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WESTPHALIA 7, in Cassel, and entered on the govern- perienced monarch had, indeed, counselernment, but conducted, as might have lors around him, who did the best that been expected, not like a king, but rather could be done under the deplorable cirlike a French prefect. The situation of cumstances of the kingdom. Within a this new kingdom was deplorable. All the short time, an army of 16,000 men was provinces had been systematically ex- formed. The French code, though at hausted by the French, before they were first much disliked, gradually began to united into a kingdom; in addition to find less opposition from the people; the which, the emperor had retained half of taxes, though high, were more uniformly all the domains, or public property, in or- distributed than ever before; and the new der to make grants therefrom to his sol- constitution afforded advantages to the diers; had stipulated that he should keep great body of the people, which they soon 12,500 men in Magdeburg, to be support- began to estimate. The government gained, clothed and paid by the people of the ed in firmness as the prejudices against it country; and the kingdom was to pay all diminished. The king, besides his civil the contributions which had been imposed list, had 1,000,000 francs as a French upon the several territories composing it prince. He was much inclined to dissiwhen they were conquered. Westphalia pation, but, at the same time, disposed to was, in many respects, but a province, a do good to his people. In 1809, internal territory of France, without enjoying the commotions began, occasioned by the war advantages which it might have derived between Austria and France. The eastern from forming an integral part of the em- frontier of the kingdom was attacked by a pire, and having the additional burthen corps under Schill

. (9. v.) In the south, of a large army and an expensive govern- an insurrection broke out among the peas. ment. On the other hand, we must not ants near Marburg. These circumstances omit to state the advantages which grew gave rise to severe measures, and the exout of the intimate connexion of this new tension of the high police. The king was kingdom with France. The greatest were, obliged, by France, to increase his ariny as we have already said, the abolition of to 30,000 men; and the taxes were, in confeudalism, and an increased estimation of sequence, so much augmented that, nejthe lower classes, a greater willingness to ther the minister of finances nor the es. acknowledge their rights, e. g. in respect tates of the kingdom knowing any other to the administration of justice, the distri- means to provide for the exigency, the bution of the public burthens, their par- public domains were sold, and the public ticipation in the municipal administration, debt was arbitrarily reduced, by expung&c. The finances of the kingdom were in ing a certain portion of each man's degreat embarrassment when it went into mand. In 1810, the whole of the former operation, and always remained so during Hanoverian territory was united to Westthe seven years of its existence, large phalia ; but hardly had she taken possessums going every year to France without sion of it, when another imperial decree any equivalent, and the kingdom being was issued, annexing not only this newly. obliged to take part in all the great move- acquired territory, but also the former ments of the empire. The young, inex- provinces of Osnabrück, Minden, and him ; the king to remain always subject to the im- sist of one hundred members (seventy to be cho perial family statutes ; in case of minority, Napo- sen of owners of real estate, fifteen of merchants leon, or his descendants, to appoint a regent; the and manufacturers, and filleen of literary men); a king and his family to have a revenue of 5,000,000 third part to be renewed every three years ; their francs, to be raised from the other half of the do- president to be nominated by the king; their demains, with additions from the public treasury, if bates to be secret; the country to be divided into they should fail to yield the requisite amount. It departments, &c., with prefecis, &e., and depart. further provides that there shall be a constitution mental colleges, &c., 'as in France; the Cide securing the equality of all the subjects and free. Napoleon to be adopted January 1, 1808 ; the addom of worship; that the feudal privileges, and 'ministration of justice to be public, in penal cases those of corporations, shall be abolished, but the with the aid of juries ; a new system of penal judifferent ranks of nobility are to continue; one risprudence to be adopted July 1, 1808 ; courts of system of taxes to embrace all classes; the tax on the peace to be established, with justices of the real estate not to exceed a fifth of the revenue ; peace; the judges to be independent, appointed four ministers to be appointed, and a council of by the king; the judges to be removable only by state ; laws respecting the finances, civil and pe- the king, and only after sentence by the court of nal legislation, io be drawn up in the council of appeal, on charges presented by the royal pro. state, to be discussed by committees of the cham- curator, or one of its presidents; no enlisung of ber, their reports to be discussed by the council soldiers for money to take place; the army to be of state, and the law, as finally settled by the supplied by conscription. 'Dec. 23, 1808, a supe council of state, under the presidency of the king, plementary statute was issued, establishing one to be laid before the chamber; the estates to con- more minister.

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part of Ravensberg, to the French empire. contains 7780 square miles, and, with the It was of no avail

that the king strove to military, 1,096,000 inhabitants, partly prevent this measure by personal repre- Catholics, partly Protestants, chiefly Lusentations in Paris : be was obliged to sub- therans. It is divided into three govmit, and, moreover, to adopt the conti- ernments, Münster, Minden, and Arnsneptal system (q. v.): but this was not so berg, with capitals of the same names. oppressive in Westphalia as in some oth- In Hamm, a periodical called Archives of er countries, the government mitigating History and Antiquities is published by a its rigor as much as possible. In 1812, the society for promoting the knowledge of king led his army to Poland; but the em- the history and antiquities of Westphalia. peror soon obliged him to leave his troops WESTPHALIA, PEACE OF; the name and return. Of bis 24,000 men, but few given to the peace concluded in 1648, at escaped the disasters which befell the Münster and Osnabrück (both situated in French forces beyond the Niemen. A Westphalia), by which an end was put new army, of 12,000 men, was immedi- to the thirty years' war (q. v.), and a new ately organized, and accompanied the im- political system was established in Euperial army to Saxony; but the hearts of rope, which continued till the breaking the soldiers were with their brethren who out of the French revolution. For Gerstood opposed to them. Even before the many, particularly, it became the foundabattle of Leipsic (q. v.), Czernitscheff tion of the whole political system-a sysdrove the king from his residence, and tem unwieldy and oppressive. This occupied Cassel for three days. The king peace was not concluded until after seven returned with some French troops, but years of negotiation and preparation. only to receive the news of the great bat- Towards the end of 1641, preliminaries te of Leipsic, and to leave his residence were agreed upon at Hamburg, having and kingdom for ever, after having caused reference chiefly to the mode of proceedevery thing valuable in his palaces, and ing in regard to the future peace, and even a part of the treasures of the muse- the place where the deliberations should um, to be carried off. Two days after his be carried on. The actual negotiations departure, the Russians entered Cassel ; did not commence until 1644, at Osnaand, in a few days, the old governments brück, between the ambassadors of Augwere reëstablished almost throughout the tria, the German empire and Sweden; at kingdom. Oct. 20, 1813, the kingdom of Münster, between those of the emperor, Westphalia ceased to exist.

France and other powers; but the articles 5. 'Í'he Prussian Province of Westphalia adopted in both formed one treaty. This was created, in 1815, out of the provinces division of the members of the diplomatic which Prussia formerly possessed in the congress was intended partly to prevent Westphalian circle, with the exception of disputes on points of etiquette between the duchies of Cleves and Berg, and the France and Sweden, partly because Sweabbeys of Essen and Werden, It is den refused to have any thing to do with bounded by the Netherlands, Hanover, the papal nuncio, who was sent to assist in Brunswick, the two Lippes, electoral the negotiations. Quarrels on points of Hessia, Waldeck, Hesse-Darmstadt, Nas- etiquette, carried to the most ridiculous sau, the Lower Rhine, and Juliers-Cleve- extreme, prevented the opening of the Berg. The southern and eastern parts are congress for a long time. The ministers mountainous, yet have some fertile plains: of princes claimed the title of excellency, the northern and north-western parts like those of the electors. A round table contain considerable heaths. The climate was adopted for the sessions, in order to is generally moderate, but rough in the evade other punctilios. Peace was conmountainous parts of the Sauerland. The cluded at Münster, whither the ministers, Weser, Ems, Lippe, and Ruhr, are the who had been at Osnabrück, repaired, most important navigable rivers. The after they had also concluded a treaty products are cattle, grain, flax, wood, shortly before, on October 24, 1648. By much iron, copper, calamine, lead, coals, this peace, the religious and political state salt, mineral waters, &c. The agricultural of Germany was settled: the sovereignty products are not sufficient to supply the of the members of the empire was acinhabitants. The manufacture of linen, knowledged. They received the right and all kinds of iron and steel wares, is of concluding treaties among themselves extensive. Many of the inhabitants of and with foreign powers, only not against the northern parts go annually to the the emperor and empire. Their consent Netherlands, to assist in gathering the har. was made necessary to enable the enipevest, and to dig turf. The whole province ror to put any of the members under the

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110 WESTPHALIA, PEACE OF_WETHERSFIELD PRISOX. ban. The electoral family of the Palati- unity of Germany. It made the Gerinar: nate received back the Palatinate (q. v.) empire, which was always a muss das of the Rbine, and the eighth electorsbip advantageous form of government for was created for it, with a provision, how- the people, a disjointed frame, with ever, that this should be abolished in organization or system. Ferdinand II. cage the Bavarian house should become had it not been for his intolerance, bagi extinct (as actually happened in 1777), have had it in his power, after the future since the Palatine house would then recove of Lübeck with Denmark, in 102), to give er the Bavarian electorate. The changes once inore consistency to the empire: which had been made for the advantage whether, on the whole, to the adrasage of the Protestants since the religious of the people, or not, we do not say. Bar peace (4. v.), in 1555, were confirmed by the “edict of restitution" etfected by by the determination that every thing the Jesuits, he deprived himself of the should remain as it had been at the begin- fruits of Tilly's and Wallenstein's victo. ning of the (so called) normal year (q. v.), ries. Every German prince and petty 1024. The Calvinists received equal monarch now thought only of his own rights with the adherents of the Augs- house; and the German empire not only burg Confession (q. v.), or the Lutherans. lost, by the peace of Westphalia a territoThe princes of the empire were bound ry of 40,000 square miles, with 4.500,00 not to prosecute or oppress those of their inhabitants, but also its western militar subjects whose religious faith differed frontier; while Lorraine, on the side of from their own. After all impediments Alsatia, and the Burgundian circle in the in the way of the system of toleration west and north, were left without detence. had been overcome, the ambassadors em- The internal trade of Germany was braced and shed tears of joy. Several also grievously obstructed by the estabreligious foundations were secularized, lishment of above 300 sovereigns. On the and given as indemnifications to several other hand, the right procured hy Franer members of the empire, in which the em- for every member of the empire to conperor acquiesced to secure the integrity clude separate alliances, which gave to of his hereditary states. The empire Bavaria, Brandenburg, and other German ceded Alsatia to France, to its lasting in- houses, importance in the general Lumjury; Sweden received Hither Pome- pean politics, together with the intiurania, Bremen, Verdun, Wismar, and ence of foreign powers, as Sweden, on 5,000,000 of German dollars for her the politics of Germany, made this countroops. Brandenburg received the secu- try thenceforth the theatre of all the larized bisloprics of Halberstadt, Minden, quarrels of Europe. One military stati Camin, and the reversion of Magdeburg. after another was established ; and the Mecklenburg received the secularized German nation, impeded, in a thousani bishoprics of Schwerin and Ratzeburg; ways, in its manufactures and commerce. Hanover, alternately with a Catholic labored only to support a number of bishop, the bishopric of Osnabrück and petty, yet overgrown armies, ridiculous some convents; Hesse-Cassel, the abbey courts and foreign ernbassies. The art of Hirschfeld and 600,000 German dol- tocratic principle was developed at the Jars. The United Netherlands were ac- expense of the monarchical, so that the knowledged as an independent nation, empire, which always had the disadvanand the Swiss as entirely separate from tages both of an electoral and a hereditary the German empire. France and Swe- monarchy, without the advantages of den undertook to guaranty this peace. either, now became entirely crippled. The solemn protest of pope Innocent France and Sweden acquired great inX against these terms, particularly in re- fluence in Germany by this peace, owing spect to the injury done to the papal see to the contemptible pride of the peur by the secularization of bishoprics and princes of the country, and their insensiabbeys, &c., was not regarded; but the bility for the general well-being of the complete execution of the conditions of nation. Though well aware that such the treaty was obstructed by many diffi- speculations are useless, the historian can culties. The war was even continued be- hardly help asking himself, How differtween France with Savoy on the one side, ent would have been the destiny of Euand Spain with Lorraine on the other; rope but for the ball which put an end to also between Spain and Portugal.-See the precious life of Gustavus Adolphus Von Woltmann's History of the Peace of on the field of Lützen? Westphalia (2 vols., Leipsic, 1808).—This WETHERSFIELD Prison. (See Prison peace gave the death-blow to the political Discipline.)

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WETSTEIN; the name of a family long ment in the university of Berlin. The resident at Basle, several of the members results of the inquiries into which his of which were highly distinguished as lectures led him he gave to the public in scholars and theologians.—John James several works, among which are the folWetstein, born in 1693, is said to have grad- lowing : Contributions to an Introducuated at Basle as a doctor in philosophy be- tion to the Old Testament (1806–1807); fore he had reached the age of seventeen. Manual of Hebraico-Jewish Archæology Having entered the church, he devoted (1814); Manual of a Historico-Critical himself, with uncommon ardor and per- İntroduction to the Old Testament (1817), severance, to the restoration of the purity of which a second edition has appeared of the text of the New Testament, and, in (vol. i. in 1823, vol. ii. in 1826). His inpursuance of this object, visited most of vestigations led him, in some cases, to the principal libraries of France, Switzer-, views and hypotheses which met with land, Germany and England, examining much opposition; e. g. that the Pentaand collating their various manuscripts. teuch consists of a collection of works On his return to Basle, he declared his which originated independently of each intention of publishing a new treatise on other, and were brought together, towards this important subject, under the title of the end of the Jewish exile, in an epic Prolegomena ad Novi Testamenti Græci poem, having for its object the exaltation Editionem accuratissimam e vetustissimis of the theocracy. He formed a connexion Codicibus Manuscriptis denuo procuran- with Augusti

, with a view of preparing a dam. This annunciation excited consid- new translation of the whole Bible (Hejerable uneasiness among the German delberg, 1809–1811, 5 vols.), of which divines, who exerted themselves with competent judges have thought the parts such effect to procure the suppression of prepared by De Wette the best. His a work which, they feared, might unsettle attachment to the philosophical system of the received version, that the council re- his friend Fries (q. v.) appears in his fused to sanction or permit the publica- work On Religion and Theology (1815 tion. Wetstein, in consequence, removed and 1821), one of the most important to Holland, where he published his book contributions of modern times to the in 1730, and was soon after appointed by philosophical criticism of dogmatics. the Remonstrants to the professorship of His Biblical Dogmatics of the Old and history and philosophy, then become va- New Testament (1813 and 1818)

also has cant hy the resignation of Le Clerc. In the stamp of the philosophy of Fries, as 1751—1752 appeared his last work, an has likewise his Christian Morals (3 vols., edition of the New Testament, in two 1819–1821). But, during the writing of folio volumes, with the text as generally this work, the situation of De Wette was received, and the various readings, notes, suddenly changed. He had found, in &c., below. To this he also annexed two 1818, a hospitable reception in the house curious epistles of Clemens Romanus, from of the parents of Sand (q. v.), and, after a Syriac manuscript, with a Latin version. the murder of Kotzebue by that young He died at Amsterdam, March 24, 1754. man, De Wette thought it bis duty to

WETTE, William Martin Leberecht de, write a letter of consolation to the undoctor and professor of theology in the happy mother of the youth. The letter university of Basle, was born in 1780, in contained this passage :

“ The spirit the village of Ulla, in Weimar, where his of faith and confidence with which father was minister. In 1796, he entered the deed was performed is a good the gymnasium of Weimar. He there sign of the times. The deed, considered became acquainted with Mounier (q. v.), in a general point of view, is immoral. a French emigrant, whose son he in- Evil is not to be overcome by evil, but structed and accompanied on a journey only by good. No right can be founded to Switzerland and Grenoble. In 1799, on wrong, cunning or violence, and the he went to the university of Jena, and good end does not justify the means." studied theology. In 1805, he published A dispassionate reader will find an apoloa treatise on the Mosaic books, and his gy for this language when he considers lectures on the same subject met with the circumstances in which it was writmuch approbation. In 1807, he was ten, and that all allow Sand to have been appointed professor extraordinarius of actuated merely by a sense of duty when philosophy at Heidelberg, and, in 1809, he committed the murder. After the entered the theological faculty of the same letter was made public, De Wette mainuniversity as professor ordinarius of theol- tained that it ought to be considered that ogy. In 1810, he accepted an appoint- it was of a private character, addressed merely to the mother of the unfortunate storms are occasioned by a subterranean youth, and that all he wished was to be communication with lake Constance, in judged by a competent tribunal; but the Switzerland. ministry of public instruction dismissed Wettin, Counts OF ; a distinguished him without further inquiry. The senate family in the middle ages, from which all of the university attempted to intercede the present reigning houses of Saxons for him, but was severely reprimanded. derive their origin. The name is taken Upon leaving his situation, be addressed from a Sclavonic place, in the duchy of manly letters to the king, the minister Magdeburg. The first of this family, and the senate. He refused to accept a known with certainty, is Dieterich, coum quarter's salary offered him by the min- of Wettin, who died in 982. His deister, and left Berlin. He received many scendant, Frederic the Warlike, was inproofs of the general interest taken in his feoffed by the emperor Sigismund, in situation. In Weimar, he finished his 1423, with Saxony, and the dignity of Christian Morals, prepared a critical elector was connected with his fief. (See edition of the complete works of Luther Sarony.) (of which the first volume, containing the WEYDE, Roger van der. (See Roger.) letters of Luther, appeared at Berlin in WEYMOUTH; a seaport, borough, and 1825), and wrote a work called Theodor market-town of England, in Dorsetshire, oder die Weihe des Zweiflers (Berlin, 1822), at the mouth of the Wey, celebrated as a which, in the form of a biography, gives fashionable bathing-place. It is situated his views on the inost important subjects on the British channel, at the western of dogmatics, morals, æsthetics and pas- side of a most beautiful bay, well protoral theology. It shows how his soul tected from the north winds by hills. It had risen above the difficulties of his sit- communicates with Melcombe Regis, to uation. He now felt the desire of be- which it is united by a handsome new coming useful as a preacher, and appeared bridge. Weymouth became a place of in the pulpit in several places in his na- fashionable resort in consequence of its tive country. He also published several being frequented by George III, and is of his sermons, by which the congrega- now greatly enlarged by the addition of tion of St. Catharine's church, at Bruns- many new and elegant buildings. The wick, were induced to invite him to fashionable promenade is on the esplabecome a candidate for the place of nade, which is a beautiful raised terrace, assistant clergyman, in 1821. He accept- of considerable length and breadth, kep: ed the invitation, and was unanimously in the most perfect repair, with a slope elected ; but the government refused to gradually descending to the sands. The confirm his election, though the theologi- united borough of Weymouth and Melcal faculties at Jena and Leipsic had de- combe Regis sent four members to parliaclared that he had not rendered himself ment previous to the reform act of 1832, unfit for the ministry by bis letter to which deprived it of two of its members. Sand's mother. De Wetie therefore ac- Population, 7655. cepted a theological appointment in the Wezlar, formerly a free imperial city, university of Basle, to which he went in in the circle of the Upper Rhine, since the spring of 1822. He soon acquired 1814, belonging to the Prussian province the greatest esteem by his lectures in his of the Lower Rhine, in the government new situation. His Lectures on Morals of Coblentz, has a romantic situation on (Berlin, 1823, 2 vols.) were delivered be- the Lahn. It contains 750 houses and fore a mixed audience. His Sermons 4200 inhabitants. The principal building appeared in 1826–1827, and his Lectures is the cathedral. Wezlar is famous for on Religion, its Essence and its Forms of having been, as long as the empire existManifestation, Berlin, 1827. We believe ed, the seat of the court of the empire, that he is at present chiefly occupied called the imperial chamber. (q. v.). The with the revision of his works and with papers belonging to 80,000 legal prohis edition of Luther.

cesses are preserved in a particular buildWetter, a lake of Sweden, in Easting in this place. The imperial chamber Gothland, sixty-five miles long, and from was fixed in Wezlar in 1693. In 1806 ten to sixteen wide, is deep and clear. It it was, of course, dissolved. In 1803, the is supposed to prognosticate the approach city and territory were given to the then of stormy weather. Like all inland pieces chancellor of the empire, subsequently of water surrounded with mountains, it the grand duke of Frankfort. is subject to sudden storms in still weath- WHALE (balæna). These animals so er; and superstition has reported that these much resemble fish in their external

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