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CHEMISTRY. Examiner-MR. JOHN ELIOT, M. A. 1. Give an outline of the methods used in the condensation 10 of the so-called permanent gases and explain why the older attempts were not successful.

2. Phosphorus is by some chemists classed as a triad and by 10 others as a pentad element. What are the arguments used to support each assertion, and what is the value of the arguments used ?

3. Potassium Chloride, Bromide, and lodide are present in a 8 single solution. How would you recognize the presence of each constituent ?

4. A solid substance contains the following ingredients. 12 NA CL, NA, HPO,, CA (NO3)2, SIO,, AG NO3, and BA SO,. Explain how you would analyse it qualitatively.

5. Give an outline of the metallurgy of iron and steel and 8 explain the chemical actions involved.

6. What is meant by the theory of phlogiston and who was 8 its author. How far was the theory consistent with facts ?

7. Give a short history of the development of the theory of “compound radicals."

8. Starting with the elements Carbon and Hydrogen, de 12 scribe a series of synthetical processes by which you can produce alcohol and acetic acid without the use of any compound of organic nature.

9. Give the constitutional formulæ both symbolic and graphic 10 of the following compounds : Ethyl Lactic Acid, Glycol, Allylic Alcohol, Tartaric Acid, and Benzole.

10. The quantitative analysis of a gas suspected to contain, 12 ethyl hydride, carbon monoxide and hydrogen gave the following data - Vol, of combustible gas = 32. Contraction on explosion with excess of 0 = 46 – Vol. of C0, produced 17. What is the percentage composition of the gas by volume ?

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HEAT. Examiner--MR. JOHN Eliot, M. A. 1. State the two laws of Thermodynamics. Also examine briefly the evidence on which they are based.

2. Define a reversible cycle. Sketch briefly the series of opera. tions which occur in a closed reversible cycle in the order adopted by Clerk Maxwell. Deduce Sir William Thomson's general expression for the work done by a reversible engine of finite range

-CT W = H (1 - L.

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where T and t are the extreme temperatures, H the heat taken in, and y Carnot's function of the temperature.

3. Prove that

is zero for any closed reversible cycle.

Thence deduce that

is a perfect differential for any portion of

a closed reversible cycle.

4. Give thermodynamic reasons for the adoption of Thomson's scale of absolute temperature. Also prove that assuming the laws of Boyle and Charles, and that no change of temperature occurs when air expands without doing external work the scale will agree with that of the air thermometer.

5. Prove the following properties of perfect gases :1st. The intrinsic energy is a function of the temperature only.

2nd. The ratio .of the elasticity of constant entropy to that of constant temperature is a constant.

3rd. The specific heats of constant temperature, and pressure are functions of the temperature only (and independent of pressure and density).

6. Prove Avogadro's law that the number of molecules in unit of volume of gases depends only on the pressure and density and not on the nature of the gas. Prove also the law of the equal dilatation of gases by means of the molecular theory of gases

7. State clearly what is meant by surface or superficial tension and superficial energy of a surface film of liquid.

Explain the rise of liquid in a fine capillary tube, and prove that the height to which the fluid rises is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube.

8. State the chief results of Dulong's and Petit's experiments to determine the law of cooling by radiation of bodies, and thence deduce the mathematical expression for the rate of cooling, viz., R = k < 1.0077 (1.0077' — 1) where is the temperature of the enclosure, and t the excess of temperatnre of the hot radiating surface, and I a constant depending on the nature of the body.

MAGNETISM, &c. Examiner—MR. JOHN ELIOT, M. A. 1 Define thermal conductivity.

Find the law of permanent distribution of heat in a rectangular prismatic bar (whose length is infinite) immersed in a mediam of zero temperature, and the extremity of which is kept at a fixed temperature (T).

2. Investigate the potential and strength of field at any point along the axis of a circular voltaic circuit.

3. Find the potential at any external point of a thin magnetic, shell in which the magnetization is everywhere perpendicular to the surface.

4. Sketch the methods usually adopted for determining the dip azimuth and intensity of the action due to terrestrial magnetism at any point on the earth's surface.

5. Find the strength of field at any external point due to a uniformly magnetized sphere.

6. Describe the general effects of charge and discharge in submarine cables.

7. State briefly what you know of the phenomena of Diamag. netism. Adduce some proof that the force of diamagnetism is a polar force. 8. Write a short essay on one of the following subjects :-

1st. The Degradation of Energy.
2nd. Measurement of Temperature.
3rd. Atmospheric Electricity.
4th. The value and uses of hypotheses in Physical Sciences.

ELECTRICITY. Examiner—MR. JOHN ELIOT, M. A. 1. Find the capacity, density at any point, and energy 'of a very long and thin cylinder (radius a) at potential A, enclosed in a coaxial cylinder (radius )) at potential B, and of equal length (l.) What change would be made in the formulæ if the space enclosed between the cylinders was occupied by a solid dielectric instead of air.

2. Explain what is meant by an electric image. Employ the method of Electric Images to determine the density of the electrical distribution on an infinite conducting plate at zero potential under the influence of an electrified point.

Find the position of the electric image in the case of a sphere at zero potential under the action of an electrified point (internal or external).

3. Prove in any way Poisson's differential relation connecting potential and density, viz. :

dv døv dv
d.x2 * du? + m2 + 4 + p = 0

Also obtain the general surface relation at any point on the surface of a conductor R, cos e + R2 cos ez + 4 0 = 0 where R, and R, are the resultant forces, and e eg the argles which their directions make with the normals drawn on either side of the surface.

4. Prove that the potential energy of a conductor charged to potential V is } QV, where Q is the quantity of the electrical charge.

5. Prove that there is one and only distribution of electricity over any equipotential surface due to an electrified system which will produce on all external electrified particles the same action as the given electrified system.

6. Prove that the surface density at any point of a freely electri. fied spheroid or ellipsoid varies as the distance of the tangent plane from the centre.

7. State Ohm's Law.

Employ it to obtain Kirchoff's equations for determining the currents in any branch of a net work of linear conductors.

8. Describe briefly Wheatstone's bridge. Find the condition which must be satisfied in order that the diagonals may be conjugate to each other.

9. Obtain the following expression for the indnced current produced by the movement of any conductor in a magnetic field Current strength =

Number of lines of force added

Resistance of circuit State clearly and illustrate the positive direction of lines of force, and of currents which you adopt in the formula.

L. M. S. and M. B. First Examination.

1881.

PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY.

Examiner-DR. C. J. H. WARDEN. 1. State briefly the chief laws regulating chemical com. 25 bination ; and give examples.

2. Calculate the specific gravity of a metal from the following 30 data :

Weight of metal in air-2.33820 grams

Loss of weight in water-:12235 ,, 3. 25 grams of steam are completely decomposed by being 60 passed over 250 grams of red-hot iron turnings Calculate the volume of H evolved, measured at 10° C, and 742 mm. Barometric pressure : and the weight of ferri oxide produced.

4. Describe by means of equations the changes which occur, 50 when the following substances are separately and strongly heated in a glass tube : Plumbic nitrate: mercuric cyanide : mercuric oxide : potassic chlorate : calcic oxalate and ammonic chloride.

5. What do you understand by the terms " free” and “albumi. 40 noid” ammonia, with reference to potable waters ? Give a short account of Wanklyn and Champman's process for their estimation.

6. Account for the presence of nitrates, nitrites, and chlorides 50 in well waters; and mention the tests you would employ for their detection.

7. Describe the physical, and chief chemical properties of 60 Ammonii Carbonate, potassić cyanide and arsenic trioxide.

8. How is White Precipitate prepared, and what is its chemical 45 composition ? State how you would discriminate between White Precipitate, Calomel, and Corrosive Sublimate.

9. How can urea be artificially prepared ? Give two methods 40 for its quantitative estimation in urine.

Fuil marks 400, and 200 marks for Practical Chemistry,

PHYSIOLOGY. Examiner-DR. T. R. LEWIS, M. B. Total marks = 1000 [Written Examination 600; oral 400.] Value of each question 150 marks : Not more than four to be answered.

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