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suppress tumults of the rabble, instigated vols., 4to., 1829). The second ground of by the vehicles of tory sentiment, annu- division, which separated the British naally exported from Oxford, and dispersed tion into the whig and tory parties, could over the kingdom, they armed the magis- not be said to have any existence after trates with additional
, and, till then, un- the accession of George III, the first known powers; and, to defeat the enter- Hanoverian prince who could boast of prises of foreign princes, acting in con- being born an Englishman ;* and, although junction with the disaffected at home, the names remained to indicate a distincthey maintained a standing army in time tion, it would not be easy to point out any of peace.” The riot act was passed, the very decided difference between the factriennial act repealed, and the habeas tions, other than that of the outs and that corpus act suspended by the whigs, on of the ins, or the ministerial party and the the accession of the house of Hanover, opposition. The liberals and radicals of and a shameless system of corruption and more recent times have lately come forlaxity of political principle introduced, ward with new vigor; and even the names the whole extent of which has but re- of whig and tory are not probably descently been fully exposed to public view. tined long to survive the passage of the Walpole was finally compelled to retire, reform act. by the united opposition of a party of Whin, in English agriculture; a term disaffected whigs, acting under lord Car- sometimes applied to furze ; which, when teret (afterwards Granville) and Mr. Pulte- cut in the sap, and bruised in a proper way, ney (9. v.), the tories led by Wyndham, by flails, or in other modes, makes exceland the Jacobites by Shippen, who, Wal- lent green fodder, in winter, for horses. pole used to say, was the only man whose It is also useful, in some measure, to price he did not know. The whigs still sheep stock, as well as to bees. retained the power; and, after some WHIPPING. (See Flagellation.) changes, the Pelham administration was WHIPPLE, William, a signer of the formed, in 1743, by the nomination of Declaration of Independence, was born Henry Pelham to the place of first lord at Kittery, Maine, in 1730. After receivof the treasury. “A more inglorious pe- ing as good an education as the public riod of our annals,” says the writer last school of his native town could afford, quoted, “is scarce to be found, than from he entered on board a merchant vessel, this year to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle and, during several years, was engaged in (1748defeats and disasters abroad, re- making voyages for commercial purposes, bellion (that of 1745) and discontent at principally to the West Indies. He achome, no concert or activity in the gov- quired in this way a considerable fortune, emment-the king thwarting his minis- and, abandoning the sea in 1759, comlers at every step, and openly giving his menced business with a brother at Portscountenance to their enemies—his min- mouth, New Hampshire, where he conisters occupied with their mutual jeal tinued' in trade until within a few years ousies and hatreds, neglecting the busi- of the revolution. In January, 1775, he ness of the nation, and, at length, in the was a representative of Portsmouth, in midst of a rebellion which had grown to the provincial congress assembled at Exa formidable height from their supineness eter, for the purpose of electing delegates and incapacity, resigning, in a body (Feb., to the continental congress in Philadel1746), to force Mr. Pitt into office, whom phia, and of a second provincial congress they equally feared and hated.” The which met at the same place in the death of Mr. Pelbam, in 1754, was fol- ensuing May, by which he was appointlowed by new dissensions and political ed one of the provincial committee of intrigues-a mere scramble for office- safety. In 1776, he was placed in the terminated by the formation of the Pitt general congress, and continued a mem(see Chatham) and Newcastle (brother of ber until September, 1777. In 1777, the Pelham) administration, in 1757. This assembly of New Hampshire placed him ministry, which was forced upon the at the head of one of the brigades organking, in direct opposition to his own ized in consequence of the progress of wishes, carried England triumphantly Burgoyne. He joined Gates's army, and, through the seven years' war, but was in the battle of Saratoga, commanded the dissolved in 1761, on the accession of George III. (9. v.)—See Walpole's Me- * George I could not speak English, and Walmoirs of the last ten years of the Reign of pole and ihe monarch were obliged to converse
in Latin. George I and II were both more ocGeorge II (2 vols., 4to., 1822); and Coxe's cupied with German
politics than with the doMemoirs of the Pelham Administration (2 mestic government of their English dominions.
New Hampsluire troops. He was em- been employed chiefly in the army, to ployed to assist in arranging the terms of punish titling offences, committed by suicapitulation, and in conducting the sur- lers, Jews, brawling women, and such rendered army to their encampment on persons. It is a kind of circular wooden Winter hill, in the vicinity of Boston. In cage, turning on a pivot, and, when set 1778, he shared in the unsuccessful expe- in motion, whirling round with such dition to Rhode Island, under general velocity that the delinquent becomes exSullivan. In 1780, he was chosen a rep- tremely sick. The punishment was graresentative to the general assembly of erally public. This instrument is some New Hampshire, and was several times times used in insane hospitals, to overreëlected. In 1782, he was appointed by come the obstinacy of lunatics. Mr. Morris, the superintendent of finance, WHIRLPOOL. When two opposite curreceiver of public moneys for New rents, of about equal force, meet, they Hampsbire--an office which infirm health sometimes, especially in narrow channel obliged him to relinquish in 1784. In turn upon a centre, and assume a spinal the former year, he was also appointed a form, giving rise to eddies or whirlpwkm judge of the superior court of judicature. The most celebrated of these are the EuHe died in November, 1785.
ripus, near the island of Eubora, in the WHIP-POOR-WILL (caprimulgus rocise- Grecian Archipelago; Charybdis (q. *.! rus, Wilson). This remarkable and well- in the strait between Sicily and Italy; and known bird arrives in the Middle States the Maelstrom (q. v.)off the coas of about the close of April or the beginning Norway. When agitated by tndes or of May, and continues his migrations to winds, ihey sometimes become dang tua the centre of-Massachusetts. In the in- to navigators. terior, it is said to proceed as bigh as Hud- WHIRLWINDS sometimes arise from soti's bay. It is a nocturnal bird, and winds blowing among lofty and precipes continues the cry, from which it dérives tous mountains, the form of which intii its name, till midnight, except in moon- ences their direction, and occasions guss light nights. The whip-poor-will
, when to descend with a spiral or whirling engnged in its nocturnal rambles, is seen motion. They are frequently, howevre. to fly within a few feet of the surface of caused by two winds meeting each othet the earth, in quest of moths and other at an angle, and then turning upon aainsects. During the day, these birds re- tre. When two winds thus encour.trr tire into the darkest woods, usually on one another, any cloud which happens high grounds, where they pass the time to be between them is, of course, Coin silence and repose, the weakness of densed, and turned rapidly round; and 2.1 their sight compelling them to avoid the substances, sufficiently light, are carti glare of the light. Their food appears up into the air by the whirling me to be large moths, beetles, grasshoppers, which ensues. The action of a whiriants, and such insects as frequent the wind at sea occasions the curious pabe bark of decaying timber. Sometimes, in nomenon called a water-spout, wbuch >> the dark, they will skim within a few thus described by those who have it. feet of a person, making a low chatter as pessed it:- From a dense cloud acce they pass. They also, in common with descends, in the form of a trumpat, with other species, flutter occasionally round the small end downwants: at the same domestic cattle, to catch the insects which time, the surface of the sea under its approach or rest on them; and hence the agitated and whirled round, the waters mistaken notion of their sucking goats are converted into vapor, and asero, The whip-poor-will is nine and a half with a spiral motion, till they unite w 1*5 inches long, and nineteen in the stretch of the cone proceeding from the cloud: frr. the wings; mouth very large, and beset quently, however, they diwner before along the sides with a Duinber of long, the junction is effected. Both cour thick bristles, the longest extending more diminish towards their point of exotas, than half an inch beyond the point of the where they are not above thrre or timer bill; the plumage above intricately vurie- feet in diameter. In the middle of the gated with black, brownish-white and rust cone forming the wnter-spout, there is a color, sprinkled with numerous streaks white transparent tube, which teure and spots.
less distinct on approaching it; anet is WHIRLIGIG; an instrument of punish- then discovered to be a vacant qnce, :17 ment, frequently used in the middle ages, which none of the small particles i and, in later times, on the continent of water ascend; and in this, as we! 2. Europe. In England, it seems to have around the outer edges of the maker
spout, large drops of rain precipitate have done. 5. None of the players may themselves. In calm weather, water- take up or look at their cards while they spouts generally preserve the perpendic- are dealing out. When this is the case, ular in their motion; but when acted on the dealer, if he should happen to miss by winds, they move on obliquely. Some- deal, has a right to deal again, unless it times they disperse suddenly; at others, arises from his partner's fault; and if a they pass rapidly along the surface of the card is turned up in dealing, no new deal sea, and continue a quarter of an hour or can be called, unless the partner was the more before they disappear. A notion cause of it. 6. If any person deals, and, has been entertained that they are very instead of turning up the trump, he dangerous to shipping, owing to the de- puts the trump card upon the rest of scent, at the instant of their breaking, of his cards, with the face downwards, he a large body of water sufficient to sink a loses his deal.— Of Playing out of Turn. ship; but this does not appear to be the 7. If any person plays out of his turn, it case, for the water descends only in the is in the option of either of his adversaform of heavy rain. It is true, that small ries to call the card so played, at any time vessels incur a risk of being overset if in that deal, provided it does not make they carry much sail; because sudden him revoke; or either of the adversaries gusts of wind, from all points of the may require of the person who ought to compass, are very common in the vicinity have led, the suit the said adversary may of water-spouts.
choose. 8. If a person supposes he has WHISKEY; signifying originally water, won the trick, and leads again before his but applied, in Ireland, and in the high- partner has played, the adversary may lands and islands of Scotland, to strong oblige his partner to win it if he can. waters, or distilled liquors. From these 9. If a person leads, and his partner countries, the name has now spread into plays before his turn, the adversary's many others. In the U. States, whiskey partner may do the same. 10. If the ace is distilled in large quantities, generally or any other card of a suit is led, and the from wheat, rye or maize. Potsheen is last player should happen to play out of a kind of whiskey which the Irish distil his turn, whether his partner has any of illegally in their hovels. Mountain dew the suit led or not, he is neither entitled (q. v.) is a kind of Scotch whiskey. Us- to trumpit, nor to win the trick, provided quebaugh (q. v.) is etymologically related you do not make him revoke.- Of Reto whiskey.
voking. 11. If a revoke happens to be Whist. The laws of this game, as made, the adversary may add three to taken from Hoyle, are as follows:-of their score, or take three tricks from the Dealing. 1. If a card is turned up in revoking party, or take down three from dealing, the adverse party may call a new their score; and if up, notwithstanding deal, if they think proper; but if either the penalty, they must remain at nine: of them have been the cause of turning the revoke takes place of any other score up such card, then the dealer has the op- of the game. 12. If any person revokes, tion. 2. If a card is faced in the deal, and discovers it before the cards are there must be a fresh deal, unless it hap- turned, the adversary may call the highest pens to be the last deal. 3. It is the duty or lowest of the suit led, or call the card of every person who plays, to see that he then played, at any time when it does not has thirteen cards. If any one happens to cause a revoke. “13. No revoke can be have only twelve, and does not find it out claimed till the trick is turned and quitted, till several tricks are played, and the rest or the party who revoked, or his partner, have their right number, the deal stands have played again. 14. If a revoke is good, and the person who played with the claimed by any person, the adverse party twelve cards is to be punished for each re- are not to mix their cards upon forfeiture voke, provided he has made any. But if of the revoke. 15. No person can claim any of the rest of the players should hap- a revoke after the cards are cut for a new pen to have fourteen cards, in that case the deal.--Of calling Honors.
16. If any deal is lost. 4. The dealer should leave person calls, except at the point of eight, his trump card upon the table till it is his the adversary may call a new deal if they turn to play; and after he has mixed it think proper. 17. After the trump card with his other cards, no one has a right to is turned up, no person must remind his demand what card was turned up, but partner to call, on penalty of losing one may ask what is trumps. In consequence point. 18. No' honors in the preceding of this law, the dealer cannot name a deal can be set up, after the trump card wrong card, which otherwise he might is turned up, unless they were before
claimed. 19. If any person calls at eight, Scripture Prophecies, were printed in and his partner answers, and the adverse 1708 (8vo.). He had now conceived party have both thrown down their cards, doubts concerning the doctrine of the and it appears they have not the honors, Trinity; and, having at length adopted they may either stand the deal or bave à Arian opinions, he was expelled from the new one. 20. If any person answers university in 1710, and, the following without having an honor, the adversary year, was deprived of his professorship. may consult, and stand the deal or not. He then removed to the metropolis, and 21. If any person calls at eight, after he gave lectures on astronomy; but the pubhas played, it is in the option of the ad- lication of his Primitive Christianity reverse party to call a new deal.—of sep- vived, in 1712 (5 vols., 8vo.), subjected arating and showing the Cards. 22. If him to the notice of the convocation, and any person separates a card from the rest, he was prosecuted as a heretic, though the adverse party may call it, provided he the proceedings were ultimately terminames it and proves the separation; but nated by an act of grace in 1715. Being if he calls a wrong card, he or his partner refused admission to the sacrament at his are liable for once to have the highest or parish church, he opened his own house lowest can called in any suit led during for public worship, using a liturgy of his that deal. B If any person, supposing own composition; and towards the elose the game lost, throws his cards upon the of his life he became a Baptist. In 1719, table, with their faces upwards, he may he published a letter On the Eternity of not take them up again, and the adverse the Son of God and his Holy Spirit
, party may call any of the cards when which prevented him from being chosen they think proper, provided they did not a fellow of the royal society, where he make the party revoke. A. If any per- was proposed as a candidate in 1720. son is sure of winning every triek in his He subsequently distinguished himself by hand, he may show his caris; but he is an abortive attempt to discover the longthen liable to have them called.-Oj tude, and by his professed opinions relamitting to play to u Trick. $. If any tive to an approaching millennium, and person onnits playing to a trick, and it ap- the restoration of the Jews. Among his pears he has one canl more than the rest, latest labors were his Memoirs of My own
w in the option of the adversary to Life (1749_50, 3 vols., 8vo.). He died have a new deal --Respecting who played in London in 1752. Besides numerous a partidur (urde 2. Each person, in original productions, he published a transWarning ought to lay his card before him; lation of the works of Josephus, with w withor of the adversaries mix their notes, dissertations, &c. Fala with his, his partner may demand WHITAKER, John, an English divine
ha person to lay his card before him, and antiquary, born at Manchester about but not to inquire who played any partic- 1735, was educated at Oxford, and beulur varet.
came a fellow of Corpus Christi college Wallston, William, an English divine He began to distinguish himself as an auch mathematician, born in 1667, stud- inquirer into English antiquities, by the dat ('laro hall, Cambridge, where he publication, in 1771, of the first volume applied himself particularly to mathe- of his History of Manchester, including matters, and displayed his predominant disquisitions relative to the state of Brit
ition by composing religious medi- ain under the dominion of the Romans Intions. Having taken his first degree in The same year appeared his Genuine 10, he was chosen a fellow of his col- History of the Britons asserted; and this lege, and became an academical tutor. was followed, in 1775, by the second Intering into holy orders, he was ap- volume of his former work, relating to winted chaplain to doctor Moore, bishop of the Saxon period of English history. Norwich. In 1696, he published a The- Having taken orders, he obtained, in 177€. wwry of the Earth, on the principles of the the college living of Ruan Lanyhorne, in Newtonian philosophy. In 1700, he was Cornwall. He published, in 1783, a course appointed deputy professor of mathe- of sermons on death, judgment, beaven waties at Cambridge, by sir Isaac New- and hell; and, in 1787, appeared his Mston, who, three years after, resigned the ry Queen of Scots vindicated (3 rok, prolonsorship in his favor. In 1706, he 8vo.), which exhibits much research and published an Essay on the Revelation of zeal for the memory of Mary. Among hy John; and the next year, he became the later productions of bis pen were I can lecturer; and his sermons on The Course of Hannibal over the Alps
Lion, on the Accomplishment of ascertained (2 vols., 8vo.); The Origin
of Arianism disclosed; The Ancient to pass. By the reform act of 1832, it Cathedral of Cornwall historically sur- was constituted a borough, returning one veyed (2 vols., 4to.); and Gibbon’s His- member to parliament. Whitby carries tory reviewed (1791, 8vo.). He was a on a great trade in coals, and also exports contributor to the English and Anti-Jaco- various articles of provision, tallow, &c.; bin Reviews, and the British Critic. His and the alum works in the neighborhood death took place in October, 1808. employ a great number of hands. Ship
WHITBREAD, Samuel, for several years building is carried on here extensively. a leading member of the house of com- The immense mountain of alum rock, and mons, was the son of an eminent brewer the works for preparing alum, are interof the same name, to whose extensive esting objects. business he succeeded. He was born in Whitby, Daniel, a learned divine, born London, in 1758, and was educated at in 1638, and died in 1726, was a fellow of Elon, whence he was removed to St. Trinity college, Oxford. Having distinJohn's college, Cambridge; after which guished himself by his zeal in attacking he made the tour of Europe, under the the Catholic writers, he was rewarded by care of Mr. Coxe. Soon after his return, bishop Ward with a prebend in Salisbury be married the daughter of sir Charles cathedral. He took his doctor's degree, afterwards earl) Grey, and, in 1790, was but soon after incurred censure for a treareturned to the house of commons for the tise entitled the Protestant Reconciler. borough of Steyning; but for the greater He continued his literary labors, and propart of his life, he represented the town duced a Paraphrase and Commentary on of Bedford, in which borough and county the New Testament (2 vols., folio); and a he possessed a large landed property. treatise on the “ Five Points” controverted He immediately became an active mem- between the Arminians and Calvinists ber of the opposition headed by Mr. Fox, (8vo., 1710). Towards the close of his but distinguished himself by acting, on life, a complete revolution took place in many occasions, agreeably to his own his literary opinions: he became an Arian, views, independently of his party. For and had a dispute on the subject with many years, he was esteemed one of the doctor Waterland. He left a book called most shrewd and vigorous opponents of the Last Thoughts of Doctor Whitby. the Pitt administration, and of the war Wute. (See Colors.) growing out of the French revolution. White, Ilenry Kirke; a youthful poet He was also the conductor of the im- of distinguished ability, who was born at peachment against lord Melville, which, Nottingham, March 21, 1785.
He was although terminating in acquittal, threw a the son of a butcher, and was intended for shade over the close of that statesman's life, the same occupation; but the delicacy of and proved a source of extreme concern to his constitution occasioned his destination the premier. Of the political opinions of to be changed for the more sedentary emMr. Whitbread, those who study the his- ployment of a stocking-weaver. From tory of the period in which he acted a his infancy, he manifested an extraordivery conspicuous part in parliament, will nary love of learning, and, at the age of judge by their own; but few will be dis- fourteen, produced specimens of poetry posed to deny him the praise of being, worthy of preservation. He was now refor many years, a most able, useful and moved from the stocking-loom to be active senator. The close of his life was placed in an attorney's office, and devoted melancholy: an over-anxious attention to his spare time to the study of Latin and business in general, but, more especially, Greek. Increase of knowledge inspired to the intricate concerns of Drury lane him with the desire to obtain more favortheatre, produced a temporary aberrationable opportunities for improving bis talof intellect, during which, he suddenly ents; and the advantage of a university terminated his own life, in 1815.
education, with the prospect of entering Wutby; a seaport of England, in the the church, became the great object of his north riding of Yorkshire, situated at the ambition. At length, through the genemouth of the Esk, on the German sea; rosity of Mr. Wilberforce, and the exer46 miles north-east of York, 243 north tions of the reverend Charles Simeon, be of London ; lon. 1° 55' W.; lat. 54° was admitted a student of St. John's col30 N.; population, in 1821, 10,275; in lege, Cambridge. There he applied him1831, 11,720. The Esk forms the harbor, self 10 his studies with such unremitting and divides the town into two nearly equal labor, that bis health became deranged, parts, connected by a draw-bridge, so and he died Oct. 19, 1806, deeply lamentconstructed as to admit ships of 500 tons ed, both on account of his virtues and his