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What is't thou can't demand?


How now? moody?

My liberty.

PRO. Before the time be out? no more.

ARI. I pray thee Remember, I have done thee worthy férvice; Told thee no lies, made no miftakings, ferv'd Without or grudge, or grumblings: thou didst promise

To bate me a full year.



Doft thou forget

Told thee no lies, made no miftakings, ferv'd —} The old copy

"Told thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, ferv'd ———. " The repetition of a word will be found a frequent miflake in the ancient editions. RITSON.

9 Doft thou forget -) That the character and condu&t of Profpero may be understood, fomething must be known of the fyftem of enchantment, which fupplied all the marvellous found in the romances of the middle ages. This fyftem feems to be founded on the opinion that the fallen fpirits, having different degrees of guilt, had different habitatious allotted them at their expulfion, fome being confined in hell, fome (as Hooker, who delivers the opinion of our poet's age, expreffes it) difperfed in air, fome on earth, fome in water, others in caves, dens, or minerals under the earth, Of thefe, fome were more malignant and mischievous than others. The earthy fpirits feem to have been thought the most depraved, and the aerial the leaft vitiated. Thus Profpero obferves of Ariel : Thou waft a spirit too delicate

To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands.

Over thefe fpirits a power might be obtained by certain rites performed or charms learned. This power was called The black Art, or Knowledge of Enchantment. The enchanter being (as king James obferves in his Demonology) one who commands the devil, whereas the witch ferves him. Those who thought beft of this art, the exiflence of which was, I am afraid, believed very feriously, held, that certain founds and chara&ers had a phyfical power over fpirits, and compelled their agency; others, who condemned the practice, which in reality was furely never pradifed, were of opinion, with more reason, that the power of charms arofe only from compact,

From what a torment I did free thee?


PRO. Thou doft; and think'ft


It much, to tread the ooze of the falt deep; To run upon the sharp wind of the north; To do me business in the veins o' the earth, When it is bak'd with frost.


I do not, fir.

PRO. Thou lieft, malignant thing! Haft thou


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The foul witch Sycorax, who, with age, and envy, Was grown into a hoop? haft thou forgot her? ARI. No, fir.


Thou haft: Where was fhe born? fpeak; tell me.

ARI. Sir, in Argier.'

and was no more than the spirits voluntarily allowed them for the fedu&ion of man. The art was held by all, though not equally criminal, yet unlawful, and therefore Cafaubon, fpeaking of ong who had commerce with fpirits, blames him, though he imagines him one of the best kind, who dealt with them by way of command. Thus Profpero repents of his art in the laft fcene. The fpirits were always confidered as in fome measure enflaved to the enchanter, at leaft for a time, and as serving with unwillingness; therefore Ariel fo often begs for liberty; and Caliban obferves, that the fpirits ferve Profpero with no good will, but hate him rootedly. Of thefe trifles enough. JOHNSON.


The foul witch Sycorax,) This idea might have been caught from Dionyfe Settle's Reporte of the last Voyage of Captaine Frobisher, 12mo, bl. l. 1577. He is fpeaking of a woman found on one of the islands defcribed, "The old wretch, whome diuers of our Saylers fuppofed to be a Diuell, or a Witche, plucked off her bufkius, to fee if the were clouen-footed, and for her oughly hewe and deformitie, we let her goe. » STEEVENS.

3 - in Argier.) Argier is the ancient English name for Algiers. See a pamphlet entitled, A true Relation of the Travailes, &c. of William Davies, barber-furgeou, &c. 1614. In this is a chapter on the defcription, &c. of Argier. » STEFVENS.

O, was the fo? I muft,

PRO. Once in a month, recount what thou hast been, Which thou forget'ft. This damn'd witch, Sycorax, For mischiefs manifold, and forceries terrible To enter human hearing, from Argier,

Thou know'ft, was banish'd; for one thing fhe did, They would not take her life: Is not this true? ARI. Ay, fir.

PRO. This blue-ey'd hag was hither brought with child,

And here was left by the failors: Thou, my flave,
As thou report'ft thyfelf, waft then her fervant:
And, for thou waft a fpirit too delicate

To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands,
Refufing her grand hefts, fhe did confine thee,
By help of her more potent ministers,
And in her moft unmitigable rage,
Into a cloven pine; within which rift
Imprifon'd, thou didst painfully remain

A dozen years; within which space fhe died,
And left thee there; where thou didftvent thy groans,
As faft as mill-wheels ftrike: Then was this island,
(Save for the fon that fhe did litter here,

A freckled whelp, hag-born) not honour'd with A human fhape.


Yes; Caliban her fon. PRO. Dull thing, I fay fo; he, that Caliban, Whom now I keep in fervice. Thou best know'st What torment I did find thee in thy groans Did make wolves howl, and penetrate the breasts Of ever-angry bears; it was a torment To lay upon the damn'd, which Sycorax Could not again undo; it was mine art, When I arriv'd, and hear'd thee, that made The pine, and let thee out.



I thank thee, master.

PRO. If thou more murmur'ft, I will rend an oak, And peg thee in his knotty entrails, till Thou haft howl'd away twelve winters,


Pardon, mafter:

I will be correfpondent to command,
And do my fpriting gently.


I will discharge thee.


Do fo; and after two days

That's my noble mafter ! What fhall I do? fay what? what fhall I do? PRO. Go make thyself like to a nymph o' the fea;' Be fubject to no fight but mine; invifible To every eye-ball elfe. Go, take this fhape, And hither come in't: hence, with diligence." Exit ARIEL.

to a nympho the fea;) There does not appear to be fufficient caufe why Ariel fhould affume, this new fhape, as he was to be invifible to all eyes but those of Profpero. STEEVENS. S. Be fubject to no fight but mine; invifible

To every eye-ball elfe.) The old copy reads

Be fubje& to no fight butthine and mine; invifible," &c. But redundancy in the firft line, and the ridiculous precaution' that Ariel fhould not be invifible to himself, plainly prove that the words and thine were the interpolations of ignorance.

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Go make thyfelf like a nymph o' the fea: be fubject To no fight but thine and mine; invifible, &c.) The words " be subject." having been trausferred in the firft copy of this play to the latter of thefe lines, by the carelefinefs of the tranfcriber or printer, the editor of the fecond folio, to fupply the metre of the former, introduced the word to; — reading, «like to a nymph o' the fea." The regulation that I have made, fhews that the addition, like many others made by that editor, was unneceffary. MALONE. My arrangement of this paffage, admits the word to, which, I think, was judiciously restored by the editor of the fecond folio. STEEVENS.


6 And hither come in't: hence with diligence.) The old copy reads. "And hither come in't go, hence with diligence." The transcriber or compofitor had caught the word go from the preceding line. RITSON.




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Awake, dear heart, awake! thou haft flept well;

MIRA. The ftrangeness of your flory put
Heavinefs in me.


We'll vifit Caliban, my flave, who never
Yields us kind answer.


Shake it off: Come on;

'Tis a villain, fir,

But, as 'tis,

I do not love to look on.



We cannot mifs him: he does make our fire,
Fetch in our wood; and ferves in offices

That profit us. What, ho! flave! Caliban !
Thou earth, thou! speak.

CAL. (Within) There's wood enough within.
PRO. Come forth, I fay; there's other bufinefs
for thee:

Come forth, thou tortoife! when?"

The frangeness -) Why should a wonderful ftory produce fleep? I believe experience will prove, that any violent agitation of the mind easily fubfides in flumber, especially when, as in Prof. pero's relation, the laft images are pleafing. JOHNson.

The poet feems to have been apprehenfive that the audience, as well as Miranda, would fleep over this long but neceffary tale, and therefore frives to break it. Firft, by making Profpero diveft himself of his magic robe and wand: then by waking her attention no less than fix times by verbal interruption: then by varying the action when he rifes and bids her continue fitting and laftly, by carrying on the business of the fable while Miranda fleeps, by which she is continued on the ftage till the poet has occafiou for her again. WARNER.

8 We cannot mifs him:) That is, we cannot do without him.

This provincial expreffion is ftill used in the midland counties.

9 Come forth, thou tortoife! when? This interrogation, indicative of impatience in the highest degree. occurs alfo in K. Richard II. A& I, fc. i: «When, Harry?" See note on this passage.

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