revolutions. In the March, about the time of the vernal equimiddle of it runs the ecliptic, or path of nox, it will form a very great angle with the sun in his annual course ; and its the horizon, and ought, therefore, to be breadth, comprehending the deviations or seen most distinctly at that season of the latitudes of the earlier known planets, is, year. But when the sun is in the sumby some authors, accounted sixteen, some mer solstice, he is in the part of the eclipeighteen, and others twenty degrees. The tic which is parallel to the equator, and, zodiac,cutting the equator obliquely, makes therefore, his equator,and consequently the with it the same angle as the ecliptic, zodiacal light, is more oblique to the horiwhich is its middle line ; which angle, con- zon. Laplace, however, has made some tinually varying, is now nearly equal to objections to this theory in his Mécanique 23° 28', which is called the obliquity of Celeste ; and Regnier is of opinion that it the ecliptic, and constantly varies between is owing merely to the refraction of the certain limits which it can never exceed. solar light by the earth's atmosphere. (See Ecliptic.) The zodiac is divided in- Zoëga, George, a Dane, one of the to twelve equal parts, of thirty degrees greatest antiquarians of our time, was each, called the signs of the zodiac, being born Dec. 20, 1755, at Dahler, a village in so named from the constellations which Jutland, where his father was a clergyanciently occupied them. But the stars man. In 1772, he entered the gymnasium having a motion from west to east, those of Altona, and, in 1773, the university

of Göttingen. In 1776, he travelled through Grecian antiquities the time which he Switzerland and Italy, and lived during had given to the Egyptian. The Danish the winter in Leipsic. In 1777, he re- government appointed him its consulturned to his parents, and remained until general for the States of the Church ; and, 1778 in Copenhagen. He now became a few days after his death, a diploma of a tutor, and went, in 1779, with his pupil, the Danebrog order, intended for him, arto Göttingen, and again to Italy. In 1782, rived in Rome. He was professor of the he made a third journey to Italy. On his university of Kiel, and member of the return, having heard in Paris of the academies of Copenhagen, Göttingen, change of ministry in Copenhagen, be re- Berlin, Siena, Florence, Rome, &c. He solved to go back to Rome, and reside died February 10, 1809. He had eleven there the rest of his life. In 1787, he be- children; but three only survived him, came a Catholic, in order to be able to who are supported by the Danish governmarry the daughter of the painter Pietruc- ment. Mr. Niebuhr, the historian, offercioli. Zoëga undoubtedly received his ed a prize, some years before his death, first impulse to a profound investigation for the best essay on Zoëga and his proof antiquity from Winckelmann. (q. v.) ductions. He lived entirely with the ancients; and Zoilus; the name of a Thracian rhetno modern characters or events exerted orician, whose hypercriticisms on the such an influence over him. In early works of Homer have given him a very youth, he had an inclination to melan- unenviable kind of distinction with poscholy, and his temper was irritable; but terity. He was a native of the town of he overcame these propensities, and the Amphipolis, said to have been born about serene tranquillity of the Greek character 270 years before the Christian era, and teok possession of his soul. He was kind, studied under Polycrates, himself an and had a noble heart. He observed abusive and illiberal critic. The appellastrictly the external forms of religion. tion by which Zoilus delighted to be When he arrived in Rome, professor Ad- known, was Homero-mastyx, although ler presented him to cardinal Stefano his censures were by no means confined Borgia, whose favor and patronage he to the writings of the great father of epic soou obtained. This cardinal had a great poetry, but extended indiscriminately and fondness for Egyptian antiquities, of impartially to those of Demosthenes, Ariswhich he possessed a rich collection. totle, Plato, and all others whose works Zoëga, who was acquainted with the came under bis lash. His very name has Coptic language, soon began to explain now become a proverb, as applied to all these ancient monuments. In 1787, he illiberal and captious pretenders to critipublished an account of a complete col- cism. The period of his death, which lection of Egyptian coins, with full illus- was a violent one, is unknown : indeed, trations. The general approbation be- the precise era in which he lived is not stowed on this work, which furnished im- absolutely determined, Vitruvius making portant contributions to history and chro- him contemporary with Ptolemy Philanology, excited the attention of pope Pius delphus, while Ælian refers him to the VI, and he employed Zoëga in the expla- ninety-fifth Olympiad. nation of the obelisks. In 1797, he pub- Zoisite. (See Epidote.) lished, at the expense of the pope, his ZOLLIKOFER, George Joachim, one of great work on the obelisksDe Origine et the most eminent preachers of the last Usu Obeliscorum (Rome, 1797) --which century, was born at St. Gall, in Switzerprocured him great reputation. The Mu- land, August 5, 1730. He studied at the sco Borgiano Veliterno was rich in Coptic gymnasia of Frankfort on the Maine, and manuscripts. Zoëga undertook the diffi- of Bremen, and at the university of cult task of explaining them, and, in 1810, Utrecht, and, in 1754, became a clergythe fruits of this immense labor were give man at Morat, in Switzerland. In 1758, en to the public. Zoëga wrote, in the he accepted an invitation from a congreGerman language,an Archæological Guide gation at Leipsic, and remained in this through Rome; and himself accompanied situation until his death, January 20, 1788. the most distinguished travellers through During these thirty years, he did great the city. A treasure of rare knowledge is good, not only in his congregation, but also contained in his Li Bassirilievi antichi di among the students of the university in Roma, incisi da Tom. Piroli colle Mustra- Leipsic. Two hundred and fifiy of his zioni di Giorgio Zoega, in two folio volumes sermons have appeared in print. From (Rome, 1808). He often regretted, at a 1769 to 1788, he published four colleclater period, that he had not devoted to tions, in six volumes, which went through VOL. XIII.


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several editions. After his death, his re- extend from the tropics to the polar cirmaining serions were published in nine cles. They contain the most populous volumes. The whole of his sermons countries, and the climate is various. As have been published in fifteen volumes the distance from the tropics increases, (Leipsic, 1789—1804). Two volumes have the beat diminishes, the difference of the of late been translated into English, by seasons becomes greater, the days and reverend W. Tooke; also a small volume nights become more unequal, until we of his Devotional Exercises. Zollikofer arrive at a point where, once a year, the also published a Hymn Book (eighth edi. sun does not appear above the horizon tion, Leipsic, 1786), besides translations during the twenty-four bours, and, once of some English and French works. a year, does not set for the same time. Garve (q. v.) wrote on the character of The circles passing through these points, Zollikofer (Leipsic, 1788).

parallel to the equator and the tropies, ZONARAS, John; a monk of St. Basil, form the limits of the temperate zones, by birth a Greek, who lived during the and are called the arctic and antarctic cir. latter part of the eleventh and the com- cles. The distance from the tropics to mencement of the following century. the polar circles, or the breadth of the Before he renounced the world for the temperate zones, both in the northern and cloister, he had filled some distinguished southern hemispheres, is 43°. All be offices about the imperial court, but be- yond the polar circles, to the poles, is coming, at length, disgusted with its in- called the frigid zones. No land is known trigues, gave bimself up to a religious life, to exist in the southern frigid zone. The employing his leisure hours in the com- northern is habitable, though it produces pilation of a History of the World, from neither grain nor trees, but only mosses, the Earliest Periods to the Year 1118. lichens, and a few bushes. The distance In this work (of which an edition appear- from the polar circles to the poles is 2340; ed at Paris, in two folio volumes, 1687), but no one has yet penetrated to the poles he follows, principally, the narrative of themselves. Cook sailed as far as the Dion Cassius; and all the earlier part of seventy-first degree of latitude, towards the book is a tissue of fable; but, as he the south pole, which is still more inbos. approaches his own times, he becomes pitable than the north, as its winters more entitled to attention, as all his mis- occur at the time of the earth's greatest takes arise evidently more from ignorance distance from the sun. To the north, the than design. There is also extant a com- eightieth degree has been reached. (See mentary on the apostolic canons by him. North Polar Expeditions.). The charaeHis death took place about the year 1120. teristic of the frigid zones is, that day and

Zone. The whole surface of the earth night are more and more unequal the is divided into five zones—the torrid, nearer you approach the poles; and for northern and southern temperate, and days, and even weeks, the sun is above northern and southern frigid zones. The or below the horizon. (See Seasons.) torrid zone extends 231° north and south ZOOGENE (from {wov, animal, and yorum, of the equator; and, twice a year, the to produce). On the surface of the thersun shines vertically on its inhabitants. mal waters of Baden, in Germany, and This zone is bounded, on both sides of on the waters of Ischia, an island of the the equator, by the two tropics; that is, kingdom of Naples, a singular substance the circles in which the sun reaches its is collected, wbich has been called 300greatest distance from the equator. As gene. It resembles human flesh with the the rays of the sun here are nearly verti- skin upon it, and, on being subjected w cal, a perpetual summer reigns, and day distillation, affords the same products as and night, under the equator, are always animal matter. M. Gimbernat (Journal equal; and even at the tropics, the differ- de Pharmacie, April, 1821) has also seen ence is scarcely an hour. "Owing to the rocks covered with this substance, in the nature and situation, however, of the valleys of Sinigaglia and Negropont. countries in this zone, the heat is not Salverte (Des' Sciences Occultes, 182, 2 every where the same. The warmest vols., 8vo.) considers this fact as explaining portions are the sandy deserts of Africa: the stories of showers of pieces of meat, far more temperate are the happy islands which figure in the number of prodigies of the South seas, and still milder the of antiquity.—The name of zoogene is climate of Peru. This last country con- also given to a substance obtained from tains mountains from whose summits the bones, by a chemical process which was vertical sun-beams never melt the per- discovered by M. Gimbernat. Much petual snow. The two temperate zones of it was sent, in 1827, to Greece, and


much of it also was used by the French Natural History of Animals may be conarmy, on the expedition to Algiers. sidered as the source of all the falsehood

ZOOLITHES (from Swov, animal, and dedos, and error which so long disgraced this stone) : fossil animal remains, great num- branch of natural history. Apuleius, and bers of which have been found in digging Athenæus the grammarian, are the only into the surface of the earth. They names that deserve mention, from the differ from petrifactions, which are or- time of Ælian and Pliny to the beginning ganized bodies, penetrated with stony of the sixteenth century; and they added matter, or completely converted into nothing to the stock of zoological science. stony masses, by the gradual removal of At the latter period, flourished, among the organic matter, the place of which others, Belon, a French physician, who has been supplied by stony deposits. made the closest approach of any author Zoolithes have been divided into six of that time to any thing like systematic classes-tetrapodolithes, or fossil quadru- classification, in his De Aquatilibus, and peds; ornitholithes, or fossil skeletons of particularly in his De la Nature des Oibirds; amphibiolithes, or fossil remains of seaux (Paris, 1555, folio); Salviani, author the amphibia, ichthyolithes, or fossil fish; of a treatise, Aquatilium Animalium Hisentomolithes, or fossil insects; and hel- toria (Rome, 1554, folio), which is sumintholithes, or fossil worms. (See Geol- perbly illustrated; Conrad Gesner, whose ogy, and Organic Remains.)

Historia Animalium (Zürich, 1550—1587, Zoology from twov, animal, and doyos, 4 vols., folio), arranged in alphabetical doctrine); that part of natural history order, forms the foundation of modern which treats of animals. It is not con- zoology; and Aldovrandus, the most lafined to a description of the external borious of compilers, who devoted sixty forms of animals, but embraces all the years to his work on natural history, in phenomena of life and animal motion; fourteen volumes, folio, of which the the internal organization of each individ- greater part was published after his death. ual part; the processes of digestion, as- These earlier writers were followed, in similation, nutrition, secretion and repro- the next century, by Redi and Swammerduction; the wonderful instincts, the dam (q. v.), to whom entomology is so varied dispositions, and the different de- much indebted, and by Ray (q. v.), the grees of intellect, manifested in the auimal first naturalist, from the time of Aristotle, creation, from the half-vegetable zoophyte who produced any thing like a scientific up to man. Although it cannot be arrangement. The works of Ray, under doubted that the attention of men was his own name, are Synopsis Quadrupeearly attracted to an observation of the dum et Serpentum (1683, 8vo.); Synopsis habits and natures of the lower order of Avium et Piscium (1713); and Historia animals, Aristotle seems to have been the Insectorum; and he is also considered to first who furnished the world with any have had a large share in the compositions methodical information on this subject. of his pupil Willoughby. But it was reHis work slepe Zwwv 'loropiae contains a great served for Linnæus to raise natural hisnumber of facts and observations. He tory to the rank of a science. Gifted compares the organization of the lower with extraordinary powers of invention animals, in its different parts, with that and discrimination, a retentive of man, and treats of their mode of gene- memory, an unrelaxing industry, and the ration,'habits, organs, &c., with great most ardent zeal in the cause of science, elearness and sagacity; and his principal this great man observed, with the acutest divisions of the animal kingdom are so sagacity, the subtilest affinities of organwell founded that almost all of them are ized nature. The general character of still substantially admitted. Among the his works is order, precision, clearness, exRomans, zoology does not appear to have actness of description, and an accurate been at all cultivated, until the time of knowledge of relations in detail. Buffon Pliny, who is the only Roman zoologist adorned natural history with the charms worthy of notice. His work (Historia of eloquence, and was the first who exNaturalis) contains multitudes of original tended its popularity beyond mere scholtraits, though it is only a compilation, and ars and men of science. He was ocdescribes the habits and dispositions of casionally carried, by the force of his animals with great felicity. He adopted, imagination, into unfounded hypotheses; without examination, many fabulous sto- yet he had a truly philosophical spirit, ries, and too often neglected important could observe facts, and compare results, details. Æljan (9. v.) was far inferior to and possessed extensive information. The the two above-mentioned writers, and his four great naturalists whom we have had


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