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ness. Every system tends to produce men Having referred again to the fact that the in its own image, who will defend it to the social degradation of woman is traceable to last; and the living ideas or needs, however her physical weakness in ages of war, we urgent, must long be ruled by sceptres held take this place to affirm that she can be in the hands of skeletons. We may yet justly excluded from any other sphere of study with profit, as we did in 1832, the life only by a degree of natural incompehistory of the proud city of Old Sarum. tence similar to that which incapacitated her On that hill stood the grand old cathedral for war. A stone that is fit for the wall is and the castle from which Roman and Sax- not left in the way, says the proverb; and on and Dane and Norman had successively Nature is too cunning a builder to put into ruled south-western England. An age of the wall the stone that is unfit. If women incessant warfare, made by the struggles of are unable to help men in the court, the races, had decided that the city should be college, the government, there need be no built on that hill. But when the first days restrictive laws to keep them out of these. of comparative peace came, the people of But these things cannot be decided by prejOld Sarum looked upon the green and smil- udice. Women must be permitted to uning valley of the Avon near them, and said, fold their faculties freely, and their level “Why should we be perched upon this must be determined by their real abilities hill ? The yearning for the valley in- and disabilities not those arbitrarily ascreased, until about six centuries ago the signed them by man. And thus far, we whole city went down into the valley, and claim, the only occupations for which she a single generation saw the first stone of has been shown unfit are those which are Salisbury laid and the last inhabitant leave doomed to pass away, and which intelligent Old Sarum. For several centuries now not and good men everywhere are seeking to even the outlines of the ancient city could abolish. Woman, it is granted, is unfit for be traced in the dust. And yet up to 1832, war; but who does not hope that war is Old Sarum continued to send two members passing away for ever? We are anxious to to parliament, as in the reign of Edward keep women out of the region of the mobIII. The two members were elected under violence, partizan rancours, and intrigues, an old tree, where in the presence of the attendant upon elections; but what good sheep and grass the bailiff read the Bribery citizen does not wish to purge politics of Act, proclaimed the elections, and so on. these base accompaniments ? A French Thus did Old Sarum continue to make laws writer, Madame Sirault, has said, “ Every for England centuries after it had utterly career from which woman is steadily redisappeared from the earth, with the mili- pulsed by man is, by this fact alone, marked tary exigencies which had built it. Some- with the seal of death. The very repulse thing has been done toward abolishing the stigmatizes it. Man may not be conscious rotten boroughs of politics ; but how many of what he does; but the career which is moral and intellectual Old Sarums are there too vile for a woman to enter has already which have crumbled with the conditions outlived all chance of reform, and must that produced them, but still manage to perish with its abuses." Her statement is wield power and make laws for the living ? true. And our trade, laws, politics, will Are not our universities really the rotten then alone be sufficiently ennobled in the boroughs of monkish ages ?
eyes of just and wise men, when a pure woAn English journal, in a late article on the man may mingle with them without danger enfranchisement of woman, claimed that her or shame. It is significant that reformers inability to be a soldier was the seal of Na- are glad to accept the aid of woman in their ture to her present inferiority of position. organizations; she is not out of place in The able editor was perhaps unconscious of their ideal societies. Her equality refers to the extreme antiquity of his opinion, which happier and purer eras, as her oppressions was the echo of that of the first savage who refer to ages of bloodshed, tainted trade, ever knocked his child on the head because and corrupt politics. it was a female, and therefore unfit for the God said, “It is not good that man should one object of life — warfare. An age in be alone: I will make him an help meet which war was the one interest produced that for him. Then made be a woman, and editor's idea as it built Sarum on a hill; but brought her unto the man. So spoke the what meaning has it for an age that has human instinct in ancient times. But presabandoned the fortified crags for the green ently man concluded that he knew better; valleys of peaceful life? Government is and said, in the market, in the college, in not now a War Council. It concerns the public affairs, man shall be alone. And every-day relations and the homes of men, even in the home he determined that wowomen, and children; of education, art and man should enter at first only as a slave, religion.
I and to the last only as an inferior. Never
theless, through her own ability and his he would very soon find a propriety in feneeds, woman gradually obtained in fact, male physicians. And the most respectable though never in law, a preponderant power merchant would be found citing Portia, if in the homes of civilized society. Now with a law-case involving 10,0001. he fully compare this one ephere in which her equal- believed that a certain female barrister ity is practically recognized, and her intlu- could infallibly gain his cause. Therefore, ence most felt, with any of those in which the thorough education of women, –
- their man bas resolved that it is good for him to admission to every advantage for training be alone. Compare a refined English home possessed by man, seems to us the parent with English politics, diplomacy, litigation, of all other reforms. Let there be the colleges, international relations; and who river, it will not fail to find its channel, and does not feel that the latter are some centu- the right path to the sea. Let women be ries behind the former in civility and beau- known to have faculties available for definite ty? There is a taint of grossness or bar- work, and the sentimental will have to sigh barism upon every department of the world over her deserted “sphere” in vain. It from which woman is excluded; and every was long before female physicians were home in England writes upon our public heard of — about 1745 – that a woman in affairs, “It is not good for man to be good society in New York, a Mrs. Lester, alone.”
was known to have great surgical skill and For ourselves we are not, in this matter, medical knowledge, and in the course of so much concerned for “woman's rights" as thirty-four years she was called to attend for the rights of mankind. We believe that 1300 important cases. A woman became the enfranchisement of woman would be chief calculator of lunar tables at Wasbingthe greatest contribution toward carrying ton, because when Congress made an apthe civilization of the home into the rank propriation for a Nautical Almanac she ofwilderness of Statecraft; that the laws fered the most accurate work. Neither of would be more just, wars more rare, and these women failed to receive due applause the relations of nation with nation less from society. Mrs. Dall's excellent work is snarling and selfish, if they were not so un- a cyclopædia of facts which show that woinitigatedly male. We believe that those man's sphere will always be widened enough who come after us will regard us as having to include anything she can actually contribeen very stupid in going on from age to age bute to society. But her credentials must with our repulsive social routine, our hard be verified, to use Margaret Fuller's phrase, selfish politics, with their venality and gen- by good work. We believe, therefore, that eral ugliness, while all around us lay unuti- the first thing of all to claim for her is the lized the vast resources of moral feeling right of education, the right, that is, to and refining power in the heart and brain be put in possession of the implements for of woman. We believe that man is only her work. And experience has shown that half living in so much of this world as wo- this will not be fairly done until women are man is excluded from; that he is only half admitted to the same studies, in the same seeing truth, only half discovering the laws universities, with men. In every female and the beauty surrounding him, because college in the world studies are expurgated, one of his eyes with a subtle light of its qualified, selected, accommodated, to suit own is closed in the ignorance of woman. some preconceived nonsensical theory about
But whether this creed be true or not, it woman's mind or woman's sphere. Thus will never be recognized in the organization she is shackled to begin with, and then held of society until women have shown their up to illustrate her inability to keep step ability to help the world materially in all with man. If a thing be true, a woman these directions. As it is the rule of the has, in her ability to learn it, the right to British Constitution to admit classes to learn it; and in depriving her of a particupower only when there is more danger in lar study, man may be withholding the parkeeping them out than in admitting them, ticular ray of heat or light under which her so it will for a long time be the rule with special ability would unfold. It is a deep our commercial Anglo-Saxon man to make wrong that ages which held that women had changes only when they improve the col- no souls, or made them slaves, umn of profits and diminish that of loss. ionable toys, - or consecrated them to We have not the least faith that our solid nunneries, – should still be represented in men will suffer a sentiment to come between our laws, institutions, and colleges ; and it them and a solid advantage. If the most is adding insult to the injury, when the maconservative man in England had consump- chinery into which we place her turns out tion or epilepsy, and really believed that a "the girl of the period,'to hold her up to certain woman could completely cure him, I the scorn of the world as the best thing that
- or fash
woman has become in the noon of the nine-
pulse, tenderness, and moral promptings, grow into tawdry sentimentalism when shut out from their fit arena, when untrained to emulate a brother's active life. Coolness, forethought, and strength, grow into cunning, rapacity, and tyranny, when uninfluenced by that gentler element of your nature which God has placed by your side."
In the home we have succeeded, in civilized communities, in overruling to some extent this horrible divorce. The next step These Roman and Salic laws upon which is to overrule it in the larger home where our modern society is based are really de- human minds are nurtured and trained for crees of divorce between man and woman, life - the school. And from these the sabetween their mutually supplementary pow-cred reuniting influence shall surely extend As Mrs. Dall has well said:- Im-through all the departments of human life.
CROMWELL AND THE CAVALIERS. -It was in the Abbey the Cavaliers believed Cromwell's body to lie; but this is not our legend, for we think we know where he really is. The author of "The History of England during the Reigns of the Royal House of Stuart " says that a gentlewoman who attended the Protector during his last illness told him that the day after his death his friends, fearing the malice and insults of the Cavaliers if they ever regained power, wrapped in lead the body so sacred to all good Puritans; two of his nearest relations and a guard of soldiers then put it on board a barge and carried it below bridge, and at night sank it under the quiet waters in the deepest part of the Thames. But neither is this our legend. The author of "The Compleat History of England," again, relates a still more reliable tradition, which he derived from the son of Barkstead the regicide, a gentleman then still living, and to be met with at Richards' Coffee House, within Temple Bar. The story was this: - His father was Lieutenant of the Tower, and one of Cromwell's special confidants. During Cromwell's last illness, Barkstead one day desired to know where his friend wished to be buried; the Protector answered, where he had obtained the greatest victory and glory, on the field of Naseby, and as near as possible to the spot where the heat of the action had been. One midnight, soon after his death, the body was embalmed and placed in a leaden coffin, and was put into a hearse. This hearse, Barkstead the narrator- then a boy of fifteen --says he helped to escort down to Northamptonshire. On arriving at Naseby, they found a grave nine feet deep already dug, the mould carefully heaped on one side, and the green sods on the other. The coffin was then lowered, the mould replaced, the residue carted away, and the turf laid down again with care and precision. Soon after, the field was ploughed up and quarian. Let us hope that our legend is true, sown for three or four years successively with | and that there still, under the sooty summerBut our own legend, which we have hith-house, rest the honored bones of the great Pro-` erto kept so carefully secret, is asserted with tector. The very possibility of the truth of such equal firmness, and rests on still more reliable a legend will surely consecrate that slip of dingy testimony. It is reported, and is still believed garden-ground as long as London remains the by many, that either soon after his death, or on centre of the world's civilization. VOL. XI. 458
the night his coffin was dug up at Westminster, and carted off to the Red Lion Inn at Holborn, to be hung the next day on the Tyburn gibbet, the body was secretly removed, another substituted in its place, and the real corpse of the Protector buried in what is now the centre of Red Lion-square-exactly where the obelisk used to be, and as nearly as possible on the site of the little black, dismal summer-house that now stands there. The legend, true or untrue, has hallowed the spot for ever. The Cavaliers wasted their cruelty. On June the 14th, immediately after the Restoration, the waxen effigy of Cromwell- the one we have described as lying in state-was hung by a rope to the bars of a window of the Jewel Office at Whitehall, amid the derision of the fickle mob. On December the 8th, the Lords concurred with the Commons in ordering the bodies (carcases they called them) of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw, and Pride to be dug up, carried on hurdles to Tyburn, there to be hung in their coffins, and afterwards to be buried under the gibbet. The rough disinterment took place on January the 26th. That was Saturday night; on Monday night the bodies were carted to the Red Lion Inn in Holborn, and the next day drawn on sledges to Tyburn, amid the curses and acclamations of the same people who had so often greeted the victorious Protector. The bodies were pulled out of their coffins in the Tyburn fields, and hung upon the triple tree. At sunset they were taken down, the heads cut off, and the trunks buried in a deep hole under the gallows. The next day the common hangman (Jack Ketch himself, we believe) stuck the heads on poles, and set them on the top of Westminster Hall, Bradshaw in the middle, Ireton on one side, and Cromwell on the other. An embalmed head, said to be that of Cromwell, is still preserved by a London anti
From The Spectator. (whose vulgarity, by the way, as described in the RUN TO EARTH. *
novel, is wholly out of accordance with the posi
tion they occupy), marries the baronet, is made “ RUN TO EARTH is an extraordinary speci- a widow in a few weeks through Carrington's men of sensational fiction. The author has, if devices, devotes herself to purposes of rerenge, possible, excelled herself, she has beaten all her and discovers at last that she is the stolen child rivals, she has forever obscured the fame of those of a lady of title and distantly connected with wonderful fiction-writers, beloved of errand-boys her husband's family. and shop-girls, who deal in revenge and murder, We have but glanced at some of the more jealousy and hatred, who treat the wildest and prominent incidents of the novel, which the most diabolical actions as ordinary occurrences, author is no doubt justified in calling “ a sensawho convert men into ghouls and women into har- tional story, pure and simple.” She quotes also pies, who can transform with a stroke of the pen an observation made by“ one of the most accomå beggar into a princess, and an English gentle- plished reviewers of the day" (Mr. Lewes, we man into a Thug. If the first object of the nov- believe), to the effect that in criticizing stories elist be to excite a morbid curiosity, if blood there should be some discrimination of the kind and poisoning and intrigue, the most hateful of interest attempted, and that the critic should passions, the vilest actions, form the best ingre- not demand from the writer qualities incompatdients of fiction, then it must be owned that no ible with or utterly disregarded by his method. one has mixed them together more skilfully than The interest aimed at in Run to Earth is simply Miss Braddon. Her admirers, and they are sensational, and we are ready to grant that in many, will assuredly not be disappointed with this that aim the author has been successful. She has fiction. We can promise them a murder, a se- made up a tale utterly without probability, duction, a suicide, and the conversion of a street- without characterization, without thought, withsinger into a fashionable young lady before they out humour, pathos, or poetry, without one of have read a hundred pages of the story. A little the charms, in short, which delight us in the further on they will be introduced to a surgeon great masters of fiction, a tale which has no use known as Victor Carrington, but who is in real- in the world beyond that of stimulating an unity an exiled French nobleman, “a creature wholesome curiosity, and supplying fitting aliwithout a conscience, without a heart,” who ment to a vulgar sort of mental dissipation. This wears a mask of metal with glass eyes, accom- is the kind of success achieved by the writers of plishes an outrageous plot and an incredible sensational fiction, and the same kind of distincmurder in the first volume, a plot still more out- tion may be justly awarded to the novel before rageous and a murder only possible in fiction in us. It fulfils its purpose, but the critic may be the second volume, and very nearly commits an- permitted to ask whether such a purpose is worth other murder in the third. Then the readers of fulfilling ? this marvellous novel will be taken to a mysterious gambling house at Fulham, with a secret room in which rouge-et-noir is played. The house is kept by Madame Durski, a lonely and beautiful THE COMPOSITION OF LAVA.- The lava thrown womin,
who lures fools to their destruction, is out by Mount Vesuvius during the present erupherself a slave to opium, and yet, strange to say, tion has been subjected to analysis by an Italian is one of the most respectable people in the nar- chemist, and found to contain the following ingrerative. This lady's affianced lover accuses her dients : Silica, 39 parts; lime, 18; alumina, 14; of endeavouring to poison him, whereupon Ma- magnesia, 3; protoxide of iron, 13; potash, 1; dame Durski, “luckless, hopeless, heartbroken,” soda, 10; water, 2. The specimen, therefore, takes an overdose of her favourite“ compound," closely resembled the common glass seen in wine and disappears from the scene. This is but one bottles. Lava, though varying considerably in sensation:al incident among many. We have a colour and solidity or friability, and occasionally sailor accusing his honest father-in-law of mur- containing little groups of crystalline minerals, der, a husband accusing his wife of adultery, would seem to be a sort of rough natural glass or the disuppearance of a baby heiress who lives in earthenware mainly produced from sind, chalk, a castle and who is protected by a great iron clay, and similar common earthy substances. door, the achievements of a Lon lon detective, and the ignominious failures of a husband hunter. Marvellous, too, are the adventures of the heroine, who sings in low public houses at Wapping,
A PRESS ASSOCIATION is being formel, to sun. is said to be the child of a wretch whom she knows to be a murderer, is picked out of the the forthcoming Government telegraph arrange
ply the provincial newspapers with news under gutter by a baronet worth £10,000 a year, is
ments. transferred to " a thoroughly aristocratic semi; tionize the present mode of collecting and sup
It is thought the change will revolunary, presided over by two maiden sisters ”
plying news to the provincial dailies. Under * Run to Earth. A Novel. By the author of Lady the new system a leader-writer will be able to Aulley's Secret. vols. London : Ward, Locke, telegraph a late article for about 58. and Tyler. 1868.
AN ILLUMINATING FLASH.
gave it to be understood that the old established families could not be too
strict in receiving foreign intruders. AFTER the crisis of a storm has passed, a In a somewhat forced humor, Bella joked company of persons become very lively, and about the long nails of Frau Ceres ; but her have an additional feeling of home. They lips trembled when Clodwig said very sharphad withdrawn into the inner music saloon, ly, “ Among the Indians long nails take the whose vaulted ceiling, brilliantly lighted up, place of family descent, and the one perhad even a festive appearance. Half way haps is as good as the other." up the walls of the room four balconies pro- All were amazed when Clodwig spoke so jected, and in the centre was the grand pi- disparagingly of the nobility. He seemed
On one side was a circular seat, upon displeased at the detracting remarks upon an elevated platform, where Bella was sit- the Sonnencamp family; he was above all ting with the happy justice's wise on the meanness, and everything small and invidiright, and the forester's wife on the left. ous was as offensive to him as a disagree
The young girls were promenading arm able odor. Turning to Eric, he said, in arm through the saloon, and Pranken, “ Herr Sonnencamp, the present subject of full of his jokes, accompanied them; he the conversation, is the owner of many milcarried in his hand a rose out of Lina's lions. To acquire such immense wealth is wreath; when Clodwig and Eric joined the an evidence of strength; or, I should rather circle, with the mayor, the young people say, to acquire great wealth shows great came up to them.
vigor; to keep it requires great wisdom; Bella asked the major whether the work and to use it well is a virtue and an art.” upon the castle, which Herr Sonnencamp He paused, and as no one spoke, he conhad begun to rebuild, was still continued. tinued, “Riches have a certain title to The mayor nodded; he always nodded sev- respect; riches, especially one's own acquieral times before he spoke, as if carefully sition, are an evidence of activity and serarranging beforehand what he should say. vice. Far easier does it appear to me to
He asserted very confidently that they be a prince, than to be a man of such exwould find a spring in the castle court-yard. cessive wealth. Such an accumulation of Clodwig begged him to preserve carefully power is apt to make men arbitrary; a very every relic of the middle ages and the Ro- wealthy man lives in an atmosphere saturatman period, and promised soon to go him- ed, as it were, with the consciousness of self, and superintend the excavations. The supreme power, and ceases to be an indihead-forester jestingly observed, * Herr vidual personality, and the whole world asSonnencamp,"_everybody called him Herr, sumes to him the aspect of a price-current but with a peculiar accent, as if they wished list. Have you ever met such a man?" no further acquaintance with him, — “Herr Before Eric could reply, Pranken roughly Sonnencamp will probably now give his broke in, “ Captain Dournay wishes to bename to the restored castle."
come the tutor of the young Sonnencamp." When Herr Sonnencamp's name was All eyes were directed towards Eric; he mentioned, it seemed as if a dam had been was regarded as if he had been suddenly carried away, and the conversation rushed transformed, and clad in a beggar's garin headlong from all quarters.
ment. The men nodded to each other and “ llerr Sonnencamp has a deal of under- shrugged their shoulders; a man engaging standing,” said the school-director, “ but in a private employment, and such an emMolière maliciously observes, that the rich ployment too, had lost all title to considerman's understanding is in his pocket.”
ation. The ladies looked at him compasThe apothecary added, • Flerr Sonnen- sionately. Eric saw nothing of all this. camp loves to represent himself as an incor- He did not know what Pranken meant by rigible sinner, in the hope that nobody will this surprising revelation; he felt that he believe him ; but people do believe him." must make some reply, but knew not what
Eric caught the names Herr Sonnen- to say. camp, Frau Ceres, Manna, Roland, Frau A painful pause followed Pranken's comPerini; it was like the chirping of birds in munication. Clodwig had placed his hands the woods, all sounds mingled together, and upon his lips, that had become very pale. no one melody distinctly beard. The wife At last he said, “ Such an appointment will of the justice, with a significant glance to- contribute to your honor, and to the honor wards Pranken, said, “Men like the major and good fortune of Herr Sonnencamp.". and Herr von Pranken can take up at once
Eric felt a broad band laid upon his such mysterious, interloping people from shoulder, and on looking round be gazed abroad, but ladies must be more reserved.” | into the smiling countenance of the major, Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Mass.