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By compression or division of the dies consists of those which, through principal nerve of a limb, the heat of the medium of the inind, act on the the extremity is considerably dimi- brain. nished; and the same effect follows the Every species of primary fever, he compression or division of the princi- contends, commences in the brain : pal artery, which seems to prove that hence the first symplom is head-ache, heat depends on the action of both.- disturbed sleep, and confusion of ideas, When the excitability of the brain is wbich is followed by a discharge of increased, or the skin does not afford electric matter producing shiverings or a conducting surface, an accumulation rigors. All coutagious effluvia enter of electric inatter takes place in the the system by the lungs; and if the body, ithich is discharged through the poison do not disturb the brain, it will nerves on the approach of, or during not be productive of mischief. sleep, producing a shock of the body. “ Hence," says he,

people whose The vitality of the body he there- brains are not easily acted upon escape fore states to depend upon this spe- infectious fevers, and generally enjoy cies of ignition, produced by oxygen a good state of health,” In cases of and electric matter, which keeps up local injuries, as fractures and dislothe different functions, and occasions cations, he points out the necessity of a constant evaporation from the sur- reducing the igniling powers of the face, termed insensible perspiration. system, to prevent general increased If the excitability of the brain (its ignition, which would re-act on the in. electrical power) be increased, and the jured part. In accidents, he observes, blood be well supplied with oxygen, if these precautions be neglected, the the ignition or heat of the body will local irritation will be communicated be increased, and all the functions dis- to the brain, and in a day or two its turbed ; the excretions, the fæces, and excitability will be increased; and the urine, will of course be morbid, and general increased ignition excited digestion so disturbed as to occasion termed sympathetic fever. pausea, loss of appetite, &c. The irri- lu local cases or organic diseases, tability of the cerebral system will be advises that the igniting process also be more or less increased ; the be kept low. If a patient with a siniconsequence of which is, the circula- ple ulcer on any part of the body tion of the blood will be accelerated, disturbs the brain by the abuse of and the velocity of the blood through wine or spirituous liquor, the consethe vessels of the brain and lungs lend quences will be increased ignition of to keep up the excitability of the the ulcerated part, and a morbid disbrain, and super-oxygenation of the charge. The same effects will be pro. blood: this is the state of system term- duced by inental perturbation : hence ed inflammatory fever. When the people afflicted with ulcerated or disexcitability of the brain is morbidly eased bowels will be affected with increased, the blood not sufficiently looseness or dysentery, on their minds oxygenated, and the irritability of the being disturbed. cerebral system is augmented, low or

JAMES CHARLES LISTER. typhus fever is produced. The former state of system he terms simple, and

Mr. Urban, Muirtown, Nov. 6, the latter specific general increased

N the first part creased ignition. If the excitability of the brain be diminished, and the to explain the meaning of the word blood not sufficiently oxygenated, unbonnetted, in Shakspeare's play of there will be a deficiency of ignition, Othello, where he says, the different organs will not perform

" "l'is yet to know their respective offices, the body will, (Which when I know that boasting is an

honour of course, be debilitated, and emacia

[being

I shall promulgate) 1 fetch my life and tion, or dropsy, will be the conse

Prom men of royal siege and my de quence. Hence, in all cases of disease,

merits

(tune whether acute or chronic, general or May speak unbonnelted to as proud a forlocal, we must attend to the igniting As this that I have reached.”or vitalizing powers of the systemi; This meaning is supposed there to and the Doctor's first class of reine be with submission; but surely a refer.

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620 Othello.--- Fleur-de-Lis. Poor Knights. [Vol. LXXX. ence to Heraldry will explain it in a Newborough arms, are apt to refer it way much more naturally than W. P. to a more recent grant from the head has done. The bonnet or chapeau of of that empire, while it yet existed. Nobility is still very frequent in En. The fact is, that Cilmiu lived in the glish Armorial Bearings, generally ninth century; and I must confess consupporting ihc Crest: it is represent- siderable surprise, at finding the royal ed as a Cap turned up with ermin, arms both of France and of Germany and was the mark of families descends in the Principality at so remote a poed from noble stocks. To this Othello riod. alludes; and his meaning obviously is, Yours, &c. Edmd. HYDE HALL. that even though descended from Roy- I must in candour observe, that the al ancestors, dis own personal merits late dir. Penuant, under the bead of night challenge, without the aid of Criccaeth Costle, seenis to prefer the pnj ati ribute of Nobility, the fortune assertion of Froissarl, that the capture which he had reached.

of King John was r* ade rather by a A reference to Heraldry,which, even

French knight than by Sir kiuwel. so late as Shakspeare's days, was a But the tradition, the augmentation science of very great importance, will of the armorial bearings, and the exexplain many allusions in the poets of

pensive establishment at Criccaeth that age, and those of the centuries

Castle, weign with me against the diimmediately preceding, which other

reet evidence. Sir Howel's abode is wise cannot be understood. In Scot

still in being, a mean farm-bouge. In Jand, the bounct or chapeau of No.

thus diftering from Mr. Pennant, I bility is not much used; nor was

would not be understood to unuervait, I believe, in Yrance, where coro

lue him. After spending weeks and nels were assunied in its place; but in

months in taking a detailed account of England it was, and is very generally the country through which he mereblazoned in Coats of Arms.

ly rode, I am bound, for many a wea. Yours, &c.

D.

ry hundred miles, to bear my testi

mony to his very extraordinary accuMr. URBAN, Caernarvoshire,Dec.4.

racy of description. We have been O BSERVING in p. 416, some ap- extremely grateful here at the repub

pearance of controversy respect. lication of his Welsh Tours by the ing the three Fleur-de-lis, borne by piety, taste and zeal of his son, David the families there mentioned; I am Penuant, Esq. onabled to inform you, that no bear. ing is more com mmonly met with upon Mr. URBAN.

Dec. 12. the monuments,or in the pedigrees, of UR the nobility and gentry residing with O'Brevered Monarch having in Caernarvopshire (of which alone storing that antient and honourable I can affect to speak with precision) Institution, the Knights of Windsor, than the Fleurs de Lis either alone or to its original state of respectability, quartered. They were, in fact, the and an arrangement having been accoat of Collwyn ap Tanyns, one of the cordingly made to secure such vacanfifteen Welsh tribes, who lived three cies as inay hereafter occur to decaygenerations before the Nuiman con- ed and disabled Officers of his Majesquest, This coat received the aug- ty’s Land forces; the following extracts mentation of a pole-axe Argent from from the Statutes of the Order, if you Edward the Black Prince, at the bat- will have the goodness to give them a ile of Puictiers, where Sir Howel ap place in your valuable Miscellany, may Fwyall, a Welsh Knight, and descen- not only afford entertainment to some dant of Collayn, is stated, and, in my of your readers, but likewise be the opinion, opon very strong circumstani- means of conveying to many a brave tial evidence truly stated, to have Veteran in secluded retirement on a been the person, who made prisoner scanty pittance, the pleasing intellithe King of France.

gence that he has not been forgotten, Cilmin ap Troed Du, another no. and ibat a comfortable asylum has ble tribe, the ancestor of Lord New- been provided for him in bis old age, borough, bore the Imperial Eagle of by the paternal regard of his beloved the Germanic Empire; though many Sovereigo; each Kmight having a sepa- . persons upon seeing it in the present rate dwelling-house allotted to him,

beside

some

beside his salary, which being but ture none to be admitted except gen. -small, may be held together with half- tlem'en born." pay, or any other stipend granted for The present establishment consists past services.

Candidates must apply of 18 Knights, including a Governor, to the Secretary of State for the Home exclusive of the 7 Naval Knights. Department; and, highly to the ho.' nour of the present Minister the Right Mr. URBAN, Hon. Richard Ryder, at those capit list's

eated, that « Easter Day con

Essex, Dec. 23.

N Book of Common Prayer it pointed by him are gentlemen duly qualified by honourable and merito- which the rest depend) is always the rious services. It would be, however, first Sunday after the Full Moon, injustice not to add, that the reforma- which, happens upon, or next after the tion of abases commenced in the time 21st day of March; and if the Full of his predecessor, the Right Hon. the Moon happens on a Sunday, then EasEarl of Liverpool.

ter Day is on the Sunday after.” There are also seven Naval Knights This appears to be a fixed, and has of Windsor, for particulars of which, been the usual rule for calculating the see Stecl's list of the Royal Navy. falling of Easter ; but I have to noYours, &c.

tice a deviation from each part of it, AN OLD CORRESPONDENT.

as under: “ King Edward the Third, out of

In the present year (1810) the Moon the great regard he had to Military and Easter fell on the 22d of April;

was full on the 21st day of Marchi, honour and those who had bravely behaved themselves in the wars yet after calculation, should have been on the

which agreeably to the first rule of chanced to fall to decay, made a pro

28th of March. vision for their relief and comfortable subsistence: the stated number at first Easter Day were both on the same

la 1802, the full of the Moon and was twenty-four ; but shortly after, day; namely; oli the 15th of April > upon his instituting the Order of the which also is contrary to the rule Garter, two more were added. The

above quoted. intention of the founder was, as he describes them, Milites Pauperes, infirm

I beg leave, through the medium of in body and decayed ; or, as the Sta- quire of some of your intelligeut Cor

your very useful publication, to entutes of the Garter qualify them, such as through adverse turns of fortune

respondents, what reason (presumiog, were reduced to that extremity, that exists for these deviations.

that some sufficient one will be given) they had not wherewithal to sustain

Yours, &c.

QUÆRENS. themselves to live so genteelly as was suitable to a military condition; which,

Near Reading, Berks, for greater caution, was reiterated

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 26. in the Statutes of King Henry V.

THE and afterwards by King Henry VIll. The observations of Clericus in who by his Will settled Lands and

your page 537, are in every Manors upon them for their support; sympathy for the poor congenial with

sense praise-worthy, and manifest á Edward VI. also, in the first year my feelings: their situation in many paof his reign, bestowed several Lands on the Institution; and in the reign of me, Sir, when I read the public adver

rishes call loudly for redress. Believe Philip and Mary, buildings for their

tisements for farming the Poor, my residence within the Castle were com

mind is filled with 'horror at the idca; menced ; and on Elizabeth coming to the Crown, she completed the build. contemplation to devise some plan or

and I am frequently led into serious ings, and confirmed her sister's grants; mode to ameliorate their condition, and August soth, in the tirst year of to avert the savage recurrence to the her reign, minding the continuance of King Edward's foundation, the intent farming system, which is a disgrace

to of her progenitors, and King Henry Thomson elegantly observes,

the country, where, alas! as Vilith's Will, ordained Statutes and

“How many drink the cup of baleful grief, Ordinances for thein, under which

Or eat the bitter bread of misery! they still remain, and by which the Sore pierc'd by wintry winds, how many number was to be 13, to be called

shrink Anights of Windsor, and for the fu- Into the sordid hut of cheerless poverty!"

That

a

a

622 Ameliorating the Condition of the Poor. [Vol. LXXX,

That the Poor Rates have increas- culties as those I have stated may be cd, are increasing, and ought to be di- obviated. minished, is a position applicable to In a parish not far from where I most Parishes ; and I am persuaded, reside, the Freeholders have come to your correspondent Clericus is aware a very excellent resolution which, I am of this truth by the philanthropy heof opinion, were it adopted by others, displays on behalf of the Lower Or would answer a better purpose, toders of the people. He has, I am wards reducing the Parish Rates, convinced, from goodness of heart, than the plan proposed by Clericus. endeavoured to point out a mode of Every gentleman or individual, who alleviating the distresses of the Poor, has inclosed a piece or pieces of land by devoting a certain number of acres on the waste, commons, or forest, the of waste land totally for their use, Parish have obliged to pay after which, I must confess, in theory has a the rate of twenty pounds per acre, very promising appearance; and, if it which sum, if not complied with in a could be carried into effect with ease certain time, the lands are thrown out and at a moderate expence, would iņ to common as before; but the latter, all probability prove beneficial; but very rarely occurs, and the money I fear, when we come to reduce it to arising from this mode is paid into practice, we shall find many difficul- the hands of the Parish Officers, which ties arise that may not be expected. is vested in the funds for the express In the first place, we must purchase purpose of the Poor Rates, and the the land, or take a lease from the pro- interest alone is applied to the lauda. prietor; and secondly, there will 'fol- ble purpose of reducing them, which low the expence of inclosing and per- it has done nearly one-third ; this is haps draining, &c. also the purchase an absolute fact, and worthy of imiy of grain to crop the ground, with tation by other, Parishes when they tythes, and the great expence of hiring have waste or comnion lands. As persons to plough, drag, and harrow, I am speaking of the Poor Rates, together with boeing, reaping, thresh- I beg leave to intrude a little further ing, and carriage, with hiring of barns, on the subject of the Labourers or &c.: so that, I fear, when all these ex- Farmers' Servants, who, as the major pences are brought to account, there part of them are married and have will be but very little profit left, (if families, according to the present any) to benefit the Parish. There are inode of paying them, incroase the many difficulties in arable land to Parish Rates, and are the principal persons who have not a team of hor. means of the Parish burthens. Com. ses and men always at their command, merce and Agriculture are acknow, that inany individuals are not aware ledged by all to be the parental of; such as when you want to get your strength and energy of this couutry ; ground ploughed, or the field sowed, consequently, labourers, who are the the teams or strepgth you may want, vital springs that give motion and the farmers perhaps cannot spare, celerity to the existence of either, because they are employed in getting deserve our regard and attention ; in their own crops; therefore you must and I cannot fathom why the votaries wait until theirs are finished, which of the latter should starve on a scanty may prove too late, and very proba, meal, whilst the Farmer is enjoying bly you may lose the season, This himself and his family on a comfortaI have experienced in my little por, ble one (of meal) every day. lo every tion of land; and it is not unlikely branch of our Manufactures, we find, that it would be the saine in other that as the necessaries of life increase, parts, for we cannot expect the fare the Journeyinen employed therein iner to leave his own lands to accom- have their wages advanced, according modate others; 1 pesceive so many in- to the pressure of the times, without conveniencies in the system of Clerie recourse to the Parish for assistance; cus, though well intended, that I fear while, on the contrary, the poor init would not be so productive as he dustrious Husbandınan toils from A calculates. However, it is certainly, o'clock in the morning until ? o'clock worthy of trial under Salisbury Plain, at night, exposed to hail, rain, snow, where probably the farmers may be and frost, and all kinds of weather, for pore accommodating and such diffi- the poor pittance of twelve shillings

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per week, to keep himself and family would add lustre and dignity to the in food and raiment, which is barely Members of Parliament, and extend sufficient, according to the price of the fame of their wisdom and goodness. flour, to keep them in bread alone. I am chagrined to remark, that in I must acknowledge that, if he applies many Parishes the business relative to the Overseers, they relieve him to the Poor, and the Finances of the with a loaf for every two children, Parish, are very ill attended to s in which certainly is of service; but this some I have found ignorance and inincreases the Parish Rates, which attention; in others, apathy. That should come out of the Farmer's people should be thus deaf to their pocket, and not burthen the Parish. owu interest, is astonishing. I can only I cannot view the situation of a la- account for the apathy I have obserybouring Husbandman, otherwise than ed, by what I have lately seen and as that of a distressed individual doom. heard at a Justices' meeting, where cd (if married, and with a family ofchil- the Overseers were summoned to apdren) to continual starvation ; Dot be- pear on business of the Parish ; when ing able, with all his cxertions, to pro- the Magistrate who presided opened cure more than one meal of meat in the business to the parties with so the space of a week : all this he bears much hauteur, and in such an imperiwith Christian fortitude and resigna- ous and tyrannic manner, that the tion. When I contrast his situation appellanls were deprived of power of with the Mechanic, I cannot refrain utterance. His tope of voice, his from saying that the industrious Hus- manner and language, almost persuabandman must be viewed by the world ded me that I was in a court where an in general as of a different species; Eastern despot, a Turkish bashaw, or therefore it is necessary he should be an alguazil of Buenos Ayres, presided. kept, like the poor Negrocs in the The parties, after they had retired, West India Islands, on a short allow. declared that the Parish affairs might

I will admit that it is necessary look out for themselves, for they there should be somebody to bale the would not expose their feelings to such water out of the long-boat; and that insults in future. it is also proper there should be per- That excellent Act of Parliament, sons in subordinate situations, from known by the name of Mr. Gilbert's the Peer down to the Peasant : før Act, is not sufficiently known; by Man is naturally dependent on Man. which the Parish is placed under But the precepts of the Church of a Visitor and two Guardians, I England teach us universal charity have witnessed its salutary effect and benevolence, with every other where it has been adopted, and in precept to adorn and dignify the mind; one Parish particularly, which is a veand we live under a Government the ry large one and incumbered by nuwonder of surrounding Nations, sup: merous' Poor, the Rates have been ported by the Bill of Rights; shall redaced more than one-third ; and then the industrious poor Husbandman where Parishes are small, blending be oppressed, and the reward of his two or three in one would be more exertions, a sufficiency of wholesome economical and humane, than sufferfood, be withheld — whilst his eni- ing the Poor to be farmed. ployer is able, froin the profits of It rejoices me very much to find his business, to remunerate him? - that Agriculture, one principal spring

? When I behold him (which I have of our national greatness, is flourishmany times in the course of mying and still improving ; this is a blesstravels) seated at his table with his ing for which we have just cause to wife and seven or eight children, to a return our humble thanks to the Di. meal consisting only of bread and po- vine Being. Notwithstanding the ca

' tatoes six days out of seven, I cannot lamities of war and rapine committed refrain from exclaiming, Oh! Shame, by the Tyrant of France on the Contiwhere is thy sting? oh i Virtue,where nent, and his endeavours to distress is thy glory? I could wish that the our commerce, we are enabled to baf. Legislature of the country would take fle and counteract his insidious acts. into their consideration the situation Let these considerations impress our of Husbandmen, and make their lives minds with the bountiful goodness of more comfortable ; "such a weasure the supreme Disposer of all events,

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