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miles west from Wheeling, in Virginia, ZANNI, ZANNESCHI. (See Harlequin, sixty north-west of Marietta, seventy north- and Masks.) east of Chilicothe, and fifty-eight east of Zanotti, Francesco Maria, born in Columbus. The great Cumberland road 1692, at Bologna, was the son of a comepasses through this town. It contains the dian,' was educated in the college of the county buildings, and 3056 inhabitants. Jesuits, in 1718 was made professor of If the population of West Zanesville and philosophy, and librarian, in 1723 secrethe village of Putnam, on the opposite tary, and in 1766 president of the uniside of the river, are reckoned a part of it, versity of Bologna. He wrote poetry in the town may be said to have contained, in Tuscan and Latin verse; also five essays, 1830, 4000 inhabitants. On the falls have containing rules for the different kinds of been erected several mills, among which poetry. At the jubilee in Rome, in 1750, he are flour and saw mills, a rolling mill, a delivered a eulogy on the fine arts, in the nail factory, a woollen factory, and a steam capitol. In a second oration, he attacked paper mill

. The town has two glass fac- the first, and in a third refuted the second. tories. Two excellent bridges cross the These are distinguished for beauty of style, river.

and deep and lofty thoughts, as are all of ZANETTI, Antonio Maria, count, a dis- his philosophical and physical writings, tinguished connoisseur, who acquired especially his Morals and the dialogues great reputation for his taste and learning, on the pressure of bodies. His principal and for his talent for engraving, was born production is his Commentaries on the at Venice, in 1680. At the early age of Academy, containing a history of this fourteen, he had already executed several learned society, and an analysis of all the engravings; and, after finishing his edu- physico-mathematical treatises laid before cation, he visited the different schools of it. The Memoirs of this society contain Italy, and, at a later period, went to Eng- several treatises on geometrical, analytiland for the purpose of examining the cal, physical and musical subjects, written collection of the earl of Arundel, the by him. In his De Viribus Centralibus, he finest specimens of which he copied. He explains Newton's doctrine of the central expended his fortune in the collection of forces. A collection of his works apa cabinet of antiquities, the value of peared at Bologna in 1779. He died in wlrich may be estimated from the work 1777.-Giampietro Cavazzoni Zanotti, born of Gori upon the gems belonging to it, at Paris in 1674, wrote several works reGemma Antiquæ Zanetti (Venice, 1758, lating to the history of the fine arts in fol., with 80 plates). Zanetti likewise re- Bologna. As secretary to the Clementine discovered the lost art of chiaro-scuro academy of painting at Bologna, he wrote engraving, which had been invented by Storia dell' Accademia Clementina (2 vols., Carpi. (q. v.) Among the works of Za- fol., Bologna, 1739). He died in 1765.netti, the Lettere sulla Pittura, Scultura ed Eustachio Zanotti, of Bologna, born in Architettura (Rome, 1754, 7 vols., 4to.) are 1709, professor of astronomy there, died important, as illustrative of the bistory of in 1782, is known by his observations on art. He published several collections of comets and the form of the earth ; also engravings:-1. Antiche Statue Greche e by his optical and hydrometrical experiRomane che si trovano in Venezia (fol.); ments. 2. Icones ex Musão suo, &c. (fol., with ZANTE(anciently Zacynthus); one of the 100 plates, 1743); and, 3. Raccolta di va- seven Ionian Islands, in the Mediterranerie Stampe a Chiaro-scuro (with 71 wood- an, situated to the south of Cephalonia, cuts and 30 other engravings). Zanetti of irregular form, fifteen miles long, and died at Venice in 1766.—His nephew, eight broad; square miles, 160 ; popula

Antonio Maria, the younger, librarian of tion, 40,000. In its aspect, it is the finest St. Marks, in Venice, died in 1778, was of the Ionian Islands, presenting, when also the author of several works upon art viewed from the fort above the town of and antiquities.

Zante, a prospect of vales and eminences ZANGUEBAR; the name given to a large richly cultivated, covered with vineyards, territory of Africa, bordering on the East- olive plantations, orange, and other fruitern sea, including the countries of Melin- trees, and containing numerous hamlets da (q. v.), Magadoxo, Mongala, Jubo, Mo- or villages. The whole surface of the zambique (q. v.), and some others, ex- island presents traces of subterraneous tending from lat. 2° N. to 21° s. The fire, discovered in some parts by warm namo is said to import “the coast of the sulphureous springs, in others, by heat in negroes," all the inhabitants being blacks, the soil. It has springs of petroleum and with curled woolly hair.

mineral tar, wbich are productive. The climate, though very hot in summer, is and minor third, and, by his Instituzioni not unwholesome. The chief products armoniche (Venice, 1562, 1573, folio), laid are currants, also olive-oil, and wine; the foundation of a thorough treatment of some cotton and silk. The corn raised is harmony. As early as his eighteenth year, hardly equal to four months' consump- he appeared as an author, and wrote a tion. (See Ionian Islands.Zante, the number of works, published collectively, capital of the island, has a population of under the title of Instituzioni armoniche 20,000 souls; lon. 21° 8 E.; lat. 37° 50 N. and Dimostrazioni armoniche (1589, 4 vols, It is the largest town in the republic of folio). As a composer, he is chiefly known the Seven Islands, pleasantly situated at by a piece of music performed under his the bottom of a small bay, on a hill of direction, as chapel-master in the St. Mark's gentle declivity. It resembles in its ap- church, Venice, at the celebration of the pearance an Italian town. The principal victory of Lepanto. Much information street, which traverses it in its whole respecting the music of the sixteenth cene length, is broad and handsome, bordered tury is contained in his works; but his with well-built houses and churches, and style is not attractive. has a foot-pavement. The houses are ZARSKOJE SELó (i. e. Sara's Village, partly of brick and partly of wood, and, so called from a lady who owned it wben on account of the frequency of earth- it was yet a village) is an imperial pleasure quakes, seldom exceed one or two stories. castle, twenty-five wersts (aboui serecThe harbor is spacious; the environs ex- teen miles) south of St. Petersburg, fron tremely pleasant and picturesque. In which a highway leads to it through a 1820, several hundred houses were over- very monotonous country. Catharine I thrown here by an earthquake. The built a castle here, which Elizabeth enisland was in the possession of the Ve- larged and embellished in 1744, and to netians from the end of the fourteenth to which Catharine II, whose favorite resithe end of the eighteenth century. In dence it was, gave its present splendur. 1797, it was taken by the French, and in The large palace, three stories high, is 1799, by the Russians. In 1815, it became magnificently ornamented: even the outer one of the members of the Ionian re- cornices and other ornaments are gilt; public.

yet most of it, with the exception of what ZANTHOPICRITE; the name given to a Catharine II changed or built herself, is crystalline substance, extracted from the in an old fashioned style. Among the bark of the zanthoxilum of the Caribbee principal objects of attention, are the great islands.

staircase; the saloon, lined with mirrors; Zappi, Giovanni Battista Felice; bom the chapel ; the porcelain room; and the at Imola, in 1607, one of the best Italian amber room, in which the walls are cor. poets of his age. After having studied ered from the floor to the ceiling with law at Bologna, where he made so rapid sculptures of amber. The rooms contain progress that the degree of doctor was magnificent furniture and beautiful paintconterred upon him when he was only ings. There is also a gallery of bronze thirteen years old, he went to Rome, figures, made by artists of the Peterswhere he soon distinguished himself as a burg academy. In the gardens, which poet. He was one of the founders and are laid out in the English manner, by a chief ornaments of the academy of the German, are a hermitage, with statues Arcadians. His poems are graceful, es- and vases, Roman and Gothic temples pecially his canzoni and madrigals, but pyramids, several columns and obelisks at times artificial. Clement XI gave him monuments, and triumphal arches, which the hope of considerable benetices; but Catharine II caused to be erected to count he died in 1719, without having obtained Romanzoff and the brothers Orloff. (9.v.) them. His wité, Faustina Maratti

, daugh- The entrance of the garden is now adorter of the distinguished Roman painter ed by a colossal triumphal arch of an anCarlo Maratti, was equally distinguished tique form, consisting of cast iron, with for beauty and poetical talent.

the inscription, “Sacred to my dear com ZAR. (See Ozar.)

panions in arms,” erected by the emperor Zarlixo, Giuseppe, born in 1510 (ae- Alexander, afier the wars of 1812, 13 conding to Gerber, 15201, at Chioggia, and '14. For some more information, near Venice, on the Adriatic sea, died in see Loudon's Encyclopædia of Gardening.) Venice in 15%. He is one of the greatest Near this palace lies the town of Soin, of the theoretical musicians who preceded with which Zarskoje Selo is at present Rameau and Rousseau. He determined united, and where, some years ago, a lymore accurately the relation of the major ceum, for the education of civil otficers

was erected. The palace appropriated to him for his imprudence. But, when re this lyceum was burned down in 1820. stored to liberty, he was not permitted to

ZAUNER, Francis de, was born at Feld- return to America, being obliged, on va-, patan, in German Tyrol, in 1746. He rious pretexts, to reside in France, with a early evinced a decided taste for sculp- "pension of 6000 francs. In 1802, he reture. In 1766, he went to Vienna, where turned to Spain, and was made adjunct he worked for five years with professor director of the botanic garden of Madrid, Schletterer. He studied with great zeal; and, in 1804, director-in-chief, and proand, a proposal having been made to set fessor of natural sciences, notwithstanding up some statues at Schönbrunn (q. v.), he his anxiety for permission to revisit his offered to cast them. Prince Kaunitz native country. The revolution of Aran(q. v.) ordered him to bring within fifteen juez, which found him engaged in sciendays a model for a spring, representing tific researches, drew him into the public the three largest rivers of Austria. The service. He was nominated a member of model met with approbation. It was the junta of notables, which met at Baexecuted on a large scale; and the em- yonne in 1808. Afterwards he had the press Maria Theresa took the artist into direction of a part of the ministry of the favor. Zauner received, in 1776, assist- interior, and, finally, was prefect of Malaance from the government to go to Rome, ga until the retreat of the French army. where he studied for four years. In 1781, This event enabled him to terminate he was made professor of sculpture in his banishment. In 1814, he embarked Vienna. He improved the manner of from England, and hastened to join Bolistudying this art in the Austrian capital, var in his expedition against the Spaniards and executed a number of works; among of Venezuela. Thenceforth, Zea became others, the colossal statue of the emperor a party to all the exertions of the strugJoseph II, which the emperor Francis II gling patriots, as the friend, the adviser, caused to be erected, in honor of his un- and the political guide of Bolivar. He was cle, in the Joseph square, in 1807. It is successively intendant-general of the libone of the largest statues in Europe. erating army, president of the congress of Zauner cast the statue in a manner in- Angostura, and vice-president of the revented by himself, which succeeded per- public of Colombia, and, finally, envoy fectly. He also executed the monument extraordinary and minister plenipotentiaof the emperor Leopold II, in white mar- ry to all those courts in Europe to which ble, in the church of St. Augustine. There he might think proper to address himself, are many busts, statues and bass-reliefs by being invested with the whole representthis artist. Zauner died in 1822, in Vienna. ation of Colombia, for every species of ZEA. (See Maize.)

affairs. His commission is dated Dec. ZEA, Francisco Antonio, was born at 24, 1819. Zea appeared in London in Medellin, in the province of Antioquia, in 1820, invested with these unlimited powNew Grenada, Oct. 20, 1770. He studied ers, and, although he did not succeed in at the university of Bogotá, and, at an obtaining an acknowledgment of the inearly age, attained very distinguished dependence of his country, yet he was academic honors there. When the gov- every where heard with respect, and neernment undertook to explore the vegeta- gotiated a loan for £2,000,000 sterling ble riches of the country, young Zea was with a company of English bankers at associated with the learned Mutis in this Paris, March 13, 1822. The terms of the commission. In 1794, he was imprisoned loan were, as might be expected, rathin consequence of the freedom of his ob- er unfavorable to the new republic, servations upon political subjects, at the and, in the sequel, drew much obloquy same time with don Antonio Nariño and upon Zea. Rumors arose that his pow. other lovers of liberty. The particular ers were defective; but a full examination offence of which he was accused, was proved that the report was wholly unhaving participated in certain seditious founded, and the loan, although censured meetings and compositions, tending to the by the Colombian congress, was recog. independence of New Grenada. His trial nised and confirmed. The financial emlasted several years, during which he was barrassments of the republic ought not to held in confinement, first in America, and occasion any reflections upon the memosubsequently in Spain, whither the decis- ry of Zea, who did every thing for the inion of the cause was transferred ; and, at terest of his country which circumstances the expiration of that time, he was dis- would permit. He died at Bath, of an charged, it being considered that his long aneurism of the heart, Nov. 28, 1822, aged imprisonment had sufficiently punished fifty-two years.

while others,

Zea was now

king, as suc

ZEA-Bermudez, don Francisco de, a finally yielded to the storm, and Zea-Bela his youth, of the instructions of his rela. The apostolical faction now assumed unSpanish statesman, had the advantage, in mudez was dismissed in October, 1025. whose writings he collected for publica the head of which was placed the duke

at tion, although circumstances have pre- del Infantado. (q. v.) Zea, though a man ing the peninsular war, he resided in liberality, having no personal connexions, Malaga, and engaged in mercantile spec- family influence or party to support him ulations. He was then sent, by the cortes, in his measures, had been forced into a ambassador to St. Petersburg, where, vacillating policy, which w as ill-adapted under the authority of the

regency at Cadiz, and in the name of Ferdinand VII, country. His dismission was accounted

to restore tranquillity to the distracted he concluded with the Russian chancel: for, by some, on the supposition that he lor, count Romanzoff, a treaty of amity had lost the support of the French and and alliance (July 20, 1812), in which the English governments, by not procuring emperor Alexander acknowledged the le- the acknowledginent of the independence gality of the ordinary and the extraordi- of the American colonies ; nary cortes assembled at Cadiz, and the with more probability, have attributed constitution adopted by them, and bound to his urging that measure. himself to support the Spanish govern- sent on an embassy to the court of Dresment against France. This treaty is con- den, and remained there ti Il 182, when tained in Schöll, Traités des Pair (tenth he was appointed minister at London. La volume), but is omitted by Martens. October, 1832, Ferdinand being supposed When, however, this constitution was revived, in 1820, count von Nesselrode ad

to be at the point of death, the apos:olical dressed a note to don Zea-Bermudez, expressing Alexander's disapprobation of he had abrogated the Salice law, in tayo

of setting aside the ordinance by which the revolution and the constitution. Fer- of his infant daughter, and supporting dinand soon after sent Zea ambassador to don Carlos, brother of the and, as the Russian court siguified its this discovery, the apostolic al party were the Porte; but he was recalled in 1823, cessor to the throne. In consequence of minister at St. Petersburg, he was sent to fices of the administration, az c their places the court of St. James. In 1824, on the were filled by men of moderate and lito fall of the minister count d'Ofalia, count eral principles. Zea-Bermei diez was app Zea-Bermudez was recalled, and placed pointed minister of foreign affairs lives at the head of the ministry. The great of war, Imas of finances, &c. By another objects of his policy were, to moderate decree, the university, which had been the violence of the apostolical party, to suppressed, was reëstablished. These cover the deficit of upwards of 300,000,000 changes give hope for the regeneration of reals, to meet the requisitions of France, Spain. amounting to 58,000,000 francs, and to restore the public credit. But

ZEALAND, or ZEELAND; a province of himself surrounded with difficulties. His county of Zealand and Dutch Flanders,

found the Netherlands, comprisin s the ancient attempts to procure a loan were unsuc- composed chiefly of islands at the mouth cessful, and the absolutists, who hated of the Scheldt, namely, Schowen, Duire him for his moderate views, accused him land, Tholen, Walcheren free-masons. of favoring the constitutionalists and the South Beveland, and Wolfersdyk. The minister requested permission to retire; lying along the south bank

In this emergency, the continental part consists merely of a strip but the king would not consent to receive or West Scheldt. The prov his resignation, and he continued to rise ed north by the Hond, or in the estimation of his sovereign, partic- east and south by East Flanders, and ularly atter the suppression of a conspira- west by West Flanders and the sen; cy of the Carlists, in August, 1825. (See population in 1829, 123, 124; square against the absolutists, and especially the dleburg, Flushing, and Zierick-ser. The execution of Bessières and his accom- surface is level, and lies so plices, who were declared royalists, for necessary to protect the country from itrebellion in August, exasperated the apos- undation by strong dikes, which are kept tolical party to such a degree that the king up at great labor and expense. These

the high of

North and

of the Hood, i oceis bound

Vest Schelte

low that it is

dikes are from twenty to thirty yards in vessels cleared out from Sydney, fiftybreadth at the bottom, and of sufficient six were for New Zealand. These voyages width at the top for two carriages to pass were undertaken chiefly for the purpose abreast; yet the country has been ex- of procuring New Zealand flax; but it has posed to heavy calamities from the sea's also been customary for the vessels to land breaking over the dikes in storms. The parties on different parts of the coast, lo soil is a rich, black mould, excellent for prosecute the whale and seal fisheries in pasturage, and for the culture of madder, the bays, which are frequented, at certain flax, cole-seed, &c. The exports are seasons of the year, by the black whale corn, madder, flax, salt, meat, linen yarn, and the seal. Establishments have also rape seed and oil. The air is damp from been formed for the purpose of procuring exhalations of fresh water, productive of spars for shipping, and timber for housebilious complaints and agues. The ma. building ; and several large vessels have jority of the inhabitants are Calvinists.; been built here by English mechanics, there are, also, some Catholics, Lutherans, assisted by the natives. (Busby's Authenand Mennonists. (See Netherlands.) tic Information relative to New South

ZEALAND, or SEELAND; the largest of Wales and New Zealand, London, 1832.) the Danish islands between the Cattegat The church missionary society and the and the Baltic, separated from Sweden Wesleyan missionary society have both by the Sound, and from Funen by the had settlements on the northern island Great Belt; about sixty-five miles long for a number of years. The stations of from north to south, and sixty from east the former are at the Bay of Islands and to west ; square miles, 2800; population, Kidee Kidee, sixteen miles from that 296,350. It has no mountains; but the place. About a dozen missionaries, with surface is finely variegated, having small their families, reside here, and have eshills and fields of a fertile soil, intersect- tablished schools for the instruction of the ed by canals, resembling, in some parts, natives. These circumstances, and the diffiin summer, when the ground is covered culties occasioned by the conduct of runawith vegetation, the country of Lom- way convicts from New South Wales, have bardy. It produces large crops of corn, led the British government to establish an and has excellent pasture. Besides sev- agent or resident in New Zealand. The eral towns of considerable importance, latest accounts of New Zealand are to be it contains the fortress of Elsinore, or found in Cruise's Journal of ten Months' Helsingör, and the capital and royal resi- Residence in New Zealand (London, dence, Copenhagen. (See Denmark, and 1823); Earle's Nine Months' Residence Copenhagen.)

in New Zealand, in 1827 (London, 1832); ZEALAND, New; two islands in the and the work of Busby, above mentionSouth Pacific ocean, discovered by the ed.—The fifth volume of the Library of Dutch navigator Tasman, in 1642. He Entertaining Knowledge, entitled the sailed along the eastern coast, and sup- New Zealanders, contains a full and inposed it to be a part of the southern con- teresting view of the islands and their intinent, then imagined to occupy these un- habitants. The language of the New known regions. From the Dutch the Zealanders is radically the same with that newly-discovered country received the spoken in Otaheite, in the Sandwich name of New Zealand. In 1769, Cook group, and in many other islands of the first discovered the strait which bears his South sea. Its principal characteristic is name, and separates the two islands from the simplicity of its grammatical forms: each other, the northernmost of which is it has no distinction of gender; declencalled Eaheinomauwe, and the southern- sion and conjugation are effected, as in most Tavai-Poenamoo. They extend English, by particles, and superlatives from 34° to 47° S. lat., and from 167° to are made by reduplication. A Grammar 179o E. lon., with an area estimated at and Vocabulary of the Language of New about 95,000 square miles. Lying about Zealand, compiled by professor Lee of 300 leagues east of the eastern shore of Cambridge, was published by the church New Holland and Van Diemen's Land, missionary society, in 1820. The English these islands have recently become the alphabet is used in this work, but is much theatre of an active commerce between less suitable for that purpose than the the New Zealanders and the British colo- Indian alphabet of Mr. Pickering (of nists in that region. During the year which an account is given in our article 1830, the total tonnage of vessels cleared Writing). The New Zealanders are,

out from New South Wales for New Zea- perhaps, superior in vigor of mind and 1 land was 5888 tons; and of seventy-eight in forecast to all other savages who have

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