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the various kinds of Farms during every

a Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Month in the Year (8th ed., 4 vols., 8vo., Natural and Experimental Philosophy 1812), and, in 1784, began the publication (8vo., 1802), which contains the first pubof his Annals of Agriculture (40th vol., in lication of the general law of the interser1804)-a work which had the most im- ence of light; a Course of Lectures on portant influence upon the art of agricul- Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical ture in England, and of which a consid- Arts (2 vols., 4to., 1807); Elementary Ilerable portion was translated into French, lustration of the Celestial Mechanics of under the auspices of the government. Laplace (8vo., 1821), &c. He likewise In 1789, he was appointed secretary of edited the Nautical" Almanac from the the newly-erected board of agriculture. year 1819 to 1829. His productions in Young not only visited and examined, the department of archæology and critiwith great attention, the different coun- cism were also numerous, and are princities of England and Ireland, but also pally to be found in the Imperial Remade several tours on the continent, for view, the London Quarterly Review, and the purpose of becoming acquainted with the Archæologia. In the eighteenth volthe agricultural processes in different ume of the latter work appeared his recountries. Among his numerous cor- marks on Egyptian papyri, and the Rorespondents were his sovereign, George setta inscription, containing an attempt to III, who wrote to him under the name interpret the Egyptian part of the inscripof Ralph Robinson of Windsor, and tion. In the article Egypt, for the supWashington. Of bis numerous works, plement to the Encyclopædia, he treated we can mention only the principal :- the whole subject of Egyptian mythology, Farmer's Letters to the People of Eng- early history and hieroglyphics with land (1767), second volume under the great learning ; but we have already given title of Letters to the Landlords of Great our reasons, in the article Hieroglyphics, Britain (1771); a Six Weeks' Tour for denying him the honor, claimed for through the southern Counties (1768, 2d him by his countrymen, of having dised., enlarged, 1769); a Six Months' Tour covered and explained the phonetic systhrough the North of England (1770, 4 tem, which the late ingenious and learned vols.); the Farmer's Tour through the Champollion so ably developed. The East of England (4 vols., 1770); Tour in discoveries of Champollion were followed Ireland (2 vols., 1780); Travels in France, by two additional works of doctor Young Spain and Italy, 1787–9 (1791, 2 vols., on the wbject, under the titles, an Ac41o.); Travels during the Years 1787– count of some recent Discoveries in Hie1790 (1792); Rural Economy (1772); and roglyphical Literature and Egyptian AnFarmer's Guide (1770, 2 vols., 8vo.). tiquities (8vo., 1823), and Hieroglyphics

Young, Thomas, M.D., a distinguished collected by the Egyptian Society (folio, scholar, born in June, 1773, was educated 1823). Doctor Young died in 1829. partly at Göttingen and partly at Edin. Ypres, or YPERN; a city of Belgium, burgh. Having taken his degrees at the in West Flanders, capital of a district, latter place, he went to London, and was on the river Y-perlee, from whence it some time lecturer at the royal institution. takes its name; twenty miles south of He was subsequently appointed physician Ostend, sixteen north-west of Lisle; lon. to St. George's hospital, and, in 1794, was 2° 53' E.; lat. 50° 51' N.; population, elected a fellow of the royal society. 15,291. It is connected by a canal with Doctor Young was equally eminent in Bruges, Ostend and Nieuport, is fortified, science and in letters. He was particu- and tolerably well built. The principal larly distinguished for his great knowl- public buildings are a very large Gothic edge of the practical application of sci- town-house, an elegant cathedral, an exence to the useful arts and the business change, a chamber of commerce, and a of life; and his opinion was often called college. The chief manufactures at presfor by government, when these and kin- ent are linen, lace, cotton, thread and dred subjects were made matters of legis- silk. It is said to have contained, in the lation. In this department, besides a thirteenth century, 200,000 inhabitants, great number of papers in the Transac- who carried on a great trade in woollen tions of the Royal Society, and Nichol- cloth ; but, by the severity of the duke of son's Journal, and a variety of articles in Alva, the principal manufacturers were the Quarterly Review, and the supple- driven to England, from which time that ment to the Encyclopædia Britannica, branch of trade declined. Ypres has sussome of which were, however, on literary tained several remarkable sieges. subjects, doctor Young left behind him YPSILANTI; an old Greek Fanariot family at Constantinople, descended from the ny. (See Greece, Insurrection of.) This Comneni, members of which have several step of Ypsilanti's was connected with times held the dignity of hospodar in Mol- the plan of a general insurrection, wturb davia and Walachia.' The grandfather of was to break out simultaneously in the the princes Alexander and Demetrius, cel. Morea, on the islands, and in Constantiebrated for their share in the Greek revolu- nople. Ypsilanui hoped to promote the tion, was executed at the command of the main project by his entrance into MoldePorte, with the most horrible tortures. via. The insurrection was also hasiebed Their great-grandfather and uncle were by the enterprise of Theodore Wladimvictims of the bow-string. The father, resko. This rude but daring Walachian. Constantine Ypsilanti, hospodar of Wala- after the death of the hospodar of Walachia, was deposed by the Porte in 1805, chia, Alex. Suzzo, Jan. 30, 1821, had, with but was reinstated at the request of Rus- a band of Arnaouis, called the Walachisia. When Russia threatened the Porte an peasants and pandoors to arnis, w with war in 1806, he learned that his head order to obtain from the Porte, by means was in danger, and fled to Jassy. The of the assistance of Russia, which he Russian government assigued him and his promised them, the restoration of the family Kiev as a residence. When the ancient rights of the country. YpsiRussians advanced into Walachia, he lanti, who, however, was in no way corrhoped to recover this principality by their nected with Wladimiresko, gave his conaid. With this view, he repaired thither, panions and all the Hetairists, who has and armed the Walachians against the tened to him from Russia and Germany, Turks; but, instead of the 40,000 men the assurance that Russia would assist i whom the Russian general required of cause of Greece. But the military insurhim, he could collect only 5000. The rections in Italy, on account of which the body of Russian auxiliaries was there. congress of Laybach was convened, itfore too weak; and Ypsilanti had to es- duced the emperor Alexander to express cape, by way of Transylvania, to Russia, publicly his disapprobation of the underwhere he died at Kiev, in 1816. He taking of the Hetairists, and to summa wrote several works. His sons entered their leader, the prince Alex. Ypsilanti, to the Russian service. The eldest, Aleran- make his defence. As he did not obey. der, imperial Russian major-general, and the emperor caused his name to be struck aid-de-camp of the emperor, born at Con- from the rolls of the Russian army. The stantinople, Dec. 12, 1792, went with his Russian consul at Jassy had already, father, in 1805, to Petersburg, and entered April 9, issued two proclamations, in the the Russian service. He fought with dis- name of his sovereign, commanding prince tinction at Polotzk, in 1812, and was a Ypsilanti and his adherents to return imcaptain of hussars, when a ball, at the bat- mediately to Russia, and exhorting the tle of Dresden, Aug. 27, 1813, carried Moldavians to tranquillity and obedie Dee away his right hand. In 1814, he spent to the Porte. Mich. Suzzo was, in cutsome time in Weimar. About this time, sequence, obliged to leave Moldavia the emperor made him a colonel and his April 11 ; and the boyards sent deputies to aid-de-camp. In 1817, he received the the Porte, praying that another hospmxlar command of a brigade of hussais, and might be given them, adding the as was appointed major-general. In 1820, surance, that they would themselves he became acquainted with the Hetaireia. suppress the rebellion. Ypsilanti, when (q. v.) He joined this association, and he learned this, was on his march to Bueventually became its head. When he charest. He and his band, of about 5000 saw that the breaking out of the insurrec- men, persisted firmly in their enterprie. tion could no longer be delayed, one of April 10, he entered Bucharest, wbich his couriers having been arrested in Ser- city Wladimiresko, who would not join via, so that he had reason to fear the dis- Ypsilanti, had left, with his pandoors. covery of the whole plan, he resolved to shortly before. April 12, Ypsilanti markplant in Moldavia the standard of revolt. ed to Tergowist, where he wasted hes He crossed the Pruth with a few attend- time while Wladimiresko was negotiating ants, and, on Feb. 23, old style (March ?), with the Porte. The boyards themselves 1821, at Jassy, the capital of Moldavia, had refused all participation in Ypsilanti's under the very eyes of the hospodar attempt; and many of them had fled, with Michael Suzzo (q. v.), issued a proclama- their wives, children and property, to tion, in which he announced that on this Transylvania. Wladimiresko's insurrecday Greece had kindled the torch of free- tion was directed more against the boydom, and thrown off the yoke of tyran- ards than against the Porte. At the

same time, the three pachas of Widdin, resienstadt, in Bohemia, where they were Silistria and Brailow, with 10,000 Turkish treated with great mildness. The abovetroops, entered Walachia and Moldavia. mentioned division of Greek troops, under At Jassy, where the Hetairists had wrest- prince George Cantacuzeno, was attacked ed the administration from the boyards, by the Turks, June 25, at Stinka, on the complete anarchy prevailed. Jussuf, se- Pruth, and defeated, after an engagement raskier of Brailow, defeated the Greeks of six hours. Moldavia and Walachia at Galacz, May 13, took the city by storm, remained occupied by the Turkish troops, destroyed the French flotilla on the Dan- who committed the greatest outrages, and ube, and compelled the Hetairists, May were not entirely withdrawn from both 18, to evacuate Jassy. George Cantacu- principalities till 1826.-See Nouvelles zeno retired, with about 3000 men, with. Observations sur la Valachie, etc., suivies out opposition, behind the Pruth. Mean- d’un Précis historique des Événemens qui wbile Wladimiresko bad regained pos- se sont passés dans cette Province en 1821, session of Bucharest, where he continued par un Témoin oculaire, avec le Plan de la to negotiate with the Turks. May 28, he Bat. de Dragaschan. Par F. G. L. (Paris, relinquished the city to Kiaya Mehmed, 1822).-After prince Alexander had repacha of Silistria, and, after some incon- mained two years in Mungatsch, and four siderable skirmishes with the Turks, re- years and a half in Theresienstadt, Russia treated to Pitescht, to make advances to demanded his release, in August, 1827. prince Ypsilanti. But Ypsilanti caused This, however, was not granted until the him to be seized by captain Jordaki end of November, and then under the (called also Gorgakis, or George of Olym- condition, imposed by Austria, that the pus), conveyed to Tergowist

, and, after prince should not leave the Austrian doa trial by a court-martial, to be behead- minions. Alex. Ypsilanti died at Vienna, ed as guilty of high treason, June 7. This in January, 1828, bardly thirty-six years transaction excited much dissatisfaction of age.—During this time, Demetrius Ypand defection, because Theodore Wladi- silanti, with full powers from his brother miresko had never formally acknowledged Alexander, had repaired to the insurgents Ypsilanti's supremacy. A portion, in- in Greece. Demetrius (born Dec. 25, deed, of his Arpaouts, Walachians and 1793) entered the Russian hussar regipandoors joined the Metairists ; but the ment of guards, as a cornet, in 1815, and pacha of Brailow was soon able to enter was soon after appointed adjutant of geninto secret communications with these eral Rajewsky. As second captain (equal Arnaouts. When Ypsilanti left his forti- in rank to lieutenant-colonel in the troops fied position at Rimnik, and marched to- of the lines, he distinguished himself in wards Dragaschan, his van, of 1000 men, the campaign of 1814. He now appeared led by the brave Jordaki, being attacked as commander in the Morea, where, as by the Turks, on June 19, the Walachi- long as the Russian party had the preans and pandoors took to flight, and Jor- ponderance, he was held in respect. He daki, with a few hundred men, was took the lead in the Greek government at obliged to fall back to the sacred band of Argos, was then proclaimed prince of the Metairists. A part of the Arnaouts now Peloponnesus, and appointed general-infled, and abandoned the artillery, consist- chief in that peninsula. At the end of ing of five pieces of cannon.” At this 1822, he became president of the legislamoment, a nephew of the murdered patri- tive council. But the English party havarch Gregory (q. v.) stepped forward, and ing begun to prevail, he was removed exhorted his companions to show the from his situation in 1823, and retired sacredness of their cause by a heroic from public affairs, but on important exideath. The youths advanced in close gencies took an active part. He saved the order, and fell by files in the conflict. A Peloponnesus on the invasion of Dram Ali, few only succeeded in 'saving themselves, by throwing himself, with a band of Helwith Ypsilanti, in the fortified monastery lenists, into the fortress of Argos, and givof Costia. Thus was the flower of ing the other companies time to assemble. Greece destroyed. Alexander Ypsilanti Against the resolution of the third nationnow gave up the cause of Greece. Hav- al assembly of the Greeks at Epidaurus, ing crossed the frontiers, he was arrested requesting the British ambassador in Conin Transylvania, and, with his brother stantinople to negotiate a peace between Nicolas, conveyed as a prisoner of state to the Porte and the Greeks, which should the fortress of Mungatsch, in Hungary. provide for an independent Greek governFrom this place they were both removed, ment, on condition of a yearly tribute, in August, 1823, to the fortress of The Demetrius Ypsilanti entered a protest.

When Capo d'Istrias was appointed pres- Diario de los Literatos. His favorite liteident of the Hellenic republic, in 1828, rary occupation was the collecting of prince Demetrius received a command in Spanish proverbs, of which he brought Acarnania.-A third brother, George, born together about 15,000, from books as at Constantinople, March 21, 1794, accom- well as from the mouths of the people. panied Alexander Ypsilanti on the expedi- His Latin Grammar, on which he labored tion to Moldavia and Walachia, and shared forty years, contains rules in Spanish his misfortunes and his long imprison- rhymes, with explanations in prose : it ment—The fourth brother, Vicolas, born was not published unul after his de all, at Constantinople, August 16, 1796, was by his nephew in 1771, at Madrid, who commander of the Sacred Band. He also published, in 1774, the miscellaneous had the same fortune as Alexander and works of his uncle. He died in 1771, a George.—Of the two sisters, Catharine Madrid.—2. Tomas de Yriarte, of whom and Maria, the latter, born in 179€, de- a few words were said under the head voted to the cause of her country her Iriarte, nephew of the preceding, one of whole dowry, amounting to 350,000 the best Spanish poets of modern times, francs.—The youngest brother, Gregory was born in 1752. He first appeared as a Theodatius, born at Bucharest, in 1805, re- poet in 1770, with a comedy (Hacer que ceived his education in Paris. The an- Hacemos). This was followed by several nual incomes of the family amount to translations of French plays for the royal one and a half million roubles.

theatre, and a few original dramatic comYRIARTE. I. Juan de Iriarte, royal positions. But they are forgotten; and his librarian and member of the Spanish literary fame is founded on his Fables. academy, a bibliographer of note, was Before the publication of these, he proborn in 1702, on the island of Teneriffe. duced a didactic poem, in five cantos, On He studied classical literature at Paris. Music (La Musica), the first edition of After eight years, he went to London, wbich (Madrid, 1779) is distinguished and soon after home, where he chiefly oc- by typographical beauty. This poein is cupied himself with English literature. In writies in elegant language, bui is de1724, he went to Madrid to study law; ficient in poetical conception. Grain but his inclination to philology and bibli- ville translated it, in 1800, into French ography predominated, and, being con- In his Literary Fables (Fabulas Literarias) stantly in the royal library, then under the which first appeared in 1782, Yriarte aldirection of the historian Juan de Ferre- tacked what be considered the faults and ras the latter soon made him secretary errors of literary men. They are the of the library. The fruit of his biographi- productions of an unpoetical period, in cal studies was the catalogue of Greek which the French manner was predom:manuscripts in that collection, the first nant in Spain. They are, therefore, cold, volume of which appeared in 1764, folio, and without humor; but the language is under the title Rigia Bibliothecæ Matri- easy, and there is much variety and eletensis Cotices YSS. Joann's Iriarte er- gance in the metres. They have been Classit, recensuit, Votis, Indicibus, . Anecdotis translated into French and German. In pluribus erulgatis illustraril, dic. This 1787, he collected his works in prose and volume contains accounts of nearly verse, at Madrid, in six volumes, of which sixty manuscripts, which Constantine the first contains the Fables and La Mw Lascaris had copied with his own hand. sica. In the second are eleven Epistles. This work was completed by a second mostly satirical, also chiefly_directed volume. Yriarte also prepared cata- against the errors of scholars. The other logues of the geographical, chronologi- volumes contain, besides, a number of cal and mathematical works contained in imitations and original poems, also a metthe royal library, which appeared in real translation of the Epistles of Horace 1729 and 1730, made 'many corrections to the Pisos, with explanatory notes One and additions to Antonio's treatise on of his enemies, Juan Pablo Forper, irritated Spanish authors, &e. As a member of by his satires, wrote a bitter attack on the Spanish academy, into which he was him under the title of El Asno erudits admitted in 1742 he was very active, and (The Learned Ass). Yriarte replied with contributed many observations to the tra- his Para Casos tales suelen tener los Macstise on Spanish orthography, to the Cas- tros ofriales. In 1728, he published a tilian Grammar and the Dictionary of the comedy, la Señorita mal Criada, in which, academy. Among his Latin poems, his as in a former, El Señorito mimado, the numerous epigrams deserve mention. He Spanish crities praise the strict ob was an industrious contributor to the servance of the three unities. Yriarte died in 1794.-See Ensayo de una Bibli- and glucinum. Yttrium-for this is the oteca Española de los mejores Escritores name of the metallic base—is not oxidized del Reynado de Carlos III, por Sempere y either in air or water, at common tempeGuarinos (Madrid, 1789, 6 vols.).

ratures; but, when heated to redness, it YSENBURG. (See Isenburg.)

burns with splendor, and becomes yttria. YTTRIA is the name of a very rare YTTRO-CERITE ; a massive mineral, of earth, discovered in the composition of a a reddish, grayish-white, or violet-blue inineral found at Ytterby, in Sweden; color. It occurs in crusts, sometimes hence its name. The name of the mine- having an indistinct cleavage ; opaque ; ral is gadolinite. (9. v.) The earth may yields to the knife; specific gravity 3.447. be obtained by fusing the gadolinite with Its constituents are oxide of cerium 13.15, two parts of caustic potash, washing the yttria 14.6, lime 47.77, fluoric acid 24.45. mass with boiling water, and filtering the It has hitherto been found only at Finbo, liquor, which is of a fine green. This liquor near Fahlun, in Sweden, imbedded in is to be evaporated till no more oxide of quartz. manganese falls down from it in a black YTTRO-TANTALITE occurs massive, has powder; after which the liquid is to be a degree of hardness above apatite, a spesaturated with nitric acid. At the same cific gravity of 5.3, or 5.8, a metallic lustre, time, digest the sediment that was not and a blackish-brown color. It is opaque. dissolved in very dilute nitric acid, which Under the blow-pipe, it decrepitates at will dissolve the earth with much heat, first, but melts, by an increase of heat, leaving the silex and the highly-oxidized into a greenish-yellow slag. It consists, iron uudissolved. Mix the two liquors, according to Vauquelin, of 45 oxide of evaporate them to dryness, redissolve and columbium, 55 of yuria and oxide of iron. filter, which will separate any silex or It is found, along with gadolinite, at Ytoxide of iron that may have been left. A terby, in Sweden, but is exceedingly rare. few drops of a solution of carbonate of YUCATAN; the most easterly state of potash will separate any lime that may the Mexican confederacy, in the form of be present; and a cautious addition of a peninsula, jutting out into the gulf of hydrosulphuret of potash will throw Mexico, bounded north-west by the gulf down the oxide of manganese that may of Mexico, south-east by the bay of Honhave been left; but if too much be em- duras, south by Guatamala, south-west ployed, it will throw down the yttria also. by the state of Vera Cruz. The isthmus Lastly, the yttria is to be precipitated by which connects it with the continent of pure ammonia, well washed and dried. North America is about 120 miles wide. It is perfectly white. Its specific gravity Square miles, 30,000; population, 496,990; is 4.842. It has neither taste nor smell. chief towns, Merida, the capital, CamIt is infusible alone, but with borax, peachy, and Valladolid. The soil is very melts into a transparent glass, or opaque- fertile, and, when under proper cultivation, white, if the borax is in excess. It is in-' produces great crops of cotton, tobacco, soluble in water, and in caustic fixed pepper, the sugar-cane, indigo, maize, alkalies; but it dissolves in carbonate of and other kinds of grain. The scarcity ammonia, though it requires five or six of water in the central parts of the state times as much as glucine. It is soluble renders the crops variable; and years ocin most of the acids. The salts have the cur in which the poorer classes are driven following general characters :- Many of to seek subsistence from roots. Cattle, them are insoluble in water. Precipitates fowls, and bees, are very numerous; wax are occasioned in those which dissolve, and honey plentiful; but there are no by phosphate of soda, carbonate of soda, mines. The forests abound with wild oxalate of ammonia, tartrate of potash, beasts. The principal article of comand ferroprussiate of potash. If we ex- merce is logwood. The climate is hot, cept the sweet-tasted, soluble sulphate of the summer beginning in April and endyttria, the other salts of this earth resem- ing in September; but January and Febble those with a base of lime in their ruary are also warm. The English have solubility. When yttria is treated with some small settlements on the east coast potassium in the same manner as the of Yucatan for procuring logwood, the other earths, similar results are obtained. chief of which is at Balize. The potassium becomes potash, and the Yug, in the Hindoo theology; the earth assumes the appearance of a metal. name of the ages of the world. The duIts texture is scaly ; its color gray-black, ration of the universe was fixed by the and lustre perfectly metallic. This scaly deity at 12,000 divine years, each of which texture distinguishes it from aluminum contains 360 human years; so that the

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