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planation of their views and intentions, frag- different note-books, and, before they could ments of ancient poems or proverbs, or made be given to the public, required to be careallusions which rested on an ancient system fully arranged and re-written, and, what was of mythology; and although it was clear still more difficult (whether viewed in refethat the most important parts of their com- rence to the real difficulty of fairly transmunications were embodied in these figura. lating the ancient language in which they tive forms, the interpreters were quite at fault, were composed, or my many public duties), they could then rarely (if ever) translate it was necessary that they should be transthe poems or explain the allusions, and there lated. was no publication in existence which threw ** Having, however, with much toil acany light upon these subjects, or wbich gave quired information which I found so useful the meaning of the great mass of the words to myself, I felt unwilling that the result of which the natives, upon such occasions, my labours should be lost to those whose made use of; so that I was compelled to duty it may be hereafter to deal with the content myself with a short general state- natives of New Zealand; and I, therefore, ment of what some other native believed undertook a new task, which I have often, that the writer of the letter intended to very often, been sorely tempted to abandon ; convey as his meaning by the fraginent but the same sense of duty which made me of the poem he had quoted, or by the allu- originally enter upon the study of the native sions he had made. I should add, that even language has enabled me to persevere up to the great majority of the young Christian the present period, when I have already natives were quite as much at fault on these published one large volume in the native subjects as were the European interpreters. language, containing a very extensive col.

* Clearly, however, I could not, as Go- lection of the ancient traditional poems, revernor of the country, permit so close a veil ligious chants and songs of the Maori race, to remain drawn between myself and the and I now present to the European reader a aged and influential chiefs, whom it was my translation of the principal portion of their duty to attach to British interests and to the ancient mythology, and of some of their British race-whose regard and confidence, as most interesting legends.”—Preface, pp.iii.-X. also that of their tribes, it was my desire to secure, and with whom it was necessary that

The book thus laboriously compiled I should hold the most unrestricted inter- and translated, we have read with un. course. Only one thing could, under such abated interest from beginning to end. circumstances, be done, and that was to ac- It is true that, as Sir Geo. Grey himself quaint myself with the ancient language of

remarks, the stories and traditions are the country, to collect its traditional poems and legends, to induce their priests to impart puerile or more absurd than the stories

often puerile and absurd, but not more to me their mythology, and to study their proverbs. For more than eight years I de

and traditional mythology of our own voted a great part of my available time to

ancestors, whether Celtic or Saxon, or these pursuits. Indeed I worked at this

than those handed down to us from the duty in my spare moments in every part of

old Greeks and Romans. To the latthe country I traversed, and during my many ter especially we have become reconvoyages from portion to portion of the is. ciled from having had them taught us lands. I was also always accompanied by from our boyhood as carefully as if natives, and still

, at every possible interval, they had still been part of our faith, pursued my inquiries into these subjects.

and from their being embalmned in all Orce, when I had with great pains amassed

the graces of diction and elegance, a large mass of materials to aid me in my

beauty and grandeur of language by studies, the Government House was destroyed by fire, and with it were burnt the mate

the most famous poets of the world. rials I had so collected, and thus I was left

If, however, the inythological stories to commence again my difficult and weary

of Homer, and Hesiod, and Eschylus, ing task.

or of Virgil and Ovid, were to be sim* The ultimate result, however, was, that ply translated into ordinary prose even I acquired a great amount of information on as they now stand, an educated man these subjects, and collected a large mass of who had never heard of thein before materials, which was, however, from the

(supposing you could find such a permanner in which they were acquired, in a

son) would be moved to laughter by very scattered state — for different portions

their silliness, instead of being awed of the same poem or legend were often col

by their sublimity or pleased by their lected from different natives, in very distant parts of the country; long intervals of time,

beauty. Still more would this have also, frequently elapsed after I had obtained

been the case if we could bave had the one part of a poem or legend, before I could

old original stories of the people, be. find a native accurately acquainted with an

fore they had passed through the other portion of it; consequently the frag- alembic of the poet's brain. The dim ments thus obtained were scattered through old gods of Ethiopia and their rebellious progeny, who made their heaven " Then spake Tane-mahuta, the father of on Olympus, are all mere overgrown

forests and of all things that inhabit them, children, kissing or scratching, loving or that are constructed from trees, “Nay, or fighting, feasting or quarrelling, as not so. It is better to rend them apart, and the humour takes them. They are all

to let the heaven stand far above us, and the human beings endowed with superna

earth lie under our feet. Let the sky betural powers, which seem sometimes to

come as a stranger to us, but the earth re

main close to us as our nursing mother.' fail them just when they are most

“The brothers all consented to this pro. wanted and most likely to be called

posal, with the exception of Tawhiri-mainto play. The whole heathen my- tea, the father of winds and storms, and he, thology is, in fact, a jumble of incon

fearing that his kingdom was about to be sistency and nonsense, with a mix. overthrown, grieved greatly at the thought ture of something worse, to which of his parents being torn apart. Five of really that of the Polynesian, as given

the brothers willingly consented to the sepaus by Sir George Grey, seems quite re

ration of their parents, but one of them would spectable by contrast.

not agree to it. It is true that now and then we catch

“Hence, also, these sayings of old are the traces of something more rational

found in our prayers, Darkness, darkness,

light, light, the seeking, the searching, in that would appear to be dimly symbol.

chaos, in chaos;' these signified the way in ised, as in the story of Chronos (Sa

which the offspring of heaven and earth turn), or Time, eating his own chile

sought for some mode of dealing with their dren; but these instances are rare and parents, so that human beings might inobscure, and contain nothing. very crease and live. wonderful when their mystery is ex- "So, also, these sayings of old time, 'The plained. Against the ordinary run of multitude, the length,' signified the multithe heathen mythology, we would back tude of the thoughts of the children of Heathe following one given us by Sir

ven and Earth, and the length of time they George Grey.

considered whether they should slay their parents, that human beings might be called

into existence; for it was in this manner “Men had but one pair of primitive that they talked and consulted amongst ancestors; they sprang from the vast themselves. heaven that exists above us, and from the “But at length their plans having been earth which lies beneath us. According agreed on, lo, Rongo-ma-tane, the god and to the traditions of our race, Rangi and father of the cultivated food of man, rises up, Papa, or Heaven and Earth, were the that he may rend apart the heavens and the source from which, in the beginning, all earth ; he struggles, but he rends them not things originated. Darkness then rested apart. Lo, next, Tangaroa, the god and upon the heaven and upon the earth, and father of fish and reptiles, rises up, that he they still both clave together, for they had may rend apart the heavens and the earth; pot yet been rent apart; and the children he also struggles, but he rends them not they had begotten were ever thinking apart. Lo, next, Haumia-tikitiki, the god amongst themselves what might be the dif- and father of the food of man which springs ference between darkness and light; they without cultivation, rises up and struggles, knew that beings had multiplied and in- but ineffectually. Lo, then, Tu-matauenga, creased, and yet light had never broken the god and father of fierce human beings, upon them, but it ever continued dark, rises up and struggles, but he, too, fails in IIence these sayings are found in our an- his efforts. Then, at last, slowly uprises cient religious services : " There was dark- Tane-mahuta, the god and father of forests, ness from the first division of time, unto the of birds, and of insects, and he struggles with tenth, to the hundredth, to the thousandth,' his parents; in vain he strives to rend them that is, for a vast space of time; and these apart with his hands and arins. Lo, he divisions of times were considered as beings, pauses ; his head is now firmly planted on and were each termed a Po; and on their his mother the earth, his feet he raises up account there was as yet no world with its and rests against his father the skies, he bright light, but darkness only for the strains his back and limbs with mighty efbeings which existed.

fort. Now are rent apart Rangi and Papa, "At last the beings who had been begot- and with cries and groans of wo they shriek ten by Heaven and Earth, worn out by the aloud, “Wherefore slay you thus your pacontinued darkness, consulted amongst rents? Why commit you so dreadful a themselves, saying, “Let us now determine crime as to slay us, as to rend your parents what we should do with Rangi and Papa, apart? But Tane-mahuta pauses not, he whether it would be better to slay them or regards not their shrieks and cries ; far, far to rend them apart. Then spoke Tumatau, beneath him he presses down the earth ; far, enga, the fiercest of the children of Heaven far above him he thrusts up the sky, and Earth, *It is well, let us slay them.' “ Hence these sayings of olden time, It

was the fierce thrusting of Tane which tore fies affrighted through his seas; but before the heaven from the earth, so that they were he fled, his children consulted together how rent apart, and darkness was made manifest, they might secure their safety, for Tangaroa and so was the light.'

had begotten Punga, and he had begotten “No sooner was heaven rent from earth two children, Ika-tere, the father of fish, and than the multitude of human beings were Tu-te-wehiwehi, or Tu-te-wanawana, the discovered whom they had begotten, and father of reptiles. who had bitherto lain concealed between the - When Tangaroa fled for safety to the bodies of Rangi and Papa.

ocean, then Tu-te-wehiwehi and Ika-tere, 4 Then, also, there arose in the breast of and their children, disputed together as to Tawhiri-ma-tea, the god and father of winds what they should do to escape from the and storms, a fierce desire to wage war with storins, and Tu-te-wehiwehi and his party his brothers, because they had rent apart cried aloud, Let us fly inland ;' but Ikatheir common parents. He from the first tere and his party cried aloud, 'Let us fly to had refused to consent to his mother being the sea.' Some would not obey one order, torn from her lord and children ; it was his some would not obey the other, and they esbrothers alone that wished for this separa- caped in two parties : the party of Tu-tetion, and desired that Papa-tu-a-nuku, or Wehiwehi, or the reptiles hid themselves the Earth alone, should be left as a parent ashore: the party of Punga rushed to the for them.

sea. This is what, in our ancient religious “ The god of hurricanes and storms dreads services, is called the separation of Ta-whirialso that the world should become too fair ma-tea. and beautiful, so he rises, follows his father "Hence these traditions have been handed to the realms above, and hurries to the shel- down :-'Ika-tere, the father of things which tered hollows in the boundless skies; there inhabit water, cried aloud to Tu-te-wehiwehi, he hides and clings, and, nestling in this place “Ho, ho, let us all escape to the sea.' of rest, he consults long with his parent, and “ But Tu-te-wehiwehi shouted in answer, as the vast Heaven listens to the suggestions “Nay, nay, let us rather fly inland.' of Tawhiri-ma-tea, thoughts and plans are " Then Ika-tere warned him, saying, 'Fly formed in his breast, and Tawhiri-ma-tea inland, then ; and the fate of you and your also understands what he should do. Then race will be, that when they catch you, beby himself and the vast Heaven were begot- fore you are cooked, they will singe off your ten his numerous brood, and they rapidly scales over a ligted wisp of dry fern.' increased and grew. Tawhiri-ma-tea de- "But Tu-te-wehiwehi answered him, sayspatches one of them to the westward, and ing, ' Seek safety, then, in the sea; and the one to the southward, and one to the east- future fate of your race will be, that when ward, and one to the northward; and he they serve out little baskets of cooked vegegives corresponding names to himself and to table food to each person, you will be laid his progeny, the mighty winds.

upon the top of the food to give a relish to it.' " He next sends forth fierce squalls, whirl- " Then without delay these two races of winds, dense clouds, massy clouds, dark beings separated. The fish fled in confusion clouds, gloomy thick clouds, fiery clouds, to the sea, the reptiles sought safety in the clouds which precede hurricanes, clouds of forests and scrubs. fiery black, clouds reflecting glowing red “Tangaroa, enraged at some of his chillight, clouds wildly drifting from all quar- dren deserting him, and, being sheltered by ters, and wildly bursting, clouds of thunder the god of the forests on dry land, has ever storms, and clouds hurriedly flying. In the since waged war on his brother Tane, who, midst of these Tawhiri-ma-tea himself sweeps in return, has waged war against him."-pp. wildly on. Alas! alas! then rages the 8-15. fierce hurricane; and whilst Tane-mahuta and his gigantic forests still stand, uncon

The sort of dim and misty sublimity scious and unsuspecting, the blast of the with which this passage begins, and mouth of Tawhiri-ma-tea smites them, the the sudden allusion to the every-day gigantic trees are snapt off right in the mid

meals of the people, which seem to be dle; alas! alas! they are rent to atoms,

the principal result of it, is very chadashed to the earth, with boughs and branches

racteristic. Neither is there anything torn and scattered, and lying on the earth, trees and branches all alike left for the in

in Ovid more delicate in fancy than sect, for the grub, and for loathsome rotten

the closing paragraph of this chapter,

a literal translation into our rough “ From the forests and their inhabitants, tongue of the mellifluous syllables of Tawhiri-ma-tea next swoops down upon the the vowel-sounding Polynesian :seas, and lashes in his wrath the ocean. Ah! ah! waves steep as cliffs arise, whose sum- “ Up to this time the vast Heaven has mits are so losty that to look from them still ever remained separated from his spouse, would make the beholder giddy ; these soon the Earth. Yet their mutual love still coneddy in whirlpools, and Tangaroa, the god tinues—the soft warm sighs of her loving of ocean, and father of all that dwell therein, bosom still ever rise up to him, ascending

ness.

from the woody mountains and valleys, and again, and the soft jelly-fish of the long men call these mists; and the vast Heaven, sandy beaches rolled themselves round me as he mourns through the long nights his to protect me; then again myriads of flies separation from his beloved, drops frequent alighted on me to buzz about me and lay tears upon her bosom, and men seeing these, their eggs, that maggots might eat me, and term them dew-drops."-p. 6.

flocks of birds collected around me to peck

me to pieces; but at that moment appeared The legend of Maui, which follows there also my great ancestor, Tama-nui-kithis, is a very curious one, and seems te-Rangi, and he saw the flies and the birds to have concealed in it, in some places,

collected in clusters and flocks above the some higher and better meaning than

jelly-fish, and the old man ran, as fast as he would be derived from the mere story,

could, and stripped off the encircling jellyIt begins quite according to our poetic

fish, and behold within there lay a human

being; then he caught me up and carried rules, by bursting in medias res with.

me to his house, and he hung me up in the out any previous explanation or men. roof that I might feel the warm smoke and tion of who Maui was. One day Maui the heat of the fire, so I was saved alive by asked his brothers to tell him the place the kindness of that old man. At last I where their father and mother dwelt ? grew, and then I heard of the fame of the The brothers say that they do not dancing of this great House of Assembly. know, and do not care, and advise him It was that which brought me here. But not to trouble himself. He, however,

from the time I was in your womb, I have persists, for he had found something

heard the names of these your first-born out after he was himself discovered by

children, as you have been calling them over his relations. The tale then pro

until this very night, when I again heard ceeds :

you repeating them. In proof of this I will now recite your names to you, my brothers.

You are Maui-taha, and you are Maui-roto, " They discovered him one night whilst

and you are Maui-pae, and you are Mauithey were all dancing in the great house of

waho, and as for me, I'm little Maui-theassembly. Whilst his relations were all

baby, and here I am sitting before you.' dancing there, they then found out who he

"When his mother, Taranga, heard all was in this manner. For little Maui, the

this, she cried out, “You dear little child, infant, crept iuto the house, and went and

you are, indeed, my last-born, the son of my sat behind one of his brothers, and hid him

old age, therefore I now tell you your name self, so when their mother counted her chil

shall be Maui-tiki-tiki-a-Taranga, or Mauidren that they might stand up ready for the formed-in-the-top-knot-of-Taranga,' and he dance, she said-One, that's Maui-taka;

was called by that name.”—pp. 17-20. two, that's Maui-roto; three, that's Mauipae ; four, that's Maui-waho ;' and then she

His mother, Taranga, then takes him saw another, and cried out, Hollo, where did this fifth come from? Then little Maui,

to sleep with her, and treats him with the infant, answered, " Ah, I'm your child,

peculiar favour, which makes his brotoo. Then the old woman counted them all

thers jealous, and they murmur among over again, and said, 'Oh, no, there ought themselves, but the elder saysto be only four of you; now for the first time I've seen you.' Then little Maui and

" Let us take care that we are not like the his mother stood for a long time disputing

children of Rangi-nui and of Papa-tu-aabout this in the very middle of the ranks of

nuku, who turned over in their minds all the dancers.

thoughts for slaying their parents ; four of "At last she got angry, and cried out,

them consented, but Tawhiri-ma-tea had Come, you be off now, out of the house at

little desire for this, for be loved his parents;

but the rest of his brothers agreed to slay once; you are no child of mine, you belong to some one else. Then little Maui spoke out

them; afterwards when Tawhiri saw that the quite boldly, and said, “Very well, I'd better

husband was separated far from his wife, Le off, then, for I suppose, as you say it, I

then he thought what it was his duty to do, must be the child of some other person ; but

and he fought against his brothers. Thence indeed I did think I was your child when I

sprang the cause which led Tu-matauenga said so, because I knew I was born at the side

to wage war against his brethren and his of the sea, and was thrown by you into the

parents, and now at last this contest is carried foam of the surf, after you had wrapped me

on even between his own kindred, so that up in a tuft of your hair, which you cut off

man fights against man."-p. 21. for the purpose ; then the seaweed formed and fashioned me, as, caught in its long tan

We are then told that Taranga, gles, the ever-heaving surges of the sea rolled though always present at night with me, folded as I was in them, from side to

her children, was never to be found in side; at length the breezes and squalls which the morning, or seen during the day, blew from the ocean drifted me on shore and that Maui is resolved to discover the meaning of this mystery. He In this form he enters the cave, and therefore one night, when she and all flies along an immense way, till “at last the rest are asleep, rises and bides her he saw a party of people sitting under clothes, her apron and belt, and stops a grove of trees," and his mother lying up the doors, and every chink of the by his father, and he perched in the house, so that it is kept dark, and his trees right over them. mother sleeps on till broad daylight. He then threw down berries upon At last, jumping up, she discovers the them, and cooed among the boughs till trick, snatches up a fragment of an old the whole of the people, “ chiefs and cloak, and rushes away. Maui creeps common people alike," began to pelt after and watches her, and sees her lift him with stones. He allows himself to up a bunch of rushes, and disappear be struck by a stone thrown by his fabeneath it, and on going to examine, ther, and came fluttering down and discovers the mouth of " a beautiful struggling upon the ground, and they open cave, running quite deep into the all ran to catch him ; but lo, the piearth.”

geon had turned into a man." Maui, upon this, applies to his brother for information as to the place

" Then all those who saw him were frightwhere their parents dwelt, but is met ened at his fierce glaring eyes, which were red with

as if painted with red ochre, and they said,

Oh, it is now no wonder that he so long * What do we care about our father, or

sat still up in the tree; had he been a bird about our mother ? Did she feed us with

he would have flown off long before, but he

is a man:' and some of them said, "No, food till we grew up to be men ? not a bit of it. Why, without doubt, Rangi, or the

indeed, rather a god-just look at his form heaven, is our father, who kindly sent his

and appearance, the like has never been seen offspring down to us ; Hau-whenua, or gen

before, since Rangi and Papa-tu-a-nuku tle breezes, to cool the earth and young

were torn apart.'” plants; and Hau-ma-ringiringi, or mists, to moisten them; and Hau-ma-roto-roto, or

We then learn that a considerable fine weather, to make them grow; and Toua- interval had elapsed since Maui had rangi, or rain, to water them; and Tomai. discovered the cave, and that his morangi, or dews, to nourish them : he gave ther had never renewed her visits to these his offspring to cause our food to grow, her children, for she with difficulty reand then Papa-tu-a-nuku, or the earth, cognises him, saying that “she used to made her seeds to spring, and grow forth,

see one like him when she went to visit and provide sustenance for her children in

her chidren,” and recounts the history this long-continuing world.

to the rest. * Little Maui then answered, "What you say is truly quite correct; but such thoughts

We have then the following curious and sayings would better become me than

passage, in which there are several very you, for in the foaming bubbles of the sea

remarkable allusions to old customs and I was nursed and fed; it would please me ceremonies of the Maoris :better if you would think over and remember the time when you were nursed at your mo- " Then his mother asked Maui, who was ther's breast; it could not have been until sitting near her, "Where do you come from? after you had ceased to be nourished by her from the westward ?' and he answered, 'No.' milk that you could have eaten the kinds of From the north-east, then ? •No.' food you have mentioned ; as for me, oh! the south-east, then ?' 'No.' •From the my brothers, I have never partaken either of south, then ?! No Was it the wind her milk or of her food; yet I love her, for which blows upon me which brought you this single reason alone — that I lay in her here to me, then ?' when she asked this, he womb; and because I love her, I wish to opened his mouth and answered, “Yes.' And know where is the place where she and my she cried out, 'Oh, this, then, is indeed my father dwell.'”

child;' and she said, “ Are you Maui-taha

he answered, 'No.' Then said she, Are you We are then told, incidentally, that Maui-tikitiki-o-Taranga?' and he answered, on his first appearance," he had

'Yes.' And she cried aloud, “This is, infinished his first labour," which was to

deed, my child. By the winds and storms transform himself into the likeness of

and wave-uplifting gales he was fashioned,

and became a human being; welcome, oh, all manner of birds, and that now he

my child, welcome; by you shall hereafter assumed the form of a most beautiful

be climbed the threshold of the house of your pigeon, “ at which his brothers were

great ancestor Hine-nui-te-po, and death quite delighted, and they had no power shall thenceforth have no power over man,' left to do anything but admire him." - Then the lad was taken by his father to

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