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ing of spectral illusions, refers them to particularly Hibbert's Philosophy of Apthe following heads:-1. False percep- paritions (Edinburgh, 1824). tions, or impressions made upon the Vistula (Polish, Kisla; German sense only, in which the mind does not Weichsel), a river about 500 miles long, participate. 2. Real dreams, though the navigable from Cracow, which rises in the person was noi, at the time, sensible of principality of Teschen, in Austrian Sihaving slept, nor, consequently, of having lesin, on the northern declivity of the dreamed. "A person under the influence Carpathian mountains, flows round the of some strong mental impression, drops territory of Cracow and Gallicia, through asleep for a few seconds, perhaps without the kingdom of Poland, towards the northbeing sensible of it; some scene or per west, passes through West Prussia, and son connected with the impression ap- divides into two branches, of which the pears in a dream, and he starts up under easteri), the Nogal, empries, about two ihe conviction that it was a spectral appears and a half miles from Elbing, into the ance. 3. Intense mental conceptions, so Frische Haff'; the western divides again, strongly impressed upon the mind as, for about nine miles above Dantzic, into two the momeni, to be believed to have a real branches, of which the western flows existence. This takes place when, along into the Baltic at Weichselmunde, near with the mental emotion, the individual is Dantzic; the eastern, by many small chanplaced in circumstances in which exter- pels, into the Frische Blaft. The l'istula nal impressions are very slight, as soli- contains numerous and excellent fish: its tude, faint light, and quiescence of body. navigation is very important, as the prodIt is a state bordering closely upon dream- ucts of Poland-wood, grain, &c.-are ing, though the vision occurs while the transported on it to Dantzic, on the Balperson is in the waking state. 4. Errone- tic. The canal of Bromberg connects ous impressions, connected with bodily the Vistula with the Oder. (q. v.) Several disease, generally disease in the brain. navigable rivers empty into the Vistula, The illusions, in these cases, arise in a Vitalians. (See Apollinarians.) manner strictly analogous to dreaming, VITELLIUS, Aulus, a Roman, raised by and consist of some former circumstances his vices to the throne, was descended recalled to the mind, and believed, for from one of the most illustrious families a time, to have a real and present exist of Rome. The greatest part of his youth ence. The diseases, in connexion with was spent at Capreæ, where he labore which they arise, are generally of an apo- to gratify the vicious propensities of Tiplectic or inflammatory character, suie- berius. ' He passed through all the offices tunes epileptic; and ibey are very free of the state, and gained the soldiery by quent in the affection called delirium tre- donations and liberal promises. He was mens, produced by a continued use of in- at the head of the Roman legions in Gertoxicating liquors. l'mer each of these many when Otho was proclaimed empe heads, the author statrs a number of in- ror, and was likewise invested with the Irresting faris, illustrative of the general purple by his soldiers. He accepted the theory: -The proud species of illusions, othee, and instantly marched agains or opucal illusions, are occasioned by the Otho. After losing three battles, he was stair of the atmosphere, producing a re- successful in the plains between Mantua the ruoa or un qual refraction of light, and Crentonn. He now give himself up such as the famous gigantic figure called to luxury and debauchery. le fested the spectre of the Brocken, ai rial troops four or five times a day, and was otirn of horsien, spertre whipas, &c. (see (p. seen to make himself vomit, to begin his firs), of which phenomena the reader will repast afresh. Above thirty million tind description and explanations in dollars were spent in maintaining lus ta. Brewster's Natural Magic (London, 1X52). ble in the spare of four months. Thus Illusions are often also produced by the extravagance soon raised the indignazoa appmaraner of objects imperfectly seen of the people. Vespasian wns proclaimin a din light, and by electric phenome- ed einpesor by the army, and his minister na, when the credulous and territied ob- Primus w sent to do-roy the impwrial ernier “sers, or thinks he rry," mon. glutton. Vitellius concealed himilf unstrous shap flitring around and glaring der the bed of the porter of his palaore; upya lin.For further information on but he was discoverid, and draggri nathis interesting chapter in the history of ked through the streets, with his hani. hann wrakupas, se senti's Letters on tied behind his back. After suttering the Dogowy and Wilcherasl; Thacher's greatest insults from the populace, bis Esey on D-nonology Boston, 1931); and head was cdr off and fixed to a pole, and



his mutilated body dragged with a book service under Morelos as a volunteer. In and thrown into the Tiber, A. D. 69, after 1814, he was appointed captain-general a reign of one year, except twelve days. in the province of Vera Cruz-a very im

VITERBO (anciently Volturna); a town portant post, as the whole communication of Italy, in the States of the Church, cap- with Europe was through the ports of ital of a delegation, formerly capital of that province. Here Vittoria distinguishthe Patrimonio ; thirty-four miles north- ed himself by his activity and energy, west of Rome; lon. 12° 6 E.; lat. 42° and soon became the terror of the Span25 N.; population, 12,600. This city is ish troops, maintaining an incessant and a bishop's see, and lies in a beautiful and destructive guerilla war. Notwithstandfertile valley : the streets, for the greater ing the great efforts of the royal compart, are broad and well paved, the houses manders, and their great numerical sugood, but thinly peopled, though the num- periority, he sustained a struggle for two ber of churches, convents and hospitals years, at the end of which time, his sucis not less than sixty-nine. Four popes cessive losses, and the disastrous state of lie interred in the cathedral. Not far the revolutionary party in the country, from the city is a warm mineral spring. left him without a single follower. De

VITRIOL, GREEN. (See Copperas.) termined not to yield to the Spaniards,

VITRIOL, Oil of; the old name for and refusing their offers of pardon, prosulphuric acid. (See Sulphur.)

motion and reward, he retired alone into VITRUVIUS Pollio, Marcus; a cele- the mountains of the province, with nothbrated writer on architecture, who is sup- ing but his sword. For upwards of six posed to have fourished in the time of months, he was pursued by 1000 men, in Julius Cæsar and Augustus, and of whose small detachments, with such ardor and parentage and place of nativity no cer- vigilance that his escapes were often altain knowledge can be obtained. The most miraculous ; and wherever it was most probable opinion is, that he was found that his wants had been relieved, born at Formia, a city of Campania, now the whole village was immediately burnt called Mola di Gaeta. He plainly appears to the ground. In this way he was reto have been liberally educated; and that duced to such extremities, that he often he travelled for information and improve- went four or five days without taking ment, we learn from his writings. The any thing but water: for thirty months, only public edifice which he mentions as he never tasted bread, nor saw a human being constructed from his designs, is a being. When Mr. Ward, author of Mexbasilica at Fano. He wrote, at an ad- ico (2d ed., London, 1829), from which vanced age, his work De Architectura we have taken this account, first saw him, Lib. X, which he dedicated to Augustus, in 1823, he was unable to eat above once under whose reign he had beld the of- in twenty-four or even thirty-six hours. fice of inspector of the military ma- On the breaking out of the revolution of chines. This treatise was first printed at 1821, he was found, by a former follower, Venice, 1497, folio ; and, among modern who came in search of him, but whe, far editions, the most valuable are those of from recognising bis commander in the Schneider (Leipsic, 1808, 4 vols., 8vo.), naked phantom, emaciated, and covered and of Stratico (Ettingen, 1828, 4 vols.). with hair, which stood before him, took to An English translation of the work of flight, and was recalled only by the sounds Vitruvius, with a commentary, by Wil- of his voice. Vittoria, on receiving intelliliam Newton, appeared in 1771, folio, re- gence of the new state of things, descended published 1791, 2 vols., folio; and a new to the low country, and immediately found translation, by W. Wilkins, with an Intro- himself at the head of a body of repubduction, containing an Historical View lican troops, attracted by his old reputaof the Rise and Progress of Architecture tion. He now joined Iturbide ; but, as among the Greeks, was published in 1812, his wishes were set on the establishment

of a liberal government, and not on a VITTORIA, or VICTORIA, Fernandez change of masters, he was again forced Guadalupe, late president of the Mexican to retire to the mountains, when that republic, was born at Durango, where his general carried into successful execution father was a considerable land-holder, in his ambitious projects, and only reappear1790, and had just finished his studies ed again to give the signal for the overfor the bar, in the capital, when the revo- throw of the emperor. (See Iturbide, and lution broke out (1810). He immediately Santa Ana.) On the expulsion of the espoused the cause of his native land emperor, and the establishment of the new against the Spaniards, and entered the constitution, in 1824, Vittoria was chosen the first president of the new republic, general Maurice Matthieu of Barceand continued to administer the execu- lona. tive government during the term of four Vitus's DANCE, St., or CHOREA Sancyears, when Pedraza was chosen his suc- TI Viti (from xopera, a dance), is a spascessor. (See Merico, and Pedraza.) modic or convulsive disease, in which the


VITTORIA, BATTLE OF, was fought on muscles of the extremities and other parts June 21, 1813. In the middle of Februa- are thrown into various involuntary mory, 1813, the disastrous state of the French tions, and perform, in an irregular manarmy in Russia was made known to the ner, those motions which are dictated by French troops in Spain, with orders to the will. The approach of the disease is send whatever forces could be spared to commonly slow, and is indicated by a loss Germany. 30,000 troops set off immedi- of the usual vivacity, by a variable and ately for that country. Their departure, often ravenous appetite, a swelling and and Marmont's defeat in the year previous, hardness in the lower belly, in most cases, obliged the French to give up Madrid, but, in some, a lank and soft belly, and, in and to retire behind the Ebro. "Welling- general, a constipated state of the bowels. ton followed, and passed the Ebro, June Slight, irregular, involuntary motions are 15. At last, the two armies met on the soon observed, especially of the muscles great plain of Vittoria (a town in Alava, of the face, which after a while become Ion. 2° 41' W., lat. 42° 47' N., with a more violent. These convulsive motions population of 6500, much occupied in vary considerably. The muscles of the the manufacture of sword-blades). The extremities, and of the face, those moving French were commanded by king Joseph the lower jaw, the head and the trunk of and Jourdan. They had on their left a the body, are, at different times and in difchain of gentle hills, on their right Vitto- ferent instances, affected by it. In this ria, in front the rivulet of Zadora. On state, the patient does not walk steadily: the 20th, Wellington united all his col- bis gait resembles jumping or starting: umns, and ordered general Hill, on the he sometimes cannot walk, and seems 21st, to pass over the Zadora at day- palsied ; nor can he perform the common break, and to attack the centre of the motions with the arms. In a word, when French. He was repulsed, but the strug- he wishes to be at rest, the muscles are gle was obstinate; and general Graham, perpetually moving, and distorting the in the mean time, turned the right wing limbs, face and trunk; and when any of the French, and came upon their rear, motion is attempted by the will, it is perso that they were cut off from the road to formed irregularly and with difficulty, afBilboa, and forced to retreat towards Pam- ter several efforts. The convulsive mopeluna, which they did in the greatest dis- tions sometimes continue even in sleep. order.' They had been so certain of vic- In the progress of the disease, articulation tory, that liule provision had been made becomes impeded, and is frequently comfor the case of defeat; and many of the pletely suspended. Deglutition is also wives of the officers, the whole of Jo- occasionally performed with difficulty. seph's baggage, &c., fell into the hands of The eye loses its lustre and intelligence ; the English. 15,000 dead and wounded the countenance is pale and expressive of lay on the field of battle ; 3000 French languor. This disease attacks both sexes, were taken prisoners. The English took but chiefly those who are of a weak con151 cannons, and 400 wagons with mili- stitution, or whose health and vigor have tary stores, and the military chest. Their been impaired by confinement, or by the booty was immense. General Clauzel want of sufficient or proper nourishment, arrived the day after the battle, with two It appears most commonly from the eighth divisions, at Vittoria, and, with great skill, to the fourteenth year. Many causes have retreated towards Saragossa, so that the been assigned for this disorder, such as pursuit was less destructive than it would worms in the alimentary canal, and the otherwise have been, and the remains repulsion or drying up of cutaneous erupof the French army were enabled to tions; also rheumatisins, acute fevers, disrally at the foot of the Pyrenees, where eases of the stomach, the use of mercury, Soult put them again in order, and strove terror, and other strong mental impresto oppose Wellington, who was prevented sions. The remedies which have been also, by other circumstances, from follow- adopted belong to the two classes of ing up his victory as he could have tonics and evacuants. The connexion wished; since Suchet, after the unsuccess- of the name of St. Vitus with this disease ful attempt of general Murray on Tarra- seems to have originated, during the days gona, kept possession of Valencia, and of fanaticism and superstition, in the sev.

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enteenth century. Gregorius Horstius superior to Apollonius himself. In 1664, and Juncker relate that a belief prevailed he was honored with a pension from among the people of Germany, that, by Louis XIV, and, in 1666, the grand duke presenting gifts, and dancing before the of Tuscany, who employed him both in image of St. Vitus, on his festival, in May, public works and in negotiation, gave him they should live in health and safety dur- the title of his first mathematician. In ing the ensuing year; and that, for this 1669, he was chosen to fill a chair in the purpose, they repaired to a chapel dedi- royal academy of sciences of Paris, which cated to their saint, where they danced honor induced him to finish three books night and day, until they were seized of his Divination of Aristeus, and address with delirium, and fell down in a sort of them to the king of France (Divinatio in trance.

Aristæum, 1701). He died in 1703, in the Vives, Giovanni Ludovico, one of the eighty-first or eighty-second year of his revivers of literature, was born at Valen- age. Fontenelle speaks warmly of the tia, in Spain, in 1492, and studied at Paris integrity and simplicity of manners of and Louvain. He then visited England, Viviani, who composed several mathehaving previously become one of the first matical treatises in the Latin and Italian fellows of Corpus Christi college, Oxford. languages, besides those already alluded He was patronised by Catharine of Arra- to, the principal of which is entitled gon, and, in 1522, dedicated his Commen. Enodatio Problematum (1677), comprising tary opon St. Augustine’s De Civitate Dei the solution of three problems which had to king Henry VIII. He was also ap- been submitted to all the mathematicians pointed to instruct the princess Mary in of Europe. polite literature and the Latin language.


(See Iron, vol. vii, p. During his residence at Oxford, he was 69.) admitted doctor of laws, and acquired Vizier is a title of honor with the much favor with Henry VIII; but, ven- Turks, belonging to all the pachas of turing to write against his divorce from three tails (i. e. the highest pachas). BeCatharine, he was disgraced and impris- sides these, there are at Constantinople oned. On regaining his liberty, he re- six viziers, called viziers of the bench paired to Brussels, where he married, and (i. e. of the council of state), because they remained, for the rest of his life, as a have seats in the divan. Men acquainted teacher of the belles-lettres. He died in with the laws, and such as have already 1541. His works were printed at Basle held offices of importance, are chosen for in 1555, in 2 vols., folio; but this collection this station; but they have no decisive does not include his Commentary on St. voice in this council, and cannot give Augustine, which was esteemed too bold their opinion until the grand vizier asks and free by the Louvain doctors. Among it. They have small salaries, but are his works are De prima Philosophia ; De privileged to wear a turban like that of Erplanatione Essentiarum ; De Censura the grand viziers, this being a mark of Veri; De Initiis, Sectis et Laudibus Phi- high distinction with the Turks. They losophiæ; and De corruptis Artibus et tra- can also affix the name of the sultan to dendis Disciplinis.

the orders sent into the provinces. The Viviani, Vincent, a celebrated Italian grand vizier (vizier azem) stands high mathematician, was born at Florence, in above these. He is the representative of 1622. From the sixteenth year of his the sultan, conducts the deliberations of age, he pursued the study of geometry the divan, and decides alone. He receives with such diligence and success, that the a seal at the time of his appointment, on great Galilei gave him the advantage of which the sultan's name is engraved, and his own instructions, and treated him as a which he must always wear on his bosom. son. After Galilei's death, he undertook By this seal, he is authorized to rule, with the restoration of the five books of Aris- absolute power, in the name of the grand tæus, a celebrated Grecian mathematician, sultan. entitled De Locis solidis, which were lost, VLIESSINGEN. (See Flushing.) with the exception of the names of the Vocal Music; music produced by the propositions. This labor he, however, dis- human voice (q. v.) alone, or accompanied continued, in order to restore the lost fifth by instruments. It is contradistinguished book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius. from instrumental music (q. v.), which isThis work he published in 1659, in folio, produced by instruments alone. The comunder the title De Maximis et Minimis poser of such music must have a thorGeometrica Divinatio in quintum Conico- ough knowledge of voices, and their murum Apollonië Pergæi, which was esteemed sical effect, their power, and the peculiari

ties by which the human voice differs so nant, and the larynx is double, and some decidedly from instruments. Vocal mu- of which (the singing birds) have lamelsic has many advantages over instrument- læ in the bronchiæ, capable of vibration, al, in the fine blending of the tones, in its the voice is fitted for the most varied endless variety of intonation and expres- sounds. The mammalia possess but one sion, and in the support which it derives larynx; and with them the sound is from its connexion with words. The forined by a strong expiration, whilst different forms of vocal music are, the air, the ligaments of the glottis (according to arietta, cavatina, and the like; recitativo, the opinion of Ferrein) vibrate like the duetto, terzetto, quartetto, &c.; the cho- strings of an instrument, and produce varus, the song, hymn, &c.; the opera, ora- rious sounds, as they are inore or less torio, cantata, &c. (See Music, division tense; or (according to the opinion of History of; see also Voice.)

Dodart and Cuvier) form certain cavities, Vogler, George Joseph, a distinguished in which the tones are produced, as in practical and theoretical musician, was wind instruments; or, perhaps, operate in born at Würzburg, in 1749. He studied both ways at the same time. But the law, but early showed great talent for length of the windpipe, which can be inplaying on the organ, and for composing. creased or shortened, and the magnitude The elector of the Palatinate, Charles of the lungs in proportion to the width of Theodore, sent him to Italy, about 1773, the glottis, also contribute much, at least to study music. In about three years, he to the strength of the tone. The voice, returned to Manheim, the residence of his however, is more influenced by the epiprincely patror. In the year 1780, and glottis, by the greater or less length of the the following years, he travelled in Ger- canal which extends from the glottis to many, France, Holland, Sweden, Eng- the opening of the mouth, and by all the land, Spain, and (as Gerber says) even in voluntary modifications which can be Africa and Greece. In 1786, he was ap- there given to the tone. The influence pointed chapel-master to the king of Swe- of the nerves of the voice is also to be den. In 1790, he was in London, where remarked: if the nerve is cut on one side, his performance on the organ was heard the voice becomes weaker, and if cut on with great pleasure. He delivered lec- both sides, ceases entirely. The positive tures on music in Stockholm and in pole of the galvanic battery affecting the Prague. In 1807, he was appointed chapel- nerve produces high, the negative pole master to the grand duke of Hesse-Darm- deep, hoarse tones. Liscovius, in his Thestadt, and remained in Darmstadt until ory of the Voice (in German, Leipsic, his death, in 1814. He invented a new 1814), maintains that the voice is proinstrument, called orchestrion, in which duced by the pressure of the breath the tone was determined in quite a new through the narrow opening of the windway, by the increase and diminution of pipe, in a similar way as the tones are the wind; and the sound was increased by produced by the mouth' in whistling. Aca suspended copper vessel. He also in- cording to Gottfried Weber (Cæcilin, vol. vented a mode of simplifying the con- i, p. 92), the organ of voice, as a soundstruction of organs. He wrote various ing membrane, or lamella, acts like the works on music, and likewise composed tongue-work in the organ. The uvula several pieces for the theatre, sympho- has, of course, considerable influence in nies, &c.

producing the tones, and is subject to Voice is the body of sounds produced diseases in singers, orators, and others acby the organs of respiration, especially customed to great exertion of the vocal the larynx of men or animals. It can, organs.* The voice of men and animals therefore, only be found in animals in is a very interesting subject of inquiry. which the system of respiration is devel- The tones by which animals express oped, and the lungs and larynx actually their feelings, the sweet and powerful melexist. Many insects intentionally produce odies of the small birds, the tones which a noise by the motion of their wings, convey the ideas and emotions of rational which takes the place of a voice, but man, and furnish his noblest music, are cannot be called by this name. The well fitted to awaken the curiosity of the fishes, being deprived of lungs, and breath- naturalist, physiologist and philosopher.ing through gills, are dumb; but the am- For some remarks on the organs of the phibious animals, which have the lungs and larynx in an imperfect state, have, (physician to the Italian opera in Paris) Memois

See Magendie's Report on Doctor Bernati's therefore, a limited voice. In birds, how

on the Diseases of the Uvula, read March 7, ever, in which the lungs are so predomi- 1831, in the French academy.

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