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spout, large drops of rain precipitate themselves. In calm weather, waterspouts generally preserve the perpendicular in their motion; but when acted on by winds, they move on obliquely. Sometimes they disperse suddenly; at others, they pass rapidly along the surface of the sea, and continue a quarter of an hour or more before they disappear. A notion has been entertained that they are very dangerous to shipping, owing to the descent, at the instant of their breaking, of a large body of water sufficient to sink a ship; but this does not appear to be the case, for the water descends only in the form of heavy rain. It is true, that small vessels incur a risk of being overset if they carry much sail; because sudden gusts of wind, from all points of the compass, are very common in the vicinity of water-spouts.

WHISKEY; signifying originally water, but applied, in Ireland, and in the highlands and islands of Scotland, to strong waters, or distilled liquors. From these countries, the name has now spread into many others. In the U. States, whiskey is distilled in large quantities, generally from wheat, rye or maize. Potsheen is a kind of whiskey which the Irish distil illegally in their hovels. Mountain dew (q. v.) is a kind of Scotch whiskey. Usquebaugh (q. v.) is etymologically related to whiskey.

have done. 5. None of the players may take up or look at their cards while they are dealing out. When this is the case, the dealer, if he should happen to miss deal, has a right to deal again, unless it arises from his partner's fault; and if a card is turned up in dealing, no new deal can be called, unless the partner was the cause of it. 6. If any person deals, and, instead of turning up the trump, he puts the trump card upon the rest of his cards, with the face downwards, he loses his deal.-Of Playing out of Turn. 7. If any person plays out of his turn, it is in the option of either of his adversaries to call the card so played, at any time in that deal, provided it does not make him revoke; or either of the adversaries may require of the person who ought to have led, the suit the said adversary may choose. 8. If a person supposes he has won the trick, and leads again before his partner has played, the adversary may oblige his partner to win it if he can. 9. If a person leads, and his partner plays before his turn, the adversary's partner may do the same. 10. If the ace or any other card of a suit is led, and the last player should happen to play out of his turn, whether his partner has any of the suit led or not, he is neither entitled to trump it, nor to win the trick, provided you do not make him revoke.-Of Revoking. 11. If a revoke happens to be WHIST. The laws of this game, as made, the adversary may add three to taken from Hoyle, are as follows:-Of their score, or take three tricks from the Dealing. 1. If a card is turned up in revoking party, or take down three from dealing, the adverse party may call a new their score; and if up, notwithstanding deal, if they think proper; but if either the penalty, they must remain at nine: of them have been the cause of turning the revoke takes place of any other score up such card, then the dealer has the op- of the game. 12. If any person revokes, tion. 2. If a card is faced in the deal, and discovers it before the cards are there must be a fresh deal, unless it hap- turned, the adversary may call the highest pens to be the last deal. 3. It is the duty or lowest of the suit led, or call the card of every person who plays, to see that he then played, at any time when it does not has thirteen cards. If any one happens to cause a revoke. 13. No revoke can be have only twelve, and does not find it out claimed till the trick is turned and quitted, till several tricks are played, and the rest or the party who revoked, or his partner, have their right number, the deal stands have played again. 14. If a revoke is good, and the person who played with the claimed by any person, the adverse party twelve cards is to be punished for each re- are not to mix their cards upon forfeiture voke, provided he has made any. But if of the revoke. 15. No person can claim any of the rest of the players should hap- a revoke after the cards are cut for a new pen to have fourteen cards, in that case the deal.-Of calling Honors. 16. If any deal is lost. 4. The dealer should leave person calls, except at the point of eight, his trump card upon the table till it is his the adversary may call a new deal if they turn to play; and after he has mixed it think proper. 17. After the trump card with his other cards, no one has a right to is turned up, no person must remind his demand what card was turned up, but partner to call, on penalty of losing one may ask what is trumps. In consequence point. 18. No honors in the preceding of this law, the dealer cannot name a deal can be set up, after the trump card wrong card, which otherwise he might is turned up, unless they were before

claimed. 19. If any person calls at eight, and his partner answers, and the adverse party have both thrown down their cards, and it appears they have not the honors, they may either stand the deal or have a new one. 20. If any person answers without having an honor, the adversary may consult, and stand the deal or not. 21. If any person calls at eight, after he has played, it is in the option of the adverse party to call a new deal.-Of separating and showing the Cards. 22. If any person separates a card from the rest, the adverse party may call it, provided he names it and proves the separation; but if he calls a wrong card, he or his partner are liable for once to have the highest or lowest card called in any suit led during that deal. 23. If any person, supposing the game lost, throws his cards upon the table, with their faces upwards, he may not take them up again, and the adverse party may call any of the cards when they think proper, provided they did not make the party revoke. 24. If any person is sure of winning every trick in his hand, he may show his cards; but he is then liable to have them called.-Of omitting to play to a Trick. 25. If any person omits playing to a trick, and it appears he has one card more than the rest, it is in the option of the adversary to have a new deal.-Respecting who played a particular Card. 26. Each person, in playing, ought to lay his card before him; and if either of the adversaries mix their cards with his, his partner may demand each person to lay his card before him, but not to inquire who played any particular card.

WHISTON, William, an English divine and mathematician, born in 1667, studied at Clare hall, Cambridge, where he applied himself particularly to mathematics, and displayed his predominant disposition by composing religious meditations. Having taken his first degree in 1600, he was chosen a fellow of his college, and became an academical tutor. Entering into holy orders, he was appointed chaplain to doctor Moore, bishop of Norwich. In 1606, he published a The ory of the Earth, on the principles of the Newtonian philosophy. In 1700, he was appointed deputy professor of mathematics at Cambridge, by sir Isaac Newton, who, three years after, resigned the professorship in his favor. In 1706, he published an Essay on the Revelation of St. John; and the next year, he became Boylean lecturer; and his sermons on that occasion, on the Accomplishment of

Scripture Prophecies, were printed in 1708 (8vo.). He had now conceived doubts concerning the doctrine of the Trinity; and, having at length adopted Arian opinions, he was expelled from the university in 1710, and, the following year, was deprived of his professorship. He then removed to the metropolis, and gave lectures on astronomy; but the publication of his Primitive Christianity revived, in 1712 (5 vols., 8vo.), subjected him to the notice of the convocation, and he was prosecuted as a heretic, though the proceedings were ultimately termnated by an act of grace in 1715. Being refused admission to the sacrament at hus parish church, he opened his own house for public worship, using a liturgy of hus own composition; and towards the close of his life he became a Baptist. In 1719, he published a letter On the Eternity of the Son of God and his Holy Spirit, which prevented him from being chosen a fellow of the royal society, where he was proposed as a candidate in 1720. He subsequently distinguished himself by an abortive attempt to discover the longitude, and by his professed opinions re iative to an approaching millennium, and the restoration of the Jews. Among has latest labors were his Memoirs of My own Life (1749-50, 3 vols., 8vo.). He died in London in 1752. Besides numerous original productions, he published a translation of the works of Josephus, with notes, dissertations, &c.

WHITAKER, John, an English divine and antiquary, born at Manchester about 1735, was educated at Oxford, and became a fellow of Corpus Christi coll- ge. He began to distinguish himself as an inquirer into English antiquities, by the publication, in 1771, of the first volurde of his History of Manchester, incluing disquisitions relative to the state of Britain under the dominion of the Romans, The same year appeared his Genuine History of the Britons asserted; and this was followed, in 1775, by the second volume of his former work, relating to the Saxon period of English history. Having taken orders, he obtained, in 177×, the college living of Ruan Lany horne, an Cornwall. He published, in 1783, a course of sermons on death, judgment, heaven and hell; and, in 1787, appeared his Mary Queen of Scots vindicated (3 vols, Evo.), which exhibits much research and zeal for the memory of Mary. Among the later productions of his pen weze The Course of Hannibal over the Aig ascertained (2 vols., evo.); The Ong=

of Arianism disclosed; The Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall historically surveyed (2 vols., 4to.); and Gibbon's History reviewed (1791, 8vo.). He was a contributor to the English and Anti-Jacobin Reviews, and the British Critic. His death took place in October, 1808.

WHITBREAD, Samuel, for several years a leading member of the house of commons, was the son of an eminent brewer of the same name, to whose extensive business he succeeded. He was born in London, in 1758, and was educated at Eton, whence he was removed to St. John's college, Cambridge; after which he made the tour of Europe, under the care of Mr. Coxe. Soon after his return, he married the daughter of sir Charles (afterwards earl) Grey, and, in 1790, was returned to the house of commons for the borough of Steyning; but for the greater part of his life, he represented the town of Bedford, in which borough and county he possessed a large landed property. He immediately became an active member of the opposition headed by Mr. Fox, but distinguished himself by acting, on many occasions, agreeably to his own views, independently of his party. For many years, he was esteemed one of the most shrewd and vigorous opponents of the Pitt administration, and of the war growing out of the French revolution. He was also the conductor of the impeachment against lord Melville, which, although terminating in acquittal, threw a shade over the close of that statesman's life, and proved a source of extreme concern to the premier. Of the political opinions of Mr. Whitbread, those who study the history of the period in which he acted a very conspicuous part in parliament, will judge by their own; but few will be disposed to deny him the praise of being, for many years, a most able, useful and active senator. The close of his life was melancholy: an over-anxious attention to business in general, but, more especially, to the intricate concerns of Drury lane theatre, produced a temporary aberration of intellect, during which, he suddenly terminated his own life, in 1815.

WHITBY; a seaport of England, in the north riding of Yorkshire, situated at the mouth of the Esk, on the German sea; 46 miles north-east of York, 243 north of London; lon. 1° 55′ W.; lat. 54° 30 N.; population, in 1821, 10,275; in 1831, 11,720. The Esk forms the harbor, and divides the town into two nearly equal parts, connected by a draw-bridge, so constructed as to admit ships of 500 tons 14


to pass. By the reform act of 1832, it was constituted a borough, returning one member to parliament. Whitby carries on a great trade in coals, and also exports various articles of provision, tallow, &c.; and the alum works in the neighborhood employ a great number of hands. Shipbuilding is carried on here extensively. The immense mountain of alum rock, and the works for preparing alum, are interesting objects.

WHITBY, Daniel, a learned divine, born in 1638, and died in 1726, was a fellow of Trinity college, Oxford. Having distinguished himself by his zeal in attacking the Catholic writers, he was rewarded by bishop Ward with a prebend in Salisbury cathedral. He took his doctor's degree, but soon after incurred censure for a treatise entitled the Protestant Reconciler. He continued his literary labors, and produced a Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testament (2 vols., folio); and a treatise on the " Five Points" controverted

between the Arminians and Calvinists (8vo., 1710). Towards the close of his life, a complete revolution took place in his literary opinions: he became an Arian, and had a dispute on the subject with doctor Waterland. He left a book called the Last Thoughts of Doctor Whitby.

WHITE. (See Colors.)

WHITE, Henry Kirke; a youthful poet of distinguished ability, who was born at Nottingham, March 21, 1785. He was the son of a butcher, and was intended for the same occupation; but the delicacy of his constitution occasioned his destination to be changed for the more sedentary employment of a stocking-weaver. From his infancy, he manifested an extraordinary love of learning, and, at the age of fourteen, produced specimens of poetry worthy of preservation. He was now removed from the stocking-loom to be placed in an attorney's office, and devoted his spare time to the study of Latin and Greek. Increase of knowledge inspired him with the desire to obtain more favorable opportunities for improving his talents; and the advantage of a university education, with the prospect of entering the church, became the great object of his ambition. At length, through the generosity of Mr. Wilberforce, and the exertions of the reverend Charles Simeon, he was admitted a student of St. John's college, Cambridge. There he applied himself to his studies with such unremitting labor, that his health became deranged, and he died Oct. 19, 1806, deeply lamented, both on account of his virtues and his

talents. He published, in 1803, a poem called Clifton Grove; and, after his death, his Remains, consisting of poems, letters and fragments, were edited by Robert Southey (2 vols., 8vo.).

WHITE ANTS. (See Termites.)
WHITE BEAR. (See Bear.)

WHITE HORSE VALE; a vale in England, in Berkshire, so called from the figure of a horse in a galloping posture, cut in the side of a chalky hill, as is supposed in memory of a great victory gained by Alfred over the Danes in the year 871. The villagers in the neighborhood have a custom, from time immemorial, of assembling about midsummer for what they term "scouring the horse," when they remove every weed or obstacle that may have obstructed his figure, and retire to spend the evening in various rural sports.

WHITE LEAD. (See Ceruse.)

WHITE MOUNTAINS; the highest mountains in the U. States east of the Mississippi, situated in the northern part of New Hampshire, nearly in the centre of the county of Coos, and extending about twenty miles from north-east to southwest, being the most elevated summits of a long range that extends much farther in a south-west direction. Their base is eight or ten miles broad. They are about twenty-five miles south-east of Lancaster, seventy north of Concord, eighty-two north-by-west from Portsmouth; lat. 44° 15 N.; lon. 71° 20 W. They are covered with ice and snow nine or ten months in the year; and, although more than sixty miles from the nearest part of the Atlantic coast, are distinctly seen for a considerable distance at sea. The highest peak is called mount Washington. The next, south of this, is Monroe; the next, farther south, is Franklin; and Pleasant is the third in that direction. The first north of Washington is Jefferson; the second is Adams; the eastern part is Madison. These are the names commonly given to the principal peaks. Their elevation has been a subject of much speculation. It was formerly supposed to be ten or eleven thousand feet; but the barometrical measurements of captain Partridge, and those of Brackett and Weeks, by means of a spirit level, so nearly agree, that we have no longer any reason to doubt that their height was greatly overrated. The measurements of captain Partridge are here given, and the mountains are arranged from north to south:

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The elevations here given are estimated from the level of the ocean. Subsequent measurements made by captain Partridge do not perfectly agree with these. These mountains are decidedly of primitive formation. The three highest peaks are composed entirely of fragments of rocks, heaped together in confusion, but pretty firmly fixed in their situations. They consist of granite and gneiss, and are excessively rough, from the great size of the crystals. There is considerable mica in most of them, and in some it is very abundant. The granite contains emeralds, tourmaline and garnets. Crystals of quartz, pyrites, jasper, porphyry, magnetic iron ore, and several other fossils, are found in very small quantities. No indications of volcanoes have been discovered. In sublimity of scenery, these mountains far excel any others in New England; and it has become fashionable to visit them during the warmest months. Some of the largest rivers of New England originate in these mountains. The Saco flows from their eastern side; the branches of the Ameriscoggin from the north; the Amonoosuck, from the west, flows into the Connecticut; and the Pemigewasset flows from the south, and is the principal branch of the Merrimack. Trees are found on the sides of these mountains; but, as the traveller ascends, he sees the vegetation become small and meagre, and it ceases before he reaches the highest summits.-The Notch of the White Mountains is a very narrow defile, extending two miles in length, between two huge cliffs. The entrance of the chasm is formed by two rocks standing perpendicular at the distance of twenty-two feet from each other, one twenty-two, and the other twelve feet high. The mountain, otherwise a continued range, is here cloven asunder, opening a passage for the waters of Saco river. The gap is so narrow that space has with difficulty been obtained for the road from Lancaster to Portland. About half a mile from the entrance of the Notch is seen a most beautiful cascade issuing from a mountain on the right,

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WHITE PLAINS; a post-township, and half shire town, of Westchester county, New York, thirty miles from the city, six east of the Hudson, and fourteen south of Bedford. This place was rendered memorable by a battle fought here, Oct. 28, 1776, between the American and British troops, and by many other important incidents of that period.

WHITE RENT. (See Quit Rent.) WHITE RIVER, in Arkansas, has its source in the Black mountains, which divide its waters from those of the Arkansas. The western branches rise, and run a long distance, in Missouri. It receives many large tributaries, and traverses much valuable territory. Its waters are remarkably pure and transparent. Where it flows into the Mississippi, it is 300 yards wide. It is supposed to be navigable for boats 1200 miles; but this is only 500 miles in a direct line. The country on its banks has been sufficiently explored to prove that it affords every inducement to settlers; but no extensive settlements have yet been made. About seven miles from its mouth, it gives off a bayou as broad as itself, that runs at right angles with it, and flows through a deep, inundated forest, and unites with the Arkansas. It strikes that river thirty miles from its mouth. It is not navigable in the latter part of summer; but, at other times, boats which descend the Mississippi with the intention of ascending the Arkansas, always proceed through the White river and this bayou. The Arkansas does not receive this tribute constantly from the White: the bayou runs either way, according to the level of the water at its two ends. The White river will probably furnish water-power for immense manufacturing establishments at a period not far distant.

WHITE SEA; a large gulf of the Arctic ocean, between the peninsula of Canin and the coast of Lapland. It penetrates into the Russian territory, to the depth of between 300 and 400 miles. Its shape is long and narrow; its greatest extent from west to east. It extends from lon. 32° to 46° E., and from lat. 63° 45′ to 68°

25 N. It receives its name from its being frozen over and covered with snow during the greater part of the year. It is navigable only from the middle of May to the end of September. The shores are surrounded by rocks and small islands; and about thirty rivers, among which the principal are the Northern Dwina, the Onega, and the Mezene, empty themselves into the sea. The mouth of the latter forms a bay, on which is situated the town of Mezene. The Dwina enters the sea by two mouths, which are separated by an island. Upon its banks lies Archangel (q. v.), founded in 1584, and the commercial emporium of this region. Among the islands of the White sea, the largest is the Solovetskoi or Soloffski isle, in the bay of Onega. Two canals, uniting the Dwina with the Wolga and the Dnieper, connect the White sea with the Caspian and Black seas.

WHITE SWELLING, or HYDARTHRUS (from dwp, water, and apopov, a joint). Systematic writers have generally distinguished this terrible disease into two kinds, namely, rheumatic and scrofulous. The last species of the disease they also distinguish into such tumors as primarily affect the bones, and then the ligaments and soft parts; and into other cases, in which the ligaments and soft parts become diseased before there is any morbid affection of the bones. The knee, ankle, wrist and elbow are the joints most subject to white swellings. The pain is sometimes vehement from the very first; in other instances, there is hardly the least pain in the beginning of the disease. Sometimes the pain continues without interruption; sometimes there are intermissions; and, in other instances, the pain recurs at regular times, so as to have been called, by some writers, periodical. At the commencement of the disease, in the majority of instances, the swelling is very inconsiderable, or there is even no visible enlargement whatever. In the little depressions naturally situated on each side of the patella, a fulness first shows itself, and gradually spreads all over the affected joint. The patient, unable to bear the weight of his body on the disordered joint, in consequence of the great increase of pain thus created, gets into the habit of only touching the ground with his toes; and the knee, being generally kept a little bent, in this manner, soon loses the capacity of becoming extended again. When white swellings have lasted a while, the knee is almost always found in a permanent state of flexion. In scrofulous

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