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Mr.URBAN,

Leicester-Square, animal body, he says, “may be consi

Dec. 14. dered an animal elaboratory, in which ERIODICAL Works not only dif- are continually going on a variety of

fuse useful information, but afford processes dependent on chemical affia vehicle for the full discussion of new nity.” After noticing the different opinions and discoveries, in order that functions of the organs engaged in the their real merit and utility may be assimilation of food aod nutrition or ascertained.

mutation of the body, he notices the The parish of which I am Rector powers which may be strictly termed being six miles distant from the resi- vital, as keeping the grand digester dence of a Medical man, I have for and the subservient vessels at work. many years paid some attention to This investigation he commences with popular Medicine, for the purpose of the primary moving powers of the rendering assistance to my poor pa bods, viz. the brain and nerves, rishioners, and a few others, when they This complex organ, the brain, he are afflicted with discase; and to you represents as possessing three powers, I stand much indebted for the charac. viz. intellectual, electrical, and senter you some time ago gave of Dr. tient. It is, says he, the connectReece's Medical Guide, which induced ing medium between the body and an me to purchase a copy, and I have immaterial principle, to which varifound it fully answer the high enco- ous denominations have been given, inium you bestowed upon it; and in- viz. the soul, the vis medicatrix vatudeed it so far exceeds every other po- :ræ, nature &c. a power which super, pular publication which I have seen, intends the different processes going that I look upon it as an invaluable on in the system. The brain is thence acquisition ; for it has enabled me to the seat of all our intellectual operaafford relief in many cases I durst not tions, as well as our various sensations attempt before I had perused that or senses. It has also electrical pow. work. I have also purchased his new ers, supplying the body by means of System of Physick and Surgery, with its ramifications, called nerves, with the view of becoming more deeply in- animal electrical matter.

· The sestructed in Medical Science. With cond organ engaged in vitalizing the these new opinions I became fascina- body, is the lungs: they supply the ted; and in consequence of a notice in blood with vital air, which is convey. the preface, that he should deliver ed over the body by the arteries. gratuitously, in October, a Course of These vessels run parallel with the Lectures for the purpose of elucidat. nerves. An union takes place between ing more clearly the opinions broach- the animal electric fluid and the oxy. ed in that work; I resolved to visit gen, in consequence of which calorič, some friends in London, that I might or heat, is disengaged, and therefore avail myself of his liberal proposal. generally diffused through the body; The doctrines appear to me, although and on the degree of this heat not only quite new, to be well supported by depend the proper functions of the · facts, and so consonant to niy own different organs, but even sensation of feelings, that I have been emboldened the nerves, and consequently the bealth to send you the outlines of them, not of the body. He makes a distinction solely with a view of giving them pub- between excitability and irritability; Jicity, but that in your valuable publi- the former alluding to the electrical cation they may undergo the investi- powers of the brain, and the latter to gation of such of your scientific rea- the sentient powers of the cerebral ders as may think then worthy of system (which includes brain and their particular notice; that I, as well nerves). That the blood parts with as others, may be better enabled to the oxygen it attracts during its pas judge whether they are really support- sage through the lungs, is, I believe; ed by facts, and to which I find the generally admitted; and that the brain author himself is by no means averse. is an electrical organ, the Doctor ap.

In hisintroductory Lecture, he takes pears to prove by many rational expe a view of the living body in a state of riments. In gouty intammalion, he bealth, and the processes that animate has collected such a quantity of elec, it, and the organs that prepare the trical matter by covering the affected nourishment, and those that are em, limb with silk, as to conduct it off in ployed in its mutation. The living sparks.

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By compression or division of the dies consists of those which, through principal nerve of a limb, the heat of the medium of the inind, act on the the extremity is considerably dimi- brain. nished; and the same effect follows the Every species of primary fever, he compression or division of the princi- contends, commences in the brain : pal artery, which seems to prove that hence the first symptom is head-ache, beat depends on the action of both, disturbed sleep, and confusion of ideas, When the excitability of the brain is which is followed by a discharge of increased, or the skin does not afford electric matter producing shiverings or a conducting surface, an accumulation rigors. All coutagious effluvia enter of electric inatter takes place in the the system by the lungs; and if the body, ithich is discharged through the poison do not disturb the brain, it will nerves on the approach of, or during not be productive of mischief. sleep, producing a shock of the body. “ Hence,” says he, “ people whose

The vitality of the body he there- brains are not easily acted upon escape fore states to depend upon tbis spe- infectious fevers, and generally enjoy cies of ignition, produced by oxygen a good state of health." In cases of and electric matter, which keeps up local injuries, as fractures and dislothe different functions, and occasions cations, he points out the necessity of a constant evaporation from the sur reducing the igniting powers of the face, termed insensible perspiration. system, to prevent general increased If the excitability of the brain (its ignition, which would re-act on the inelectrical power) be increased, and the jured part. In accidents, be observes, blood be well supplied with oxygen, if these precautions be neglected, the the ignition or heat of the body will local irritation will be communicated be increased, and all the functions dis- to the brain, and in a day or two its turbed ; the excretions, the fæces, and excitability will be increased; and the urine, will of course be morbid, and general increased ignition excited digestion so disturbed as to occasion termed sympathetic fever. pausea, loss of appetite, &c. The irri- lu local cases or organic diseases, tability of the cerebral system will he advises that the igniting process also be more or less increased ; the be kept low. If a patient with a siniconsequence of which is, the circula- ple ulcer on any

art of the body tion of the blood will be accelerated, disturbs the brain by the abuse of and the velocity of the blood through wine or spirituous liquor, the consethe vessels of the brain and lungs lend quences will be increased ignition of to keep up the excitability of the the ulcerated part, and a morbid disbrain, and super-oxygenation of the charge. The same effects will be problood: this is the state of system term- duced by inental perturbation ; hence ed inflaminatory fever. When the people afflicted with ulcerated or disexcitability of the brain is morbidly eased bowels will be affected with increased, the blood not sufficiently looseness or dysentery, on their minds oxygenated, and the irritability of the being disturbed. cerebral system is augmented, low or

JAMES CHARLES LISTER. typhus fever is produced. The former state of system he terms simple, and

Mr. URBAN, Muirtown, Nov. 6. the latter specific general increased ignition, and inflammation, local in

N the first part of your present 'vo. creased ignition. If the excitability

lume, p. 113, 1 observe an attempt of the brain be diminished, and the to explain the meaning of the word blood not sufficiently oxygenated, unbonnetted, in Shakspeare's play of there will be a deficiency of ignition, Othello, where he says,

“ 'I'is yet to know the difterent organs will not perform their respective offices, the body will, (Which when I know that boasting is an

honour

[being of course, be debilitated, and emacia

I shall promulgate) I fetch my life and tion, or dropsy, will be the conse

From men of royal siege me and my dequence. Hence, in all cases of disease,

(tune whether acute or chronic, general or May speak unbonnelted to as proud a fora local, we must attend to the igniting As this that I have reached.” or vitalizing powers of the systenı ; This meaning is supposed there to and the Doctor's first class of reme be with submission; but surely a refer

merits

encun

ence to Heraldry will explain it in a Newborough arms, are apt to refer it way much more naturally than W.P. to a more recent grant from the head bas done. The bonnet or chapeau of of that empire, while it yet existed. Nobility is still very frequent in En-. The fact is, that Cilmin lived in the glish Armorial Bearings, generally ninth century; and I must confess consupporting ihe Crest: it is represent- siderable surprise, at finding the royal ed as a Cap turned up with ermini, arms both of France and of Germany and was the mark of families descend- in the Principality at so remote a poed from noble slocks. To this Othello riod. alludes; and his meaning obviously is, Yours, &c. Épmd. HYDE HALL. that even thougn descended from Roy- I must in candour observe, that the al ancestors, ris own personal merits late Nir. Penyant, under the bead of night challenge, williout the aid of (riccaeth Costle, seems to prefer the pnj ati ribute of Nobility, the fortune assertion of Froissart, that the capture which he had reached.

of King John was a ade rather by a A reference to Heraldry,which, even

French knight than by Sir kiowel. so late as Shakspeare's days, was a But the tradition, the augmentation science of very great importance, will of the armorial bearings, and the exexplain many allusions in the poets of that age, and those of the centuries Castle, weigo with me against the di

pensive establishment at Criccaeth immediately preceding, which other

reet evidence. Sir Howel's abode is wise cannot be understood. In Scot- still in being, a mean farm-house. In Jand, the bornet or chapeau of No. thus diftering from Mr. Pennant, I bility is not much used; nor was

would not be understood to undervait, I believe, in France, where coro

lue him. After spending weeks and dels were assunicd in its place; but in

months in taking a detailed account of England it was, and is very generally the country through which he mereblazoned in Coats of Arms.

ly rode, I am bound, for many a wea. Yours, &c.

D.

ry hundred miles, to bear my testi

mony to his very extraordinary accuMr. URBAN, Caernarvoshire,Dec.4.

racy of description. We have been O BSERVING in p. 416, some ap- extremely grateful here at the repub

pearance of controversy respect- lication of his Welsh Tours by the ing the three Fleur-de-lis, borne by piety, taste and zeal of his son, David the families there nientioned; I am Pennant, Esq. onabled to inform you, that no bearing is more commonly met with upon Mr. URBAN.

Dec. 12. the monuments,or in the pedigrees, of the nobility and gentry residing with OUR revered Monarch having

time since resolved on rein Caernarvopshire (of which alone storing that antient and honourable I can affect to speak with precision) Institution, the Knights of Windsor, than the Fleurs de Lis either alone or to its original state of respectability, quartered. They were, in fact, the and an arrangement having been accoat of Collwyn ap Tanyns, one of the cordingly made to secure such vacanfifteen Welsh tribes, who lived three cies as inay hereafter occur to decaygenerations before the Norman con- ed and disabled Officers of his Majesquest, This coat received the aug- ty’s Land forces; the following extracts mentation of a pole-axe Argent from from the Statutes of the Order, if you Edward the Black Prince, at the bat- will have the goodness to give them a tle of Puictiers, where Sir Howel ap place in your valuable Miscellany, may Fwyall, a Welsh Knight, and descen- not only afford entertainment to some dant of Collwyil, is stated, and, in my of your readers, but likewise be the opinion, upon very strong circumstan- means of conveying to many a brave tial evidence truly stated, to have Veteran in secluded retirement on a been the person, who made prisoner scanty pittance, the pleasing intellithe King of France,

gence that he has not been forgotten, Cilmin ap Troed Du, another no. and that a comfortable asylum has ble tribe, the ancestor of Lord New- been provided for him in bis old age, borough, bore the Imperial Eagle of by the paternal regard of his beloved the Germanic Empire; though many Sovereigu; each Knight having a sepa, persons ypou seeing it in the present rate dwelling-house allotted to hiin,

þeside

some

beside his salary, which being but ture none to be admitted except gen. -small, may be held together with half- tlem'en born." pay, or any other stipend granted for The present establishment consists past services. Candidates must apply of 18 Knights, including a Governor, to the Secretary of State for the Home exclusive of the 7 Naval Knights. Department; and, highly to the ho.' nour of the present Minister the Right Mr. URBAN, Essex, Dec. 23. Hon. Richard Ryder, att those into listeated, that « Easter Day (on pointed by him are gentlemen duly qualified by honourable and merito- which the rest depend) is always the rious services. It would be, however, first Sunday after the Full Moon, injustice not to add, that the reforma- which, happens upon, or next after the tion of abuses commenced in the time 21st day of March; and if the Full of his predecessor, the Right Hon. the Moon kappens on a Sunday, then EasEart of Liverpool.

ter Day is on the Sunday after." 'There are also seven Naval Knights This

appears to be a fixed, and has of Windsor, for particulars of which, been the usual rule for calculating the sec Steel's list of the Royal Navy. falling of Easter ; but I have to noYours, &c.

tice a deviation from each part of it, An Old CORRESPONDENT.

as under:

In the present year (1810) the Moon “ King Edward the Third, out of the great regard he had to Military and Easter fell on the 22d of April;

was full on the 21st day of March, honour and those who had bravely be which agreeably to the first rule of haved themselves in the wars yet after calculation, should have been on the chanced to fall to decay, made a pro- 28th of March. vision for their relief and comfortable

In 1802, the full of the Moon and subsistence: the stated number at first was twenty-four ; but shortly after, day; namely, or the 15th of April ;

Easter Day were both on the same upon his instituting the Order of the which also is contrary to the rule Garter, two more were added. The

above quoted. intention of the founder was, as he deseribes them, Milites Pauperes, infirm

I beg leave, through the medium of in body and decayed; or, as the Sta- quire of some of your intelligeut Cor

your very useful publication, to entutes of the Garter qualify them, such

respondents, what reason (presuming as through adverse turns of fortune were reduced to that extremity, that exists for these deviations.

that some sufficient one will be given) they had not wherewithal to sustain

QUÆRENS. themselves to live so genteelly as was

Yours, &c. suitable to a military condition; which,

Near Reuding,Beris, for greater caution, was reiterated

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 26. in the Statutes of King Henry V. and afterwards by King Henry VIII. The observations of Clericus in

your page 537, are in every who by his Will settled Lands and Mạnors upon them for their support; syinpathy for the poor congenial with

sense praise-worthy, and manifest á Edward VI. also, in the first year my feelings: their situation in any paof his reign, bestowed several Lands on the Institution; and in the reign of me, Sir, when I read the public adver

rishes cals loudly for redress. Believe Philip and Mary, buildings for their

tisements for farming the Poor, my residence within the Castle were com

mind is filled with borror at the idca; menced ; and on Elizabeth coming to the Crown, she completed the build- contemplation to devise some plan or

and I am frequently led into serious ings, and confirmed her sister's grants; mode to ameliorate their condition, and August soth, in the tirst year of

to avert the savage recurrence to the her reign, minding the continuance of King Edward's foundalion, the intent farming system, which is a disgrace

to of her progenitors, and King Henry Thomson elegantly observes,

the country, where, alas! as Villth's Will, ordained Statutcs and

“How many drink the cup of baleful grief, Ordinances for them, under which

Or eat the bitter bread of misery! they still remain, and by which the Sore pierc'd by wintry winds, how many number was to be 13, to be called

shrink Anights of Windsor, and for the fu- Into the sordid hut of cheerless poverty!"

That be

That the Poor Rates have increas. culties as those I have stated

may ed, are increasing, and ought to be di- obviated. minished, is a position applicable to lu a parish not far from where I most Parishes ; and I am persuaded, reside, the Freeholders have come to jour correspondent Clericus is aware a very excellent resolution which, I am of this truth by the philanthropy he of opinion, were it adopted by others, displays on behalf of the Lower Or would answer a better purpose, toders of the people. He has, I am wards reducing the Parish Rates, convinced, from goodness of heart, than the plan proposed by Clericus. endeavoured to point out a mode of Every gentleinan or individual, who alleviating the distresses of the Poor, has inclosed a piece or pieces of land by devoting a certain number of acres on the waste, corumons, or forest, the of waste land totally for their use, Parish have obliged to pay after which, I must confess, in theory has a the rate of twenty pounds per acre, very promising appearance; and, if it which sum, if not complied with in a could be carried into effect with ease certain time, the lands are thrown out and at a moderate expence, would in to common as before; but the latter, all probability prove beneficial; but very rarely occurs, and the money I fear, when we come to reduce it to arising from this mode is paid into practice, we shall find many difficul- the hands of the Parish Officers, which ties arise that may not be expected. is vested in the funds for the express In the first place, we must purchase purpose of the Poor Rates, and the the land, or take a lease from the pro- interest alone is applied to the laudaprietor; and secondly, there will fol- ble purpose of reducing them, which Jow the expence of inclosing and per- it has done nearly one-third ; this is haps draining, &c. also the purchase an absolute fact, and worthy of imies of grain to crop the ground, with tation by other, Parishes when they tythes, and the great expence of hiring have waste or comnion lands. As persons to plough, drag, and harrow, I am speaking of the Poor Rates, together with boeing, reaping, thresh. I beg leave to intrude a little further ing, and carriage, with hiring of barns, on the subject of the Labourers or &c. : so that, I fear, when all these ex- Farmers' Servants, who, as the major penices are brought to account, there part of them are married and bave will be but very little profit left, (if families, according to the present any) to benefit the Parish. There are mode of paying them, incroase the many difficulties in arable land lo Parish Rates, and are the principal persons who have not a team of hor, means of the Parish burthens. Com, ses and men always at their command, merce and Agriculture are acknows that many individuals are not aware ledged by all to be the parental of; such as,when you want to get your strength and energy of this couutry ; ground ploughed, or the field sowed, consequently, labourers, who are the the teams or strength you may want, vital springs that give motion and the farmers perhaps cannot spare, celerity to the existence of either, : because they are employed in getting deserve our regard and attentions in their own crops; therefore you must and I cannot fathom why the votaries wait until theirs are finished, which of the latter should starve on a scanty may prove too late, and very proba, neal, whilst the Farmer is enjoying bly you may lose the season, This himself and his family on a comforta, I have experienced in my little por, ble one (of meat) every day. lo everytion of land; and it is not unlikely branch of our Manufactures, we find, that it would be the saine in other that as the necessaries of life increase, parts, for we cannot expect the far- the Journeyinen employed therein mer to leave his own lands to accom- have their wages advanced, according modate others, I perceive so many in- to the pressure of the times, without conveniencies in the system of Clerie recourse to the Parish for assistance; cus, though well intended, that I fear while, on the contrary, the poor init would not be so productive as be dustrious Husbandınan toils from A calculates. However, it is certainly, o'clock in the morning until ? o'clock worthy of trial under Salisbury Plain, at night, exposed to hail, rain, snow, where probably the farmers may be and frost, and all kinds of weatber, for pore accommodating and such diffi- the poor pittance of twelve shilling

per

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