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the command of Ambrose Dalfinger, of is often many years before it attains a Ulm, to America, and took possession of considerable size. These swellings are the province of Venezuela, which the em- usually spherical, except when this form peror made over to Welser as a pledge. is altered by the disposition of the sur4-0 Germans accompanied this expedi- rounding parts. Practitioners are not acton to Venezuela, in order to settle there; quainted with any effectual means of but their avarice is said to have involved stopping the growth of them. The best them in quarrels with the natives, of whom mode of treatment is amputation of the they destroyed great numbers, and they whole swelling. were at length cut off themselves. TheWel- Wenceslaus(Wenzel), emperor of Gerser family remained, devertheless, twenty- many (frequently called only king of the six years in possession of Venezuela ; but, Germans, because he was not crowned in after the death of Charles V, the Spaniards Rome), and king of Bohemia, of the house deprived them of it. During the same of Luxemburg, eldest son of Charles IV period, the Welsers, together with some (q. V.), was born in 1361. The lawless inerchants of Nuremberg, sent a vessel to state of Germany, at that period, migla the East Indies, in order to seek new have bid defiance to the talents and spirit channels of commerce. The journal of of the greatest ruler; how much more to a this journey of discovery is said to be Wenceslaus! At the age of two years, he still in existence. The celebrated Philip- was crowned king of Bohemia. When pina Welser was niece of the above-men- six years old, be infeoffed a duke, who tioned Welser, and daughter of his broth- kneeled before him, at the command of his er Francis. She had received an upcom- father. At the age of ten years, he was monly good education, and was of great married. Two years later, he was invested beauty, so that Ferdinand (whose father with the mark of Brandenburg, and made subsequently became the emperor Ferdi- to take part in state affairs; and he was nand I) fell in love with her, in 1547, in hardly eighteen years old when he sueAugsburg. She refused all the offers of ceeded his father (in 1378) on the imperithe young duke (then but nineteen years al throne. Of the admonitions which his old), except on condition of marriage. father gave him shortly before his death, The ceremony was privately performed, he disregarded the most important—“Keep in 1550, without the knowledge of his the pope, the priesthood and the Germans father, or his uncle Charles V. The arch- your friends.“ Pride and cruelty were duke Ferdinand was much incensed when ihe predominant traits of his character ; he heard of it, and, for a long time, refus- and his inclinations led him to low sensu. ed to see his son. In foreign countries, ality. Perhaps his conduct may be in this mesalliance also excited much atten- pari attributed to the consequences of an tion. It was not till after eight years that attempt to poison him, which was followthe father was reconciled. Philippina ed by a disease of the liver, attended with died, thirty years after the marriage, at a burning thirst. Two circumstances renInspruck, in 1580. The archduke, her dered his situation particularly difficult. husband, honored her memory by a med. In the beginning of his reign, the schista al, with the inscription Diræ Philippine in the church became peculiarly glaring, Of her two sons, the eldest, Andreu, be- in consequence of the election of two came cardinal; the second, Charles, dis- popes, and had the most injurious intutinguished himself in the wars in Spain ence on political affairs. The abominaand Hungary, and died, in 1618, without ble jus manuarium, or right of private war, leaving any children.
was universal in Germany, owing to the Wen; an encysted tumor. Encysted want of civil order, and of an energetie tumors are formed, in the midst of the administration. Private leagues were cellular substance under the skin, of that formed to procure that redress of which separates the muscles, or even of wrongs which the laws could not afford; that which enters into the structure of and a confederation of the wealthy and the different organs. These tumors are powerful cities in Suabia and on the comprehended in a membrane called a Rhine, opposed the jealous, arrogant and cyst. The causes of their formation are tyrannical nobility and princes, who, in unknown, but a strongly-marked tendency various parts of Germany, also formed to such swellings exists in particular indi. alliances Wenceslaus, in the midst of his viduals, which leads to the suspicion of revelry and debauchery, looked supipely constitutional causes. An encysted tumor, on the disorders of the empire, and seems in its commencement, is always exceed to have secretly encouraged the great ingly small, and perfecdy indolent; and it league of the cities, in order to weaken the power of the princes. At length the him; so that, in 1400, the electors of fear of seeing the royal authority al- Mayence, Treves, Cologne, and the Pamost annihilated by these leagues, induced latinate, only, pronounced his deposition. him to endeavor to counteract them. In Wenceslaus remained inactive, but, nev1387, a violent war broke out between the ertheless, found several supporters, beconfederated cities on one side, and the cause most of the members of the emprinces, counts and lords on the other, in pire were dissatisfied with the steps of which the cities were obliged to yield, af- those electors. His successor, Robert, ter the battle of Döffingen. Wenceslaus could do as little to remedy the deepremained at Prague; and it is said that he rooted evils of the empire as Wenceslaus. answered the deputies, who invited him The latter quarrelled again with his to come to Germany to restore peace, in brother Sigismund, who took him prisonterms to the following effect: “I do not er, and kept him a year and a half in Viknow that I am bound to reconcile the enna. Robert died in 1410, and Sigisestates, as I did not cause their quarrels; mund, to whom Wenceslaus resigned and I fear the fate of the wolf, in the fa- his claims, was elected emperor. He ble, who attempted to reconcile two quar- remained in possession of Bohemia, relling rams.” At all events, he acted ac- and was only disturbed by the commocording to this principle. The defeats suf- tions caused by Huss. He died of apofered by the cities obliged them to remain plexy, in 1419, upon hearing of the inquiet, and Wenceslaus willingly fulfilled surrection of the Hussites, after the exethe wish of the members of the empire, to cution of Huss (q. v.), whom he had enextinguish, by force, all debts due to Jews, deavored to protect." Modern historians for which all debtors were obliged to pay have attempted to find apologies for his fifteen per cent of the debts to the empe. conduct. Certainly all is not true which ror, who was the legal protector of the was said of bim in his time, but his faults Jews! In Bohemia, Wenceslaus was dis- deprive him of all esteem. liked on account of his preference of the Wends; the name given by the GerGermans, and his arbitrary spirit. He mans to a particular branch of that great alienated the nobility by 'exacting the Sclavonic family, the settlements of which restoration of the crown domains, which in the northern and eastern part of Gerhad been mortgaged to them, and excited many, from the Elbe along the Baltic to general odium on account of the cruelty the Vistula, and, towards the south, as far with which he acted in his disputes with as Bohemia, were known as early as the the clergy. His brother, the king of Hun- sixth century. It included, 1. the Obogary, and his cousin, the margrave of Mo- trites, in Mecklenburg, a powerful tribe, ravia, were hostile to him ; and thus origi- under their own kings. Henry the Lion, nated, in 1394, a conspiracy of the Bo- duke of Saxony, alniost extirpated them bemian nobles, who surprised him, and in the twelfth century. 2. The Pomerakept him prisoner. After some months nians and Wiltzians, from the Oder to the he was released; but his authority was Vistula. Their princes united themselves gone in Germany. He was accused of hav- with Germany in 1181, and did not become ing made John Galeazzo Visconti duke extinct until 1637. 3. The Ukers (Frontier of Milan for money, and thus dimin- Wends; see Ukraine), and other tribes ished the territory of the empire. Dis- in the five Brandenburg marks. Albert sensions broke out every where; and the the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg, conpart which circumstances compelled him quered and extirpated them, not because to take in ecclesiastical affairs, contributed they were heathens, but because they much to deprive him of the German were Sclavonians. 4. The Sorbians (more crown. He united with France, to in- properly Serbians), between the Saale and duce the popes, elected in Rome and Avi- Elbe : ancient Misnia, therefore, was called gnon, to resign, and to reëstablish peace in by the Bohemians, Srbsko. 5. Lusitzians the church, by a new election ; and he (improperly Lusatians), in the
margraviate undertook, particularly, to induce Boni- of Upper and Lower Lusatia. The Serbians face to resign; but this pope had been had their own lords, princes and kings, recognised by most of the electors, and and extended their dominion over the they were dissatisfied with the measure whole of the present Osterland, Misnia, of Wenceslaus, particularly the arch- the two Lusatias, Anhalt, the Electoral bishop of Mayence, who owed his eleva- Circle, and the southern part of Brandention to this pope. At last the electors re- burg. In the tenth century, German solved to deprive him of the crown, but colonists became intermingled with them. disagreed respecting who should succeed The mountains, particularly, became peo
pled with Germans, because the Sclavo- were distinguished from their German nians preferred the plains, as more adapt- neighbors. The language was so ridied to agriculture; hence, even now, the culed, that people became ashamed to villages in the mountains have German speak it. Some customs and modes of names, but almost all places in the plains, dress still exist in niany places, which reSclavonic names. In Leipsic, the Servi- mind us of the Wendish origin of their an language ceased to be spoken in 1327, inhabitants, although German only is though many Sclavonic words have been spoken there at present, as in Altenburg, preserved in the country. From the The Wends were a warlike people, and mixture of the Sclavonians with the waged war against the Germans, at dif- Franks and Saxons, the Upper Saxon idi- ferent periods, from the seventh century, om was formed since the tenth century. Several times in connexion with the BoMany German names have evidently come hemians, and, at a later period, with the from the Serbes; those which end in itz, Hungarians, until, in 934, Henry I deik, nik, enz, as Nostitz, Maltitz, Gablenz, feated them, at Merseburg, and Otho in Lessing (said to be originally Lesnjk). Of 948. The German kings then erected the Lusatians only, considerable remains the margraviates of Misnia, Northern have been preserved, owing to their long Saxony and Lusatia, to keep these Sclaconnexion with Bohemia, and the tolera- vonians in obedience. The religious tion which they experienced. The dia- foundations at Misnia, Merseburg, Zeitz, lect of Upper Lusatia approaches to the and Magdeburg, were also established, Bohemian; the Lower Lusatian more to partly with a view to propagate the Chris the Polish. In imitation of the German, tian religion among the Wends. They it adopted the article and several other pe- were driven from their towns to the vilculiarities, as did also the Sclavonians bor- lages; the prisoners of war were given to dering on Germany, in Stiria, Carinthia chapters, convents, and noblemen, as and Carniola. of the state of their lan- villeins. All possible means were used guage before their conversion to Chris- to make the Wends adopt the Christian tianity, we know little. Even after that religion, and to blend them into one peoevent they remained subject to the se- ple with the Germans. In 1047, Gottsverest oppression: no light penetrated to chalk established a Wendish or Obotritish them. It was not till after the reformation kingdom, consisting of eighteen provinces, that they began to write their dialect. under the Saxon dukes and the German During the thirty years' war (q. v.), it was kings, and strove to introduce German contemplated to eradicate their language, civilization, but, for that reason, was murand German ministers were given to dered in 1066. His son Henry reestab them: sixteen parishes actually became lished the kingdom in 1105, which, aj a German. It was not till the eighteenth later period, Knud, duke of Sleswie, recentury that they were left unmolested in ceived as a fief, after whose death it was the use of their own language. The or- broken up. The introduction of Chris thography was settled in 1689, by a mix- tianity among the Wends was gradually ture of Bohemian and German. In 1716, effected, though traces of heathen worship a seminary, for the instruction of the long remained. The Wends of Lusatia Wends, was established in Leipsie, and, at present occupy a tract extending from in 1749, one in Wittenberg. A Wendish Löbau to the mark of Brandenburg. They seminary for Catholics was also establish- are industrious, but, in consequence of ed in Prague. There is a complete trans- their former oppression, suspicious and lation of the Bible, a grammar, and sever- reserved. Their language enables tbem al other books, in their language; yet the to make themselves understood by the decrease of the Wendish, in Lusatia, Poles and Russians. In Leipsic, there is is very great. In Pomerania, the last a society in which students from Lusaperson who spoke that language died tia practise preaching in Wendish. It is a in 1404. Only between the Elbe and curious fact, that only about three miles Iretze, a remnant of Obotrites (called from Berlin there is a village called Rir. Polabes, from Labe, Elbe, and po, dwell- dorf, inhabited by Wends, many of whom, ing) maintained itself till recent times; though in constant intercourse with Gerand, in 1751, the last religious service in mans, and going daily to the market of Wendish took place in Wustrow. These Berlin to sell their produce, nevertheless Wends existed, indeed, in the latter half were wholly ignorant of the German lanof the last century; but the government guage until lately, when their unwilling. Labored to destroy the peculiarities of ness to intermarry with Germans bas language and customs by which they given way to more rational notions.
WENTWORTH. (See Strafford.) on mineralogy. In 1780, he published the
WERF, Adrian van der, a Dutch paint- first part of a translation of Cronstadt's Miner, born near Rotterdam, in 1659, of poor eralogy; and, in his annotations on this parents, was first instructed in his art by work, he gave the first sketch of his minePiccolett, a portrait painter, and after- ralogical system, and published many dewards became a pupil of Van der Neer. scriptions in conformity with the methods Having settled at Rotterdam, he obtained proposed in his treatise on external characgreat reputation as a painter of portraits, ters
. In 1791, appeared his Catalogue of the and executed a piece for Steen, a rich mineral Collection of Pabst von Ohain. merchant of Amsterdam, which procured Besides' his lectures on mineralogy, he also him the patronage of the elector palatine. delivered lectures on the art of inining, That prince, baving visited Holland with which he rendered peculiarly intelligible his family in 1696, went to Rotterdam, and interesting by his simplification of and ordered Van der Werf to paint for the machinery, and by drawings and fighim the Judgment of Solomon, and ures. His system of geognosy, or geolohis portrait. The artist took the pictures gy, was unfolded only in his lectures; but to Dusseldorf when they were finished; those he caused to be written out by his and the elector wished to retain him in approved pupils, and, revising them himhis service, but he only engaged himself self, he communicated authority to their for six months in the year, receiving a manuscripts. Many parts of these lechandsome pension. In 1703, he went to tures have been published in different present to his patron his Christ carried to countries. Werner himself likewise pubthe Sepulchre, which is regarded as his best lished some mineralogical papers in the production. He was honored with knight- Miner's Journal ; and, in 1291, appeared hood by the elector, who treated him with his New Theory of the Formation of great liberality, augmenting his pension, Metallic Veins, which was translated both and bestowing on him many marks of his into French and English. He was nomesteem. He died at Rotterdam, Nov. 12, inated counsellor of the mines of Saxony 1722. Van der Werf was particularly in 1792, and had a great share in the noted for his small historical pieces, which direction of the academy of mineralogy, are most exquisitely finished, and which and in the administration of public are still in high request, though his repu- works. The cabinet of minerals which fation is not quite equal to what it was he had collected was unrivalled for its during his life.-His brother and pupil
, completeness and arrangement, consisting Peter ran der Werf, painted portraits of one hundred thousand specimens. and conversation pieces, and was a very This he sold to the mineralogical acadeable artist. He died in 1718, aged fifty- my, for about $28,000, reserving the five.
interest of $23,000 as an annuity to himWERNER, Abraham Gottlob; a celebrat- self and his sister, who had no children, ed mineralogist, born in Germany, Sept. and at her death to revert to the academy 35, 1750. His father was overseer of of Freyberg. He died, unmarried, in iron works in Upper Lusatia ; and the son, August, 1817. A knowledge of the Werbeing intended for the same employment, nerian mineralogy was first introduced was sent, after some previous educa- into England by Kirwan; but a more tion at school, to the mineralogical acade- complete view of it is exhibited in promy at Freyberg. Thence he removed to fessor Jameson's System of Mineralogy, Leipsic, where he applied himself to nat- 1804, second edition, 1817. As a geoloural history and jurisprudence, but more gist, Werner is scarcely entitled to the especially to the former, which he found merit of originality, as his geognosy conthe most attractive. The external char- sisted more in the invention of a new acters of mineral bodies attracted much language adapted to support a theory, of his attention ; and, in 1774, he publish- than in the exhibition of novel facts, or ed a work on that subject, considered as the discovery of a new and practical the basis of his oryctognostic or mineral- method of investigation. (See Geology.) ogical system. It has been translated into But the science of mineralogy is highly various languages, and adopted and com- indebted to his labors; and in having mented on by other writers; but the au- given a definite and systematic arrangethor could never be persuaded to publish ment of mineral bodies, showing their a new and enlarged edition. Soon after characteristic analogies, he has done that this publication, Werner was invited to for the branch of natural knowledge be become keeper of the cabinet of natural cultivated, which Linnæus did for the history at Freyberg, and to deliver lectures science of botany, and thus attached a VOL. XIII.
permanent celebrity to his name. (See residence at Oxford, he was only distinMineralogy.)
guished as a grave, sedate young man; WESEL; a fortified town in the govern- but after a while, the perusal of some dement of Cleves, in the Prussian domin- votional tracts, and more especially Law's ions on the Rhine, at the entrance of the Serious Call, induced him to consecrate Lippe into that river, fifteen miles north- himself more entirely to what he deemed west of Gueldres, seventeen east-south- the essentials of a holy life. In 172, he east of Cleves; lon. 6° 37' E.; lat. 51° 39 associated with some friends of similar N. ; population, including the garrison, disposition, who met and read together the 12,000.' It is strongly fortified, was once classics on week-days, and divinity on a Hanseatic town, and has considerable Sundays; but shortly after, their meetings commerce, navigation and manufactures, became exclusively religious. This sociparticularly of spirituous liquors. It con- ety consisted of fifteen members, who, tains a gymnasium, a theatre, four parish from the strictness of their manners and churches, &c.
deportment, were variously designated by Weser, one of the large rivers of the other students, but more especially Germany, originates from the union of obtained the name of Methodists, which the Werra (the source of which is in appellation they themselves sanctioned Hildburghausen) and the Fulda, which and retained. (See Methodists. His rises in the grand duchy of Fulda. At father wished him to make interest for Münden, in Hanover, they unite, and are the next presentation of his living of called Weser, which is believed to be only Epworth ; but he was too much attached a contraction of the original name of the to Oxford, and the manner in which he Werra (Wisaraha, Wesara, Wirraha). was engaged, to listen to his advice. A The Weser passes through the Hanoverian mission to Georgia had soon after greater principality of Göttingen, Brunswick, the attractions, and, in 1735, he accepted the principality of Calenberg, Schauenburg, invitation of doctor Burton, one of the the Prussian province of Westphalia, trustees for that newly-founded colony, to Hoya, Verden, Bremen, and the duchy go over and preach to the Indians. He of Oldenburg, and empties into the North accordingly embarked the same year, sea, ten German or about forty-five Eng- in company with his brother Charles, two lish miles below Bremen, after having other missionaries, and several German received several other rivers. The twen- Moravians. The disturbed state of the ty-two tolls on the Weser are extremely colony prevented all preaching to the Inharassing and injurious to internal com- dians; and, although the colonists of Samerce. One single toll, that of Elsfleth, vannah were at first attentive to the minwhich at present is abolished, produced istry of Mr. Wesley, his notions were too annually 80–100,000 German dollars. high church for his hearers. He refused the The history of the exactions and injus- Lord's supper to dissenters, unless they tice connected with the tolls of one such would be rebaptized, insisted upon immer river would show how little regard has sion in the rite of baptism, and, by a variety been paid to the interest of the people. of ascetical practices, excited an unfavora In 1817, a project was formed for uniting ble opinion of his judgment. What most the Weser and the Elbe. The most im- injured his reputation, however, was his portant cities on the Weser are Münden, conduct towards a young lady, whom it Hameln, Rinteln, Minden, Nienburg and was expected he would marry, and whom Breinen.
he refused to admit to communion after Wesley, John, the second son of Sam- her marriage with another person, with uel Wesley, rector of Epworth, was born out deigning to assign any reason. Legal aEpworth, June 17, 1703. He received proceedings were in consequence comhis school education at the Charter-house, menced against him, previous to the conwhence he was removed to Christ-church clusion of which, after a consultation college, Oxford. After taking his first with his friends, he became convinced that degree, he was, in 1724, elected fellow of “God called him to return to England;" Lincoln college, and, in 1726, graduated on which he gave public notice of bis master of aris. At this time, he was dis- intention to depart, and left Georgia after tinguished for his classical attainments, an abode of a year and nine months. On skill in dialectics, and talent in poetry. his arrival from America, he discovered Soon afier he was elected fellow, he was that he, who had been voyaging to conappointed Greek lecturer, and took pu- vert others, had never been converted
and, in 1725, he was ordained by himself; and he felt, as he observed, ".
Potter. For some time after his want of the victorious faith of more ex