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and 1820); and Cunningham's Lives of tumnal rains, which become general in Eminent British Painters.
October, and pour down in cataracts. In West India APRICOT. (See Mammee- the interval between August and October, Tree.)
the islands are visited by those tremenWest Indies; the extensive archipel- dous hurricanes, which effect so much ago which lies between North and South mischief. (See Hurricanes.) Towards the America, stretching from the coast of end of November, a change takes place: Florida, in the twenty-eighth degree, to the weather becomes serene and pleasant, the shores of Venezuela, in the tenth de- and northerly and north-easterly winds gree, of north latitude. It is divided by prevail, constituting the finest winter on geographers into the Bahamas, composed the globe, from December to May. There of fourteen clusters of islands and 700 are some exceptions to this general dekeys; the Great Antilles, comprising the scription, particularly in the large islands, four largest islands of the group, Cuba, which are often visited by refreshing land Hayti, Porto Rico and Jamaica; the Les- breezes from the interior highlands. (See ser Antilles, stretching from Trinidad, in the articles Cuba, Hayti, and Jamaica) a westerly direction, along the northern The islands abound generally in all tropicoast of South America ; and the Carib- cal productions, as sugar, cotton, coffee, bee islands, stretching, like a great bow, indigo, pimento, cocoa, medicinal drugs, from Tobago to Porto Rico, and subdi- tobacco, maize, guava, plantain, cacao, &c.; vided into the three groups known under oranges, lemons, limes, pomegranates, citthe name of the Virgin islands, the Lee- rons, pine-apples, &c.; manioc, yams, ward islands and the Windward islands. potatoes, &c. The mountains contain Each of the divisions above mentioned, great varieties of trees, adapted for cabiand the most important individual islands, net-work, ship-building, and other purhave been described separately. The poses in the arts, such as cedars, mahogwhole archipelago, with the exception of any, lignum-vitæ, iron-wood, the Indian some of the Bahamas, lies within the tor- fig-tree, the calabash-tree, &c. The inrid zone. The name India was given to digenous quadrupeds are the agouti (a sort them by Columbus, who first discovered of intermediate species between the rabthem, under the notion that they formed bit and the rat, the peccary or Mexican part of India, which was the object of his hog, the armadillo, the opossum, the racsearch. When the mistake was discov- coon, the musk-rat, the alco or American ered, they retained the name, with the dog, and several of the smaller varieties prefix West, to denote their geographical of monkey. Most of these species are position. (See America, and Columbus.) now extinct in these islands. The iguana, The seasons, as in other tropical coun- a species of lizard, and the mountain tries, are divided between the wet and the crab, are also found here. The birds are dry: the spring begins with May, when remarkable for the brilliancy and beauty the foliage and grass become more ver- of their plumage: among them are the dant: the first periodical rains set in about parrot, in many varieties, the scarlet flathe middle of the month, falling every mingo, and the glittering humming-bird, day about noon, and creating a rapid and with a great number of waterfowl of difluxuriant vegetation. The thermometer ferent kinds. Of the serpent tribe there at this season varies considerably, but its are many varieties ; but few, if any, are mediuin height is about 75o. After these venomous: the alligator, and the brilliant rains have prevailed about a fortnight, the and changeable gobemouche, or fly-catchweather becomes dry and settled, and the er, are among the lizards.— The West Intropical summer reigns in full glory. The dies were discovered by Columbus, in his heat at this time is tempered by sea first voyage, in 1492: their subsequent breezes, the thermometer standing, on an history will be found under the separate average, at about 80°. The nights are articles. (See, also, Buccaneers.) The now eminently beautiful: the moon is so islands were inhabited, at the time of their brilliant that the smallest print is legible discovery, by two distinct races of naby her light; and, in herabsence, her place tives, the Caribs, occupying the Windward is supplied by the brightness of the Milky islands, and the Arrowauks, inhabiting Way, and the radiance of the planet Ve Hayti, Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and nus, which is such as to cast a shade. In the Bahamas. The former were warlike the middle of August, the beat becomes and fierce; the latter mild and peaceful, excessive, and the refreshing sea breezes and much more advanced in civilization. almost entirely intermit. This state of (See Caribbees.) The languages of these the atmosphere is succeeded by the au- nations were different.--See Edwards's History of the British West Indies (3 vols., lish, France now possesses only Guada1807); T. Southey's History of the West loupe and Martinique, with the small Indies (3 vols., 1827); and the works of islands of Mariegalante and Deseada, in Humboldt.— The West India islands are, the West Indies.—See Les Antilles Franwith the exception of Hayti, still in the çaises, particulièrement Guadeloupe, by possession of European powers. (See Boyer-Peyseleau (3 vols., Paris, 1823).Colony. - 1. Spanish West Indies. Spain 3. Danish West Indies. The Danes poshas not retained a foot of ground on the sess only the small islands of St. Thomas, American continent. The sole remnants St. Croix, or Santa Cruz, and St. John, of her splendid colonial empire in the new belonging to the Virgin islands.—4. Swedworld, are the island of Cuba, the largest ish West Indies. The Swedes possess and finest of the West India islands, Por- only one colony, the small but fertile to Rico, with several dependencies, and island of St. Bartholomew.-5. Dutch Passage, Serpent, and Bieque or Crab West Indies. To the kingdom of the islands, among the Virgin islands. The Netherlands belong the islands of CuraSpanish part of St. Domingo now forms çoa, St. Eustatius, Saba, and part of part of the Haytian republic, and the St. Martin, with the smaller islands of islands of Margaritta, with Blanquilla, Aruba, Aves and Banaire. Curaçoa,
Tortuga, &c., belong to the republic of formerly important as an entrepot, has Venezuela.-2. French West Indies. Pre- lost much of its trade since the South viously to the insurrection of 1792, St. American revolution, as the goods in- ' Domingo was the most valuable French tended for the continent are forwarded colony in the West Indies; but that event direct to their place of destination.-6. resulted in the establishment of the inde. British West Indies. The following table pendence of that island, under the name shows the British West India islands, of Hayti. Having sold Louisiana to the U. with the exports and imports, and popuStates, and ceded other colonies to the Eng- lation for 1829:
West Point; a village of New York, rear, is 598 feet. Most of the former and military post, on the west bank of the works are now in ruins. (For the treachHudson, where it passes through the erous attempt of Arnold to surrender this Highlands, in the township of Cornwall
, place to the British, see Arnold.)—The in Orange county, fifty-three miles, by military academy consists of the corps of water, above New York, and one hundred engineers; of one professor and an asbelow Albany. During the revolutionary sistant professor of natural and experiwar, this point was strongly fortified, and mental philosophy; one professor and one deemed one of the most important for- assistant professor of mathematics; one tresses in America. The plain that forms professor and an assistant professor of the the bank of the river is elevated 188 feet; art of engineering, in all its branches ; a and fort Putnam, a short distance in its chaplain and professor of ethies; a teacher
of drawing; a surgeon; and a sword- the seductions of the fine arts. Nature master. The number of cadets is limited intended bim for an artist, and he obeyed to 250. They may be attached, at the her dietales. He has for many years been discretion of the president of the l'. States, a roval academician; and he holds an as students to the military academy, and elevated rank among British painters. In become subject to its regulations. They the graceful and the beautiful he has few are arranged in companies of non-com- rivals. Besides his large pictures, Mr. misioned officers and privates, for the pur- Westall has produced almost innumerable poses of military instruction. There are smaller drawings. There are few modfour musicians to each company ; and the ern popular works which have not been corps is trained and taught in all the du- illustrated by his pencil. But his talent ties of a private, a non-commissioned offi- is not confined to the easel. He has also cer, and an officer; is encamped at least published a volume entitled A Day in three months in each year, and instructed Spring and other Poems (vo., 1708), in all the duties incident to a regular which affords proof of an elegant and camp. Candidates for cadets must not cultivated mind. His brother William be under fourteen, nor over twenty years has acquired eminence as a landscape of age, and must be previously versed in painter. In his capacity of artist, he aereading, writing and arithmetic, and must companied captain Flinders on his Aussign articles, with the consent of their tralasian voyage of discovery, and made parents or guardians, engaging to serve many masterly views, some of which five years, unless sooner discharged. The were engraved, at the expense of the gov. pay of a cadet is sixteen dollars a month, ernment, to illustrate the narrative of the and two rations a day. When any cadet expedition. With the view of obtaining bas received a regular degree from the still further improvement in this branch academic staff, after going through all the of art, Mr. Westall has also been enclasses, he is considered as among the gaged in other voyages. He has pub candidates for a commission in any corps, lished, with descriptions, Views of Sceneaccording to the duties he may be judged ry in Madeira, the Cape of Good Hope, competent to perform; and if there is not, the East Indies, St. Helena and Jamaica at the time, a vacancy in such corps, he (folio, 1811-1814); Views of the Lakes may be attached to it at the discretion of of Cumberland ; Great Britain illustrated; the president, by brevet of the lowest and other works of equal merit. rank, until a vacancy shall happen. The WESTERN Empire. Theodosius the chief engineer is, ex officio, inspector of the Great, the last sole sovereign of the whole military academy.
Roman empire, shortly before his death, West PRUSSIA; previous to 1772, divided, by his will, that immense extent called Polish Prussia, because it belonged of territory between his sons, Arcadius to that part of Prussia which the crown and Honorius, neither of whom was then of Poland had reserved, when it invested of age, the former being eighteen years Albert of Brandenburg with the duchy of old, and the latter only eleven. Arcadius Prussia, in 1525. (See Prussia.) Dant- was to possess the East (see Byzantine Emzic, Thorn and Elbing were the principal pire); his brother, the West; which comtowns of Polish Prussia. In 1772, Fred- prehended Italy, Africa, Gaul, Spain, Bnteric II took possession of it (see Poland), ain, and half of Illyria. The empire, thus with the exception of Dantzic and Thorn, divided, was to be ruled in common, acwhich fell
into his hands in 1793. By the cording to the direction of Theodosius by peace of Tilsit, a part of it was ceded to the two brothers; but the reunion of both France, and one portion of the ceded ter- crowns upon one head was to remain ritory was annexed to the duchy of War- lawful, for it had not escaped the penebaw, Dantzic being erected into a free trating mind of the emperor, that such a city; but, in 1815, it was restored to Prus- union could alone preserve the empire sia by the congress of Vienna. It now from ruin. At the death of Theodosius, constitutes a Prussian province, with a January 11, 395, the guardians appointed population of 792,207 souls, and is di- for his sons entered upon their duties; vided into the two governments of Dant- the minister Rufinus, a Gaul, ruling for zic and Marienwerder, with chief towns Arcadius, and the commander-in-chief, of the same name.
Stilicho, a Vandal (by marriage, a nephew WESTALL, Richard, R. A., a native of of the late emperor), for Honorius. RutiReepham, in Norfolk, was originally de- nus was soon overthrown by the superior signed for the profession of the law, from power of the general, and the plans of which he was, however, drawn away by the latter were alterwards frustrated by the artifices of the court of Constantino- cadius with the sword; but the terrible ple. Sulicho did, indeed, at the wish of image of a civil war restrained the ámRufinus, divide the territories, the army, bition of a man who certainly could not and the immense treasures left by the be charged with want of boldness. He emperor; but he had no intention of now devoted himself entirely to the inyielding to him one half of the power of terests of his pupil Honorius, and to the regent, as guardian to the young emperor government of his dominions. After the reof the East. The general had taken the bellious governor of Africa, Gildo, had been command of the portion of the troops conquered by his own brother, the Moorbelonging to Arcadius, ostensibly to lead ish prince Mascezel, who revenged upon them to their proper commander, but in the tyrant the murder of his two children, fact to secure to himself the command of and when he had himself ended his camall the forces of both portions of the em- paign in Greece against the Goths, Stilipire. He had already reached Thessa- cho married his daughter Maria to her lonica, on the way to Constantinople, cousin, the emperor Honorius, then in his when Rufinus, dreading above all things fourteenth year, in the year 398 of the his appearance in person, sent orders to Christian era. Ten years after, she died, him to halt, with the declaration that eve- as the historians say, still a virgin. Two ry step he took nearer the capital would years after this marriage, Alaric, king of be deemed an act of hostility. Stilicho the Visigoths, who had been prevented by was too prudent to disobey openly; but Stilicho, in the year 397, from subduing he was determined to remove out of his Greece, resolved to avenge himself, and way a rival bold enough to oppose him, in the year 400 attacked Italy. Honorius the general and deliverer of the imperial fled from Milan to the castle of Asta (now house. Gainas, a Goth, appointed by him Asti), upon the Tanarus. Being besieged general of the army of the East, received there, he was on the point of a shameful his orders; and Rufinus, in the presence surrender, when Stilicho, who had colof the army, already prepared for such an lected the scattered troops of the West, event, was assassinated on the field of passed the Adda, and saved Italy. AlaMars, before Constantinople, by an auda- ric'o camp at Pollentia, with the treasures cious soldier, under the eyes of the em- collected in Greece, and Alaric's wife, peror Arcadius. But Stilicho was still became the prey of the conqueror. Nevfarther than before from the object of his ertheless, the king of the Goths marched wishes. The sagacious courtier Eutro- to Rome. In vain did Stilicho offer to pius, first chamberlain and principal fa- restore his treasures and his wife, to invorite of Arcadius, and the empress Eu- duce bim to retreat. Another battle was doxia, as remarkable for her talents as for fought at Verona, in the year 403, and her charms, were too well pleased with Alaric, after an entire defeat, in which he the power which they exercised over the came near losing his life, saw himself weak prince, to allow the general an in- obliged to leave Italy. In 404, Honorius, fluence which might become dangerous with the victorious Stilicho at bis side, to the favorite. Arcadius himself might entered ancient Rome in triumph. The also prefer the mild sway of the courtier, city received its emperor with rejoicings; and of his beautiful wife, to that of the stern and he perpetuated the memory of his and able soldier. The dependence of the presence by an edict suppressing the troops, and of their general Gainas, was fights of gladiators at the public games. secured; and after every means had been After a visit of some months, Honorius tried to injure Stilicho in the public opin- left Rome to live more securely in the ion, a decree of the senate of Constanti- fortified city of Ravenna. Two years nople was procured, declaring him an later, Radagaisus, at the head of 200,000 enemy of the state, and all his possessions Germans, Sarmatians, and other warriors, within the limits of the East forfeited. broke through the Alps, and advanced to Attempts were made upon his life, but Florence. Stilicho, who had been busily without success. This hostility against forming an army, without being able to the regent of the Roman dominions in the prevent the ravages of the barbarians, West, gave the first signal for a division hastened, with 40,000 men, to support the of the empire; and the wise views of the failing strength of the empire. He enprudent Theodosius failed through the closed Radagaisus by a chain of forts, suppassions of a few men, and the weakness plied the suffering Florence with means of his two young sons, who were unable of subsistence, while the barbarians were to restrain them. Stilicho might perhaps exposed to hunger, and at last, in a genhave opened the way to the palace of Ar- eral attack, completed by the sword what famine had begun. Radagaisus was taken promising to reduce Constantine to suband executed; the other prisoners were mission. After violent scenes in the Rosold as slaves. Thus was Italy a second man senate, Stilicho carried his motion, time delivered; but these repeated blows that a sum of 4000 pounds of gold should shook the tottering pillars of the empire. be given as a subsidy to the impatient The remainder of the barbarian arıny in- creditor. But the secret anger of the vaded Gaul in 407, and the Germans, senate at this act of condescension, which Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, soon became was caused by Stilicho's better knowledge masters of seven Gallic provinces and of of the power of the Goth, was shared, the Rhine, at that time without troops, as and perhaps excited, by the army. HoStilicho had collected them to conquer in norius began to fear his old minister. It the fields of Florence. At the same time, was now insinuated to him that Stilicho the Roman army in Britain revolted, and intended to place his son Eucherius upon determined to give themselves an empe- the throne: he therefore gave his conror; but the third one chosen, Constan- sent to the execution of a man who had tine, a common soldier, whose name was been thus far the sole support of the topthe cause of his elevation, alone main- tering empire of the West. Stilicho lost tained himself. His two predecessors, his head in the year 108. His son, and Marcus and Gratian, perished by the dag- several of his friends, underwent a simiger, after a few months of power. Con- lar fate; and Honorius even divorced his stantine landed at Boulogne, and the Gal- second wife, Thermantia, second daughlic provinces, forsaken by Honorius and ter of Stilicho. From this time the weak conquered by the Germans, willingly sub- monarch found himself in the hands of mitted to him. The Goth Sarus, who favorites, who could not estimate how was charged to bring the rebel's head to great a service they had rendered Alarie, Ravenna, thought himself fortunate, after by causing the death of Stilicho. The an attack of seven days upon the lines of foreign mercenaries, who had been faiththe sovereign of Gaui and Britain at Vi- fully devoted to the old general, revenged enne, to lead back his exhausted army his death by passing over, to the number across the Alps, which now formed the of 30,000, to the service of Alaric. The barrier between Honorius and Constan- court at Ravenna was still deliberating tine. The latter, shortly after, in 408, how it should answer the demands of alded to his new kingdom that of Spain Alaric, when the latter crossed the Alps (where he had experienced a slight re- the Po, pressed forward to Rimini, seized sistance from four relations of the de- the passes of the Apennines, and, in 40, ceased emperor Theodosius, who lived pitched his camp before Rome, which he there in opulence), and found the people surrounded so completely as to reduce the well disposed to obey him. While these city to the most deplorable extremity for events were taking place between the want of food. When an ambassador from Alps and the pillars of Hercules, others Rome, sent to Alarie's camp, dared to deoccurred at the court of Ravenna, which, clare to him that, it' he rejecied an bonorafter a series of misfortunes, of weak- able capitulation, the whole population nesses, and of crimes, caused the final would rush out against him, the ferocious overthrow of the Western empire. Ala- warrior answered abruptlv, " The thicker ric, king of the Goths, had obtained the the grass, the easier to mow.” After har. friendship of his former opponent, Stili- ing demanded an enormous ransom for cho, and, in consequence of a league of the city, he was asked, ** And what wil peace and amity with Honorius, was ap- you leave us, if you demand this of us?" pointed commander-in-chief of the Ro- “Your lives," was the reply. lle yielded, man army in Myria. Stilicho had long however, in some of his demands (eee contemplated the reunion of the eastern Alaric), and left the neighborhood of part of this territory with the western, Rome, to take up his winier-quarters in and wished also to employ Alaric at a Tuscany. Soon after, his arıny was indistance from Italy, by directing him to creased to more than 100,000 men, bis the gates of Constantinople. Alaric did, brother-in-law, Adolphus (Atault), bar. indeed, inake a few movements in Thes- ing fought his way to him from the Dansaly and Epirus; but from mona he ube, with a body of Goths and Hans. sent to Ravenna a demand for the repay. After fruitless negotiations for peace with ment of large sumns, expended in the ser- Hodorius, Alarie, who had taken possesvice of Honorius, and proposed that soine sion of the port and town of Ostia, . western province should be given to him marched back to Rome, where, with the as a permanent settlement for his people, consent of the people and the senate, be