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natural consequence, it is plain, that in one there is danger; danger to the glory of the prince, and the happiness of the people: and often, very justly, ruin to the very person, who by such unjust measures hoped to gain power and felicity.

• The passions too much indulged, and not justly regulated and governed by the sacred rules of right reason, are and always have been the source of all miseries and misfortunes, both private and public. And it is impossible, that any one of mortal race can escape pain greater or less, who will hear no other advices. The highest and most aweful stations cannot secure the greatest monarchs from troubles and misfortunes, who will be led by them. And I think it is too plain to need any proof, that no prince can be guided by any one minister, but through a passionate fondness of him, either for his imaginary virtues or agreeable vices : and I think it is as plain, that such a prince, and the kingdom governed by him, must be miserable in the end. And for this reason, all wise statesmen agree, that a prince or state ought to have no passions, if they would prosper in glory - and power. : It is very true, that valour and conduct in armies may shine in one subject above another; that frugality and good management may in another: but till we can find one man master of all knowledge and all virtues, it will never be safe nor honourable for any prince wholly to confide himself and his affairs to either, exclusive of all others. For that nation is in a lost and undone condition indeed, that can afford but one man among all it's nobility and gentry qualified to serve the public, and in whom the prince can

not have an equal confidence. Nay, it is an argument of the weakness and depravity of a prince, who if he encouraged and rewarded virtue, would not want numbers of able heads to assist him.

. But, Madam, I must remember to whom it is that I am speaking, to one of the wisest and best of princes; on whom the first flattery can never have any effect, as being entirely free from all vicious inclinations, and of too good judgement to be imposed on by the fairest appearances of virtue so far, as to lose the juster considerations of public good in the shining qualities of any particular. Under you, Madam, we find that saying true, How happy is the kingdom governed by a philosopher ! We feel the blessing, and every day experience the manna of your reign. And how indulgent soever your Majesty may be thought to the eminent excellences of some, yet I have no manner of fear that they will ever be able to expel your Majesty's affections from all your other subjects, or make you ever deviate to a partiality in their favour against the good and universal cries of your people.

• This noble temper of your Majesty it is, that secures me against all fears from this freedom, which I have taken; since you will easily see a public spirit, void of all private aims, shine through the whole. I have, therefore, only to add my ardent wishes for the prosperous and long reign of your Majesty, over a people that are sensible of the blessing, which Providence has bestowed on them in their gracious Queen.

STANZAS SENT, WITH A NEW YEAR'S GIFT OF A SPINNING

WHEEL, BY SIR WILLIAM CECIL TO HIS DAUGHTER.

As years do grow, so cares increase,

And time will move; so look to thrift:
Though years in me work nothing less,

Yet for your years and New Year's Gift

This housewife's toy is now my shift,
• To set you on work some thrift to feel,

I send you now a spinning-wheel.
But one thing first I wish and pray,

Lest thirst of thrift might soon you tire,
Only to spin one pound a-dạy,

And play the rest, as times require.

Sweat not, oh fiefling work in fire.
God send, who send'th all thrift and wealth,

You long years, and your father health.
Anno 1566.

(Cecil Papers.)

ROBERT DEVEREUX,

EARL OF ESSEX.*

[1567—1601.]

ROBERT DEVEREUX was the eldest son of Walter first Earl of Essex, by Lettice daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, who was related to Queen Elizabeth. He was born in 1567 at Netherwood, his father's seat in Herefordshire.

This nobleman, destined subsequently to run an illustrious career, was during his tender years so backward in his learning, that his father died with a very humble idea of his abilities: but this, in the judgement of many, proceeded from his preference of his younger son, Walter, who it appears had quicker parts in his childhood. On his death-bed however, he recommended Robert, then in the tenth year of his age, to the protection of Thomas Radcliffe Earl of Sussex, and to the care of Lord Burghley, whom he appointed his guardian. Water

* AUTHORITIES. Camden's Annals of Queen Elizabeth ; Baker's Chronicle; Winstanley's English Worthies ; Birch's Memoirs, &c. of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth ; and Hume's History of England.

house, then Secretary for Ireland, in which country his father expired, had the immediate direction of his person and estate, which though not a little injured by his predecessor's public spirit; was still very considerable ; and his popularity at court was so remarkable, that according to that gentleman's assertion, there was no man so strong in friends as the little Earl of Essex.'.

In 1578, when he was about twelve years of age, Lord Burghley placed him at Trinity College, Cambridge, under the care of Dr. Whitgift the master, subsequently Archbishop of Canterbury. Here he first began to apply himself to learning with uncom, mon assiduity'; and, in a short time, he surpassed all his noble contemporaries. .

In 1582, having taken the degree of M.A. he left the University, and retired to his own house at Lambsie in South-Wales, to which he gradually became so much attached for it's rural quiet, that it was with difficulty he was prevailed upon to leave it. .

His first appearance at court was in the seventeenth year of his age. Thither he carried with him, among other powerful recommendations, a fine person, a polite address, and an affability which procured him numerous friends. Neither must it be forgotten that his mother, not long after his father's death, had married the Queen's favourite, the celebrated Eart of Leicester. At first, however, he showed great reluctance to avail himself of his step-father's interest, being disgusted at the nuptials which opened his way to it; but in the end, by the persuasion of his friends, he was so far reconciled to him, that toward the close of the year 1585 he accompanied him to Holland,

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