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A VAGRANT'S DEATH-BED..
and make England an example as to how the 'Dangerous Classes' may be dealt with, 60 as to make them the strength, not the weakness of the country.
"The inefficiency of ceremonial and dogmatic religion is still more felt where Romanism is the established form of Christianity; and has been fully recognised by those French writers, who have treated on the means of reforming those unfortunate classes whose perversion was a source of so much danger to the community. One of the causes,' says M. Frégier, * " which has most weakened the effect of Catholicism on the
masses, and yet more on men of cultivated understandings, is the multiplicity of required practices, and the length of the offices. The almoners, or rather the prelates who direct them, will not deviate from the received traditions: this is orthodox, no doubt, but it is not charitable--it is not Christian. The sentiment of religion is a sympathetic affection, like all other affections which give a great impulse to the mind; and like all moral instincts, it is needful in order to awaken it at first, as well as to afford it full development, that we should accommodate our teaching to the wants of those who are to receive it, modified as these will be by the age, the sex, the condition of the person. Hence these woment have always received with gratitude the religious consolations brought them by charitable ladies ; women themselves, who could comprehend their first weakness, and the circumstances by which they have been led away; while they have always shown a dislike to the nuns, who, taking their stand on another world than this which we inhabit, wish to subject them to observances which fatigue without amending them, or even offering them any alleviation of their misfortunes. Hence it is that they are cold and unmoved while attending mass, and receiving the instructions of the almoner, while they experience great pleasure in singing hymns written in their own language, and which they can understand. All those who have observed our prisons are struck by the wrong method pursued by the chaplains, and are grieved at the irremediable mischief which they are involuntarily doing to the cause of religion.'
" This must always be the case where a ceremonial religion takes the place of that of the heart and understanding; and if it be thus hurtful in excess, it becomes a matter of concern to all conscientious Christians to take care that religion shall never become a system of wearisome observances in their hands. It is the tendency of all establishments; and since of late the public mind has taken a bend towards ceremony, and the building and ornamenting of churches has sometimes been more considered than the cultivating the minds of those who are to fill them, it is well to see what the result is in regard to the spiritual welfare of those who are subjected to its yoke. The attending public worship may be an act of homage to the Giver of all good, which the soul delights to pay to the Father whom in its
inmost recesses it loves and honours ; but it may be also an act of cold conformity, utterly without influence on the life of the man, and valueless in the sight of God; and if prolonged to the point of creating weariness it invariably becomes so. He who forbade long prayers and observances calculated to catch the eyes of man, knew human nature well; and in proportion as we disregard his merciful directions, and insist on abundance of outward forms, and 'vain repetitions,' we weaken the feeling of religion, and throw obstacles in the way of our own salvation."
A VAGRANT'S DEATH-BED.
But the Demon that vex'd it for ever was laid;
It had wrought its stern will,and its missionwas o'er.
Ere long, those who drown'd his last groan with
Will slumber like him on the bosom of earth;
* Des Classes Dangereuses de la Population, tom. 2, p. 254.
Plans and Progress.
RAGGED SCHOOL ADDRESSES.-No. II. Those who can avail themselves of the simple sketch which I now present, will best understand how much its value depends upon the outline being filled in judiciously, and they will remember in doing so, that the figures and words in brackets are intended as indications of arrangement, and not as divisions to be formally noticed in the delivery of the address.
Describe the sea-shore when the tide has ebbed and leaves the long flat sands uncovered-near this a high, rugged cliff of rock, supporting a well-built house. Suppose a man for whom this house had been made ready, was to say, “This rock is too steep and difficult to climb; there are only few people upon it, and I don't know them. I would rather build another house for myself upon the sand. It will be so easy to remain there and dig the foundation; there are plenty of my friends on the same place; I don't believe that the tide will ever come in upon it, and if the storm does come, surely it will be time then to get into the house upon the rock.”
What should you think of such a man? Let us see what God says as to this man's choice. “Every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand," Matt. vii. 26.
[Building on Christ.] Now, God has given us Jesus Christ as a rock, on which we may have a house, and we must get into that house at once, by being joined in our hearts to the Saviour. We are only building on the sand if we think that anything else can stand when the storm comes; if we trust to our prayers or reading the Bible, or our Sunday school, or to our being honest, or truthful, or obedient, or kind. All these will do well when we are once in Jesus, but the storm would sweep them all away unless we are firmly joined to Him before it comes. The foolish man had many reasons for building on the sand. Listen to the reasons why the rock is a better place :
(1.) It is safe from the storm. In Palestine the rain-floods come suddenly, and then the streets of the towns are like rivers; and so, when the wise man had built upon a rock, it says, in the 25th verse, “ The rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.” A short time ago, a lighthouse was built upon the Goodwin Sands, near Ramsgate, but the first storm carried it away. It was built again, and another storm washed it away; and a third time it was built much stronger, but all was of no use, for it was founded on the sand.
(2.) It is safe from enemies. Fortresses or strong towers are built on high rocks. Jerusalem is on a high rock, and in Egypt there is a little town perched on a rock so steep, that every person must be drawn up to it by a rope. It is safer to be alone in such a place than to be with thousands of people in a town on the sand when the enemies' soldiers come to destroy it. Bad thoughts and temptations are our enemies, and all your bad companions cannot save you from the Devil
when he tries to destroy your souls; but even if you are quite alone with Jesus you will be safe.
(3.) It is a shelter froin the heat. We do not need rocks in this country to keep us from the heat, but in hot countries you cannot bear the burning sun. If you there under the shade of a tree, the scorching sunbeams soon find their way through the leaves, and you cannot rest in peace. So it is with our souls, for our consciences can never rest quietly until we make a friend of Jesus Christ, who is "like the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." The best water comes out of the rock; the water found in the sand is not cool nor sweet; and so you will find that Christ refreshes you more than all things in this world.
(4.) The rock is strong and steady. If you put a heavy house on the sand it will sink into it. Christ can bear all the load we have to put on him—all our sins, and cares, and sorrows. When people are travelling, they do not care whether the house they rest in will last for a long time or not ; they can live, even in a tent, but if they build a home they wish it to last well. Now, the sand shifts about, and if you
A BATCH OF EMIGRANTS' LETTERS.
trust in this world, you will find that it is always changing; but if you make Jesus Christ your home you can live in him always. “ He is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever”—if you make him your friend to-night, he will be the same at the judgment day, and millions of
years afterwards. [II.-Only on Christ.] It is not safe to build a house upon a great stone—the stone will shake when the storm rages, or it may be thrown down by an earthquake. In some ruins on the Nile there are large stone pillars standing, and people have built houses on the tops of each of them. If anybody trusts to saints, or apostles, or ministers, or teachers, he is building only on stones, and unless these stones stand on the rock they will fall too. But surely it is much better to build ourselves upon the solid rock at once. It will not do to trust partly to our good works and partly to Jesus. This would be like building a house half on the sand and half on the rock, for the whole will fall down when the sand is washed away.
[III.—On Christ freely.] If the Queen's palace were opened to-morrow to all the children in London, what a number would go to live in it! The Saviour says, “In my Father's house are many mansions,” that is, plenty of room for all who choose to come. Elijah lived in a cave, and the rock was above, and below, and around him, and he always felt that he was in a rock. Jesus asks us to come and “live in him," so that we may feel him round our hearts on every side. If any of you were asked to live in a gentleman's family, how careful you would be to please him! When we are living as part of Christ's family in this world, we cannot go on lying, and stealing, and quarrelling, but our hearts get more holy every day, until Jesus brings us to the rest of his family in heaven. The building on Jesus Christ the rock is not only for the rich and clever, and grown-up persons, but for the poorest and most wretched, and ragged and stupid children, who have no homes nor friends, who steal and tell lies, and are cruel, and have very wicked hearts, if they will only feel sure that Jesus has died to take away all their sins, and then he will enable them to turn from all these bad things, and the Holy Spirit will come unto their minds and live with them.
[IV.]-Now, why does not every one choose this Saviour who is like a rock ? (1.) Because they do not believe in their very hearts that a great storm is coming after death, which will carry them away unless they have given up earthly things. (2.) Because they like to build on the sand, to live in sin, and make a pleasure of it to do their own way and as other bad people tell them. (3.) Because they wish to take as little trouble as possible about heaven and their souls. (4.) Because they are too proud to confess that all their own ways are bad, and they will rather serve the devil when he lets them please themselves than make their minds uneasy by thinking about their sins and about God. (5.) Because their hearts are so desperately wicked, that they hate God and all heavenly things, and they put them out of their thoughts, and try to live an easy life, without thinking about those things which seem dull and tiresome. (6.) And because they think, as so many people are going on in the same way, that, “somehow or other," it will be all right with them at the last. This is exactly what men thought before the flood came, and they were drowned—it is what those in Sodom and Gomorrah trusted to, but they were all destroyed—and the wicked Egyptians thought the same, but they all perished in the Red Sea.
Oh! remember to-night what happened to the foolish man who built upon the sand, and if you want a place of safety from the anger of God and the wickedness of mana place where your soul may be refreshed and be at peace, and a place which will last
- believe and trust in Jesus Christ, for he will receive you, however bad you may be, and he will change your hearts, and at last bring you safe to heaven. Temple. (To be continued.)
A BATCH OF EMIGRANTS' LETTERS. Of course our readers are all aware that in “ teaching trades” to the boys of our Industrial Schools, it was not our intention (although we have been charged with it) to place them in competition with ordinary workmen without serving a regular apprenticeship. Our chief object has been practically to inculcate habits of industry: In doing so we have found tailoring and shoemaking more convenient and useful branches of employment than any other ; for by these means the boys were enabled to reap the fruits of their own
labour, and personally to feel the benefits of patient industry. It has often afforded us, no small pleasure, when putting the question to a once ragged urchin, “Who gave you that nice jacket " to see the eye glisten, and his countenance brighten up with a degree of self-satisfaction, and, stretching himself an inch higher than usual, he would manfully reply, "I made it myself.” Of the moral effects of this training upon the mind of such a youthmaking him feel for once that he is somebody--we leave our readers to judge. We have also felt assured that to lads emigrating to the colonies, a little knowledge of tailoring and shoemaking might be of essential service, especially to those living in the Bush, where the hut of the nearest cobbler may be five miles distant, and that of the tailor ten. It has therefore been the practice in some schools to teach intending emigrants both tailoring and shoemaking, a useful knowledge of which they have been found to acquire almost as speedily as if confined to one department. They have generally been supplied with a few cobbling materials as part of their outfit prior to embarkation.
It is gratifying to find that numbers of these lads when on board have not only made themselves“ generally useful,” but have also turned their industrial knowledge to a profitable account. We have often been afraid of the bad effects of four months' idleness on sea, and hence the very great pleasure which the perusal of the two following letters has afforded us.
The writers went from the Grotto Passage Industrial Schools. The first letter was addressed to Capt. Holland :
August 1st, 1850. “ HONOURED SIR, -I now return you my humble and hearty thanks for thy goodness and kindness to me during the time I was in the school. I left London on the 1st of December, and reached Adelaide on the latter end of March. I am very sorry to say, but we could not find out the Rev. Mr. Fulford ; Brown and myself where out for two or three days, but we could not find any account of the gentleman The boy Osborne got a place and went off without speaking or seeing into the letter. The boy Floyd got the next chance, and Brown and myself where left behind, and on returning to the ship I found out a master which he took me one and twenty miles into the Bush, where now I am happy and doing well. But I am very sorry I cannot tell you what has become of Brown after I left him; but I hope you have heard from him and the other boys too. Sir, give my kind love to the gentlemen of the Committee, and tell them that I am very thankful for the kindness they have done for me and for the trouble they have taken with me. We had werry fine weather coming out, and we found the needles and thread very handy. Brown had the first chance, and what with the attending the passengers and tailoring, he cleared £2. 10s. to £3; Floyd 10s.; Osborn 2s. 6d.; Clovier £1. 58., tailoring alone.
“I hope the boys are all quite well, and are ready to follow the other boys. Sir, I have no more news to tell you, but I hope in time to come I shall be able to return my humble and hearty thanks for me and likewise for the other boys.
“I am, your humble servant, R. C.” “ Residence-Gawter River, Mr. Magar, farmer.”
"This is truth, Sir.” The following extracts from the minute book of the Grotto Passage Schools, will be interesting, as showing the position and character of the lad who wrote the letter which follows, prior to his admission into the institution. The first entry was made when he was admitted, the second just before he embarked :
“C. P., aged 15.-Father dead four years, (a soldier in 2nd Life Guards.) Mother in workhouse infirmary in a state of insanity, caused by the misconduct of his brother and himself. A sister, 19, assistant in Charity Infant School, and a younger brother, 13, in workhouse, (had been in prison six times.) He is now quite destitute. Sister unable to maintain him. Can get no employment as he has no character. Been imprisoned four times twice for seven days, once for six weeks, and once for three months; very anxious to be admitted; wishes to go to sea.'
“C. P. was also imprisoned four different times, and was well known to the police as a very expert thief. He applied for admission when he was quite destitute, with a
A BATCH OF EMIGRANTS' LETTERS.
full determination of abandoning his former companions and former habits, although he was notoriously depraved up to that time. From his exemplary conduct there is good reason to believe that he did not swerve from his good resolutions. He was always very willing and obedient, clean and industrious, and seemed very anxious, both by example and advice, to promote the welfare of the other lads. He is a boy of very considerable intelligence, naturally endowed with very clear faculties; and now that they are directed into the proper channel it may be hoped that he will yet make a very useful member of society.”
"DEAR SIR,—I address these few lines to you, hoping you and all my kind friends are quite well, as this leaves me at present. Please to remember me kindly to all the ladies and gentlemen of the Committee, and tell them that I am very happy, and thank them for all their kindness to me. We arrived here on the 28th of August, after a voyage of nearly five months. We had a very safe passage, considering, for we only lost two boys (!) belonging to the ship. We lost one of them by the Cape of Good Hope, the other by Port Philip. I am at work for a gentleman of the name of Brown, at Heidelberg, about eight miles from town, and I am very happy. I have engaged for six months at 3s.6d. per week the first month, and 4s. for the other five months. I have to look after horses. I hope my brother Alfred is a good boy, and will soon be out here. I am the only one that stayed here, Armstrong and Smith are gone to Sydney, and Lawrence stopped at Adelaide. Armstrong and me earned about £4. 108. each on board the ship. I went ashore at Adelaide, and spent a good deal, for we were there fourteen days, and it cost me 38. every time we went ashore. I had about £1. 4s. when I arrived at Port Philip. I paid 10s. for a week's board and lodging, and bought some clothes, and at the end of the week I had no work. As I was going out on Saturday, I met Charles Waring. He is living with Mr. O'Brien ; I stopped there for three days, and then I got work. I am much more happy here than I was at home, for I have a good place and a very good master. I am at work in the Bush, and it is much better than being in the town, for there are no shops to spend your money at. I like Port Philip very much ; it is a much better place than Adelaide. This country is very hot, and the natives are very harmless and very quiet; they are walking about the town all day. They do nothing, for they will not work. I have seen Regus, Clackson, Chacker, Moxon, and Gardiner, and they are all doing well. I hope my brother is a good boy, and will soon come out to me.
“Dear Sir, I remain, yours affectionately, C. P.” Our next epistle is from a lad who went from the Ragged School in Union Mews. It is due to the writer to state that the only improvement we have made upon the original copy has been the insertion of capitals (where omitted) at the commencement of each sentence:
“ Melbourne, Port Philip, October 23rd, 1850. “MY DEAR FATHER AND MOTHER, I have at last arrived at this port after a quick and pleasant voyage of a hundred days from Plymouth. We left on the tenth of July, about half-past three; we then considered we had fairly started on the voyage we had anxiously looked forward to. There were in all sixty-four passengers, of whom the greater number were Scotch people. I will now endeavour to give you some idea of a trip to the Australian colonies. In the first place, when the ship is under weigh, you cannot but feel strange and lonesome to think upon leaving everything dear to me and to seek a home upon a foreign shore ; and then, upon the other hand, we were much encouraged to hear the good account given by the sailors. But this will wear off in a few days, when you come to join in the excitement of the voyage. The passengers are divided into messes of five and six in each mess, for which you must be provided with bags, a bottle, and tin dish or two to hold the stores, which consist of flour, raisins, preserved potatoes, treacle, pickles, vinegar, tea, coffee or cocoa, butter, sugar, limejuice, etc. The rules on board of a passenger ship are far more comfortable than those of an emigrant ship. We had Divine service on board ; it was performed by the captain, and I can assure you it was a very imposing sight upon a calm day to see all on board how earnestly they joined in their prayers for mercy. The outfit for a passage must consist of some very warm clothing. We did not have but about six weeks' warm weather, for I believe our captain was trying the circular route, by which we went a long way to the southward, so that for the remainder of the voyage it was as cold as any winter at home. The first thing that will attract your notice is the immense