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By the oblation of the outpoured blood the spiritual powers of man were set free, and the impure influences, which held him in thraldom, passed from him into that which was offered up, while the blood thus offered and consecrated in the death of Christ returned as a life-giving and fruitful principle into the substance of those for whom it was offered. This view of Baader's seems, at least in language, to come very near the Manichean notion of the impurity of matter.

And now let us turn to a theologian already mentioned, who is comparatively free from the lengthy periods and needless periphrasis often so perplexing in German writers, and speaks with a clearness at times almost rising into eloquence. A brief account of his general system will best introduce his exposition of the doctrine of Atonement. The idea of God, as the Ego, or absolute Being, implies from eternity the idea of the creature, the non ego, or conditioned being, as its necessary correlative. But the actual realisation of the non ego, as natura naturata Dei quâ nature naturantis, is not necessary, as the pantheistic scheme implies. Creation is a free act of God, implying a beginning, as the absolute nature is essentially neces

· This sketch is drawn mainly from Pabst's Der Mensch und seine Geschichte (Wien, 1830), but I have also compared with it a later work of his, Adam und Christus (Wien, 1835), where the subject is treated as introductory to an elaborate dissertation on the seven sacraments, and especially marriage, viewed in its sacramental character, to which the author attaches a crucial importance as marking the distinction betwcen Catholicism and various forms of imperfect or unchristian be'ief. It would be impossible to give each reference separately here; the reader wil have no trouble in verifying them, if he pleases, for him. self.

sary and eternal; but the conditioned, once actually brought into existence, must last for ever, as the creaturely reflection of the absolute Being of God. There was no theoretical necessity for Him to create, but there was an ethical ground in His own nature, and that ground was love. As then by His free love He created us, so by love alone can the creature gain or preserve its union with Him. Creation is God's eternal revelation of Himself. The creature cannot attain to a real consciousness of its own being, without thereby becoming conscious of the absolute Being or Creator. As in the unity of God there are Three Persons, so creation, which is His image, is threefold also. There is free spirit, nature or the physical universe which is unfree, and man in whom both are combined, spirit and nature standing to each other in the relation of substance and accident. Man constitutes the organic unity of the two; he is at once distinct from each and partakes of both; in him the life of nature puts forth its most perfect bloom, while he is also a member of the spirit-world, and thus creation, as the outward revelation of God, becomes the perfect reflexion of the Divine consciousness. As the organic unity of nature and spirit, man is the coping stone of creation, the creature of all creatures, the ultimate realisation and representative of the creaturely idea and perfect antithesis of the Creator. Or, as the author says elsewhere, he is the last and most glorious fruit of the mighty increase of the earth, the wondrous fabric (Gebilde) wherein God by a new and special

creative act has bound the two worlds of spirit and matter into organic unity.

From this idea of creation is deduced the idea of sin, as consisting in a refusal on the creature's part to recognise its creatureliness and consequent dependence on the absolute Being of God. It involves an infinite debt (Schuld) incurred by the creature, and an infinite offence against the Creator whom it directly tends, so far as in it lies, to dethrone, because it is a negation of His self-existent Being. By thus denying God, it also denies the very basis of all creaturely existence and turns the life of the spirit into a lie, corrupting its whole nature and marring, though it cannot destroy, the image of God. It involves an eternal enmity between the creature and the Creator, as being a wilful aversion from the Highest Good; in a word, it involves Hell, not as an infliction of the Divine wrath, but as the inevitable sequel of its own act in choosing selflove rather than the love of God. Such are the effects of sin on the spirit-world; its effects on the world of man are further modified by the conditions of his composite nature, which is not mere spirit but formed of spirit and matter combined, each individual being part of an organic whole, the member of a race. Hence it follows, that the sin of the first and typical man becomes, not personally but generically, the heritage of all his children; for though God creates each soul separately, He creates it with reference to the particular body it is destined to inhabit, not for a separate existence, but to become part of the composite man who

is a member of the race. Sin, then, has a direct effect in dissolving, ipso facto, the organization of humanity. The parts lose their proper relationship and union with each other, and both are accordingly dishonoured, the spiritual enslaved to the material, the material itself made subject to a law of decay and death extending over the whole physical creation. The earth is cursed for man's sake.

But in the very ground of the curse lay also the possibility of redemption. The generic transmission of our fallen humanity, compounded of free spirit and unfree matter, which was the channel of sin, might prove the means of restoration, whenever a sinless descendant of the first Adam should appear, to become the Second Head and Father of the race, the Source to them of original merit (Erbverdienst) instead of original sin (Erbsünde). But this could only be One who was God as well as man. The Spirit, who is the Bond of Love in the Holy Trinity and had been at first the Principle of union between the creature and the Creator, immediately departed on the entrance of sin into the world. But the Divine Logos, by whom all things were made, as immediately took His place, and began at once to speak with authority in the conscience, so that man's life, amid manifold errors and darkness, remained a religious one, and was never wholly cut off from God even amid the deepest gloom of Heathendom. Conscience, as was shown in the case of Corne

· The author alludes to 'Creationism' as opposed to 'Traducianism.'

? I need hardly remind the reader of the famous argument for the supremacy of conscience in Butler's Sermons on the Constitution of Human Nature.

lius, contained in itself the germ of redemption, and indeed of the future Church. We may say with Justin Martyr, “Those, like Socrates and Heraclitus, who lived according to the Logos (inwardly revealed) were Christians.” Or, in the author's own words, “ Conscience in its objectivity is the beginning of the external Church, and the Church is the objective perfection of conscience, having attained its outward fulfilment.” But, inasmuch as this inward revelation to the individual conscience proved insufficient, an outward revelation was added, and that, being addressed to fallen man, could only be a revelation of the Redeemer. It was given first in the Covenant with Abraham, then in the Law of Sinai, which "fixed the categorical imperative of conscience in tables of stone.” In the life of His chosen people God revealed a type of His dealings with mankind, and their history exhibited, as in a picture, the history and the judgment of the world. The Levitical priesthood recalled the reality of sin, the Prophetic Order spoke out with growing distinctness, as time went on, the promise of redemption.

We have seen that the created spirit had realised its creaturely freedom in the choice of evil, through what must be considered a second creative act. Restoration, therefore, could only be brought about through a new creative act, not to annihilate the first, which in itself is irreversible, but to abolish its results (dass sich dieselbe ......obschon nicht in ihrem Seyn, doch in ihrem Daseyn aufhebt und auslöscht). And this

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