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was a fresh revelation of God, not, like the first, as absolute Being, but as the Redeemer and Atoner who came to renew that life, originally derived from Himself, which the creature had lost by sin. It was to be at once an act of satisfaction wrought out through the perfect obedience of a sinless Child of the fallen race, and an act of creation and revelation vouchsafed by God; therefore only the God-Man could accomplish it. This double work of restoration has necessarily a gradnal development, with various epochs and periods, and this, as we have seen, was actually the case. First the still small voice of God spoke, "as from afar,' to the conscience of man; next He revealed Himself more intimately through the covenant with Abraham, and the Jewish ritual; and at last in the fulness of time the Divine fiat went forth, and the Word made Flesh proclaimed Himself the Way, the Truth, and the Life. He by whom all things were made at the beginning, came to remake them. The union of God and man in One Person finds a type and analogy in the union of spirit and material nature in man, which is also an organic union of life; and in the God-Man each nature remains perfect and entire.' In His birth of a Virgin we read both His identity with our common humanity and His distinction from it. He is a member, not a product, of the race. The Second Adam, like the first, is (as Man) an immediate creation of God, but, unlike the first, takes root in the soil of humanity, as not being formed from the ground, but from the consecrated substance of a virgin daughter of Eve. The thirty years of His hidden life represent His fellowship with our nature, as Son of Man; the three years of His public ministry represent His manifestation, as the Son of God with power, in His threefold office of King, Priest, and Prophet. In His character as Second Adam and Head of the race, , He passed, like the first Adam, through the trial and probation of free-will, not for Himself but for us. The first man was placed for probation in the 'Paradise of pleasure,' where every need was satisfied; the Second was driven into the wilderness which brought forth thorns and thistles, the heritage of Adam's sin, to be tempted of the devil after fasting forty days. Each of the three Temptations was an attempt in different forms to make Him deny or doubt, if but for a moment, the perfect union of His human will with God. In His victory over the Tempter through the free exercise of that human will, though He was impeccable by virtue of the hypostatic union, He asserted, what Adam's sin had denied, the absolute dependence of the creature on the Creator, and proclaimed before Heaven and Hell the entire conformity of His creaturely will with the will of God. And thus the work of redemption was begun.
' I omit the author's account of the hypostatic union, which does not materially differ from that in the ordinary manuals. He rejects, as inconsistent with the perfection of manhood, the common opinion of a full infusion of
beatific and other knowledge into our Lord's Human Soul from the first, and . holds, with the majority of the Fathers, that there was a real growth in wisdom,
not only in its outward manifestations. The question will be found discussed in Wilberforce's Incarnation, ch. iv., Kuhn's Leben Jesu, i. 5. See also Petav. De Incarn. xi. 2-4, with the notes of Alethinus, who takes the same view as Pabst, and on the same grounds, as most consistent with the entire kévwois of the Incarnation. This certainly appears to have been the general opinion of the Fathers. Cf. Klee, Dogmengeschichte, ii., 4, 7. The question does not, of course, relate to omniscience, which can in no case be ascribed to our Lord's Human Soul, being inconsistent with the conditions of human nature. Cf. Klee, Dogmatik, p. 511.
Since man by wilful disobedience had incurred the debt of sin, only through willing obedience of the whole life and being could that debt be paid. And in order to profit the whole race, the payment must take the shape of what in man is the natural consequence and fruit of sin. The entire life of the Redeemer, in great things as in small, must fulfil the ideal of penance, which in mankind is an inevitable necessity, but in Him was a voluntary sacrifice. This self-oblation, inaugurated in John's baptism of repentance, was consummated in the dereliction and the Cross. But His merit (Erbverdienst) can only be applied to His members individually by their own co-operation. Redemption is universal, justification depends on the human will ; and as all are lost, whether under the law of nature, or of Moses, or of grace, who by personal act make the common sin of the race their own, so those alone can partake of the common merit who by voluntary union with the life of Christ, the ideal Man, make His merit theirs; so that what before were fruitless sufferings become in them a meritorious
"There is an interesting discussion in Adam und Christus (pp. 76-83) on the relations of the freedom of Christ's human will to His impeccability, but it would take us too far from our proper subject to introduce it here. Cf. Kuhn's Leben Jesu (Mainz, 1838), vol. i. ch. 4.
satisfaction. This double connection of humanity with the first Adam and the Second explains that strange intermingling of good and evil, sorrow and joy, which would else be the great riddle of life. For redemption as little destroyed our freedom as the Fall, and those who are led of the spirit of Christ must be content to share in this world the common penalties of the race, just as those who in heart reject Him are still, as yet, His brethren after the flesh. When, lastly, Christ had made by the Sacrifice of the Cross an overflowing redemption (copiosa redemptio), and gone down into Hades to pay to the uttermost the debt of sin, He rose transfigured from the grave and ascended into heaven, to send back the Spirit, who had been chased away by sin, as the Teacher of all truth and Comforter in all trials and temptations. Thus was the work of redemption perfected, and summed up in the baptismal formula in the name of the Holy Trinity. The Divine Spirit had, as we have seen, at the beginning united the dependent creature with the self-existent God, and now that same Spirit came once more to sanctify and re-unite the ransomed race with Him. As the work of re-creation is properly allotted to the Son who is the Creative Word, so is the work of re-union assigned to the Spirit who is the Bond of Love.
The Church of the Old Dispensation was the representative of the coming Christ, the Church of these latter days is the representative of the Word made Flesh, who must be ever present in it as the infallible Interpreter and great High Priest with His abiding
Sacrifice. His life-long obedience to God and His life-long toil for man were concentrated and sealed in the act of death, the “bright bloom of the world-redeeming work of Christ.” Therefore, that sacrificial act must continue to be the supreme and characteristic worship of God on earth, from which all other kinds of worship derive their consecration and their worth. Mankind cannot celebrate its solemn Easter without the Easter Lamb. It was impossible but that the Cross should become an altar, the material sacrifice of Christ offered up in blood be perpetuated in an unbloody rite, that is in the sacrifice of the Mass. But the Mass is a Sacrament as well as a sacrifice; the sacrifice sets forth the death of the Son of Man in its relation to God, in the Communion is shown the death of the Second Adam in its relation to humanity; in the former He is present as representative of the race, in the latter as the Fountain of their new life. As in the Mass there is offered with the Body and Blood of Christ the whole family of believers, so in Communion the redeemed are made partakers of that Body and Blood, that they may have life in themselves. And thus are His words fulfilled; “ If I be lifted up, I will draw all things unto Me."
With these specimens of recent Catholic theology, our record of the past may be closed. For the future, since the fall of the old Sorbonne, and during the pre
See Note II. at the end of the Chapter, for some examples of 'Recent Lutheran Theology. The subject of justification will be treated in the next volume of Kuhn's Katholische Dogmatik, which is promised to appear shortly.