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8. A room is 30 feet broad and the girders are six feet from centre to centre the floor is six inches of tiles and terrace taking the weight of the floor alone and neglecting the cross girders but allow. ing for a full load of people standing on the floor. Sketch a girder to sustain this load; the girder is to have a depth of 2 feet, the flanges 2 feet broad and factor of safety 1.5th ; what would be the dimensions of web and flanges ?
9. Why are the ends of all long girders left free ? would you if it could be avoided close in the seats of wooden beams air tight with cement; would it harm the iron works of a girder to be set in cement ?
ROADS AND RAILWAYS. Examiner—CAPT. W. H. JOHNSTONE, R. E. 1. What are catch-water drains and how are they employed ?
2. Give a sketch of the cross section of a hill cart-road. The sidelong slope of the ground is about 1 to 1. The material is moorum and unsound rock. What should be the steepest gradient permitted on such a road?
3. Define accurately what is meant by the “gauge” of a railway. In laying the permanent way how is the expansion of the rails by heat allowed for, and what would be the consequence if it were not allowed for? What is the object of giving super-elevation to the outer rail curves ? Describe how this is done in practice.
4. What are the advantages which steel rails possess over iron ones ? What office does the guard rail, opposite a crossing, perform ? What are “bull-headed” rails and why were they introduced ?
5. What advantages have transverse over longitudinal wooden sleepers ? What objections are there against the use of stone sleepers ? Under what circumstances is the use of cast iron pot sleepers te be recommended ?
6. It is an unsafe practice to run an engine tender foremost, consequently at each end of its run an engine requires to be turned round. How would you accomplish this supposing you had no engine turn tables ?
7. The intersection angle between two straight pieces of railway is 150° and it is proposed to employ a curve of 2000 ft. radius to upite them Describe in detail how you would proceed to stake out the curve with a theodolite, and give necessary calculations. If the chainage of the first tangent joint is 357 12 feet what will be the chainage of the second ?
8. It is proposed to make a siding leading out of a line of railway of metre gauge. The angle of the crossing is 5o 30 or about 1 in 10.4. The radius of curve to be employed is 660 feet. Calculate the “ lead” and give a sketch showing the crossing and the position of the guard, stock and switch rails : the latter are 12 feet long.
9. Is it advisable that the gradient of a railway should rise to a station on each side, so that the station may be on a summit, or is it better that the station should be in a hollow between two falling gradients. Give reasons for your answer.
10. Give a sketch of the main section of a small portion of an imaginary railway, shewing the kind of information which a working section should contain.
CHEMISTRY AND HEAT.
Examiner-DR. C. J. H. WARDEN. 1. What are the chief sources of heat ? Explain the meaning of “mechanical equivalent of heat.”
2. Describe the laws which govern ebullition; and indicate briefly their technical and scientific applications.
3. A bar of cast iron at 10° C. measures 15.4ft : what would be its length at 79:3° C. ?
4. Describe the wet bulb hygrometer. Give Apjohn's formula for ascertaining the hygrometric state of the atmosphere.
5. Describe the chemical composition of a lime (Ca O) snitable for building purposes. Mention the reason which would lead you to reject a sample.
6. Give at least two tests for each of the substances you may have mentioned as occurring in lime. Give equations.
7. Describe the composition of a water fit for use in boilers. To what is “fur" in boilers due ? Are you acquainted with any method by which it may be prevented ?
8 Describe the preparation and chemical and physical properties of Chlorine. What would be the weight of one litre of Chlorine at 60° C. and of 750 mm. barometric pressure ?
9. Define the following terms, convection, athermancy, evaporation, radiation, and condensation.
10. State the principles of Dalton's atomic theory,
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND MINERALOGY.
Examiner- DR. C. J. H. WARDEN. 1. Give a short account of the source and course of the Brahma. pootra river, and of the physical characters of the localities through which it flows.
2. What are the canses and effects of the Gulf Stream ?
3. State what you know regarding sub.soil water; its rate of movement, and the causes which influence its level.
4. Give a brief description of the soil constituents of the Indo. Gangetic plain.
5. To what systems of Crystallography do the following crystals belong: nitre, borax, chloride of sodium, fluorspar and sulphur ? Explain the meaning of cleavage of crystals.
6. Mention the localities in India in which coal is worked and give a short account of coal mining.
7. Describe the physical properties of the following minerals : graphite, mica, anthracite, asphaltum and granite.
8. Mention the names and give the chemical composition of the chief ores of iron, copper and zinc.
9. What is the usual chemical composition of wrought iron ? Give a brief account of the manufacture of cast steel by Bessemer's patent.
10. You are requested to give an opinion in the ventilation of a room which is supposed to be defective. Give details regarding the method you would adopt in conducting the enquiry.
PRACTICE OF BUILDING, I. Examiner-CAPT. W. H. JOHNSTONE, R. E. 1. Describe what is meant by “ English bond" in brick work. Illustrate your answer by sketches. What is meant by a wall * a brick and a half thick ;" what does this dimension amount to in feet and inches if ordinary bricks are used ?
2 What do you understand by “Hydraulic lime” and “Fat lime"? What are the principal differences in their composition and properties? Which will take the most sand and why? What is the object of adding sand to mortar ?
3. When limestone is burnt what is the result, and what change takes place in its composition ? Mention a simple test to distinguish limestone from sandstone.
4. Give a specification for concrete to be made with good hydraulic lime.
5. Give sketch and description of a small pile-driving machine or ringing engine, and explain the contrivance, for releasing the monkey.
6. Give sketch and description of a “Lewis” for lifting large Ashlar stones and of one suitable for lowering such stones into position under water.
7. What are cofferdams, and what are they used for ? Describe
8. Explain the terms " battering rule," "arris," sumpt," engine," " soffit," ** adit,'' " bottle jack” and “snatch-block." When is the surface of a stone said to be “in winding?"
9. What are the principal differences in the composition and properties of Wrought and Cast iron? What is effected by the process of “puddling."
10. Why is “soorkee” used in mortar, what kinds of lime is it used with ?
PRACTICE OF BUILDING, II.
1. In order to move horizontally a weight offering a resistance of one ton, you are required to make a tackle with a double and a treble block. Shew by a sketch the most advantageous disposition of the blocks and the reeving of the rope. Shew also wbich block the standing part of the rope is made fast to, and calculate the power which must be applied to the fall of the rope in order just to move the weight, friction and stiffness of ropes being neglected. What sized hemp rope would you use?
2. Give sketches of a 10 feet arched culvert, shewing plan, elevation and sections. The arch is to be semi-circular, and the culvert passes under a railway embankment 25 feet high with slopes 1} to l. Formation width is 14 feet. The culvert is to be built of ordinary coursed stone masonry. The foundations are rock.
3. Write a specification for the masonry of the above culvert.
4. Make an estimate, in a suitable form, of the expense of constructing the culvert in question 2, assuming any reasonable rates.
5. A railway cutting is 500 feet long, the formation width is 16 feet and the slopes 1 to 1. The levels taken at every hundred feet make the depths of cutting to be 0, 5:60, 8-30, 10:40, 6:70, 0 feet, The ground may be assumed as level across the railway. Find the content of the cutting by the “ Prismoidal formula.”
6. What should be the thickness of a 15 feet semi-circular arch of stone masonry? How many voussoir stones would you allow to the half ring? Describe the process of getting out a tenplate for the use of the masons who have to dress the voussoir stones.
7. Make a sketch (with dimensions) of the cross section of a surcharged retaining wall about 20 feet high The material which it will have to retain will have a slope of 1 to 1 back from the top of the wall. The natural slope of the ground, perpendicular to the crest of the wall, is 2 to l. The wall is to be built of ordinary coursed stone masonry. Shew what means you would employ to prevent the accumulation of water at the back of the wall.
8. Explain how you would proceed to determine the discharge of a canal or small river.
Examiner-MR. H. H. LOCKE. In the following exercises all working lines are to be left, but they should not be shewn so strongly as the actual lines of the figures. Ink in the drawings if you can, but if you have not the means at hand to do this, pencil work will be accepted, but the lines must be very clean and distinct, as the quality of this part of your work will be taken into account in adjudging marks.
1. Explain the way in which you would set off an angle of 50° from any given point in a given vertical line by the use of the scale called the Line of Chords.
2. Draw, to scale of 10 feet to an inch, the figure shewn in the diagram marked A, the following being its dimensions :Lines:
B. A. F.
- 135 degrees.
A. F. E
F. E. D. = 135
A, B. C. 60
= 30 3. Figure B gives the plan and elevation of a sphere intersected by a cylinder the elevation shewing simply the outer bounding lines of the two solids. Draw the lines of penetration which would be visible between a and b and between c and d.
4. Make an isometrical drawing, half full size, of the object marked C; the corner on which the letter C is placed being nearest to you.
5. Make a perspective drawing of the object C, settling for your. self the view which you will take of it, and the places of the station Point, Plane of Projection (Picture Plane), and height of horizon. In awarding marks for this exercise regard will be given to the judgment which you display in so choosing the view which you take of the object, and in so arranging the positions of the Station Point, Plane of Projection, and Horizontal Line that a drawing may result which shall not, as regards the lines of the figure itself,* measure less than four inches across its greatest dimension, and which shall well display the form and proportions of the model, with good perspective effect, without that abruptness or distortion which follows upon an ill-arrangement of the working data above referred to.
6. To what “ Order" of Architecture does the Capital shewn in Fig. E. belong ?
7. Draw, in elevation, the column-base which you would use with such a Capital as that referred to in the last question.
That is to say quite exclusive of the distances occupied by Vanishing Points or other working means.