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ated by statute, which enacts that every person who shall be guilty of lascivious carriage and behaviour, and shall be thereof duly convicted, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding ten dollars, or by imprisonment in a common gaol, not exceeding two months, or by fine and imprisonment, or both, at the discretion of the court. This law was passed at a very early period. Though indefinite in its terms, it has received a construction so limiting it, that it may be said to punish those wanton acts between persons of different sexes, who are not married to each other, that flow from the exercise of lustful passions, and which are not otherwise punished as crimes against chastity and public decency. 2 Swift's Dig. 343; 2 Swift's Syst. 331.

2. Lascivious carriage may consist not only in mutual acts of wanton and indecent familiarity between persons of different sexes, but in wanton and indecent actions against the will, and without the consent of one of them, as if a man should forcibly attempt to pull up the clothes of a woman. 5 Day, 81.

LAST RESORT. A court of last resort, is one which decides, definitely, without appeal or writ of error, or any other examination whatever, a suit or action, or some other matter, which has been submitted to its judgment, and over which it has jurisdiction.

2. The supreme court is a court of last resort in all matters which legally come before it; and whenever a court possesses the power to decide without appeal or other examination whatever, a subject matter submitted to it, it is a court of last resort; but this is not to be understood as preventing an examination into its jurisdiction, or excess of authority, for then the judgment of a superior does not try and decide so much whether the point decided has been so done according to law, as to try the authority of the inferior court.

That of which

LAST SICKNESS. person died.

2. The expenses of this sickness are generally entitled to a preference, in payment of debts of an insolvent estate. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 3166; Purd. Ab. 393.

3. To prevent impositions, the statute of frauds requires that nuncupative wills shall be made during the testator's last sickness. Rob. on Frauds, 556; 20 John. R. 502.

LATENT, construction. That which is concealed; or which does not appear; for

example, if a testator bequeaths to his cousin Peter his white horse; and at the time of making his will and at his death he had two cousins named Peter, and he owned two white horses, the ambiguity in this case. would be latent, both as respects the legatee, and the thing bequeathed. Vide Bac. Max. Reg. 23, and article Ambiguity. A latent ambiguity can only be made to appear by parol evidence, and may be explained by the same kind of proof. 5 Co. 69.

LATITAT, Eng. law. He lies hid. The name of a writ calling a defendant to answer to a personal action in the king's bench; it derives its name from a supposition that the defendant lurks and lies hid, and cannot be found in the county of Middlesex, (in which the said court is holden,) to be taken there, but is gone into some other county, and therefore requiring the sheriff to apprehend him in such other county. Fitz. N. B. 78.

2. The goods on board of a launch are at the risk of the insurers till landed. 5 N. S. 387. The duties and rights of the master of a launch are the same as those of the master of a lighter.

LAW. In its most general and comprehensive sense, law signifies a rule of action; and this term is applied indiscriminately to all kinds of action; whether animate or inanimate, rational or irrational. 1 Bl. Com. 38. In its more confined sense, law denotes the rule, not of actions in general, but of human action or conduct. In the civil code of Louisiana, art. 1, it is defined to be "a solemn expression of the legislative will." Vide Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. tit. prel. s. 1, n. 4; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1–3.

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2. Law is generally divided into four principal classes, namely: Natural law, the law of nations, public law, and private or civil law. When considered in relation to its origin, it is statute law or common law. When examined as to its different systems it is divided into civil law, common law, canon law. When applied to objects, it is civil, criminal, or penal. It is also divided into natural law and positive law. Into written law, lex scripta; and unwritten law, lex non scripta. Into law merchant, martial law, municipal law, and foreign law. When considered as to their duration, laws are immutable and arbitrary or positive; when as to their effect, they are prospective and retro

LAUNCHES. Small vessels employed to carry the cargo of a large one to and from the shore; lighters. (q. v.)

rally applied by way of eminence to the civil
or municipal law of the Roman empire, with-
out distinction as to the time when the
principles of such law were established or
modified. In another sense, the civil law is
that collection of laws comprised in the in-
stitutes, the code, and the digest of the em-
peror Justinian, and the novel constitutions
of himself and some of his successors. Ersk.
Pr. L. Scotl. B. 1, t. 1, s. 9; 5 L. R. 494.

LAW, CANON. The canon law is a body of Roman ecclesiastical law, relative to such matters as that church either has or pretends to have the proper jurisdiction over.

2. The Institutes contain the elements or first principles of the Roman law, in four books. The Digests or Pandects are in fifty books, and contain the opinions and writings of eminent lawyers digested in a systematical method, whose works comprised more than two thousand volumes. The new code, or collection of imperial constitutions, in twelve books; which was a substitute for the code of Theodosius. The novels or new constitutions, posterior in time to the other books, and amounting to a supplement to the code, containing new decrees of successive emperors as new questions happened to arise. These form the body of the Roman law, or corpus juris civilis, as published about the time of Justinian.

2. This is compiled from the opinions of the ancient Latin fathers, the decrees of general councils, and the decretal epistles and bulls of the holy see. All which lay in the same confusion and disorder as the Roman civil law, till about the year 1151, when one Gratian, an Italian monk, animated by the discovery of Justinian's Pandects, reduced the ecclesiastical constitutions also into some method, in three books, which he entitled Concordia discordantium canonum, but which are generally known by the name of Decretum Gratiani. These reached as low as the time of Pope Alexander III. The subsequent papal decrees to the pontificate of Gregory IX., were published in much the same method, under the auspices of that pope, about the year 1230, in five books, entiled Decretalia Gregorii noni. A sixth book was added by Boniface VIII., about the year 1298, which is called Sextus decretalium. The Clementine constitution or decrees of Clement V., were in like manner authenticated in 1317, by his successor, John XXII., who also published twenty constitutions of his own, called the Extravagan-mer severity, they have since been the study tes Joannis, all of which in some manner an- of the wisest men, and revered as law, by swer to the novels of the civil law. To these the politest nations. have since been added some decrees of the later popes, in five books, called Extravagantes communes. And all these together, Gratian's Decrees, Gregory's Decretals, the Sixth Decretals, the Clementine Constitutions, and the Extravagants of John and his successors, form the Corpus juris canonici, or body of the Roman canon law. 1 Bl. Com. 82; Encyclopédie, Droit Canonique, Droit Publie Ecclesiastique; Dict. de Jurispr. Droit Canonique; Ersk. Pr. L. Scotl. B. 1, t. 1, s. 10. See, in general, Ayl. Par. Jur. Can. 6. Sometimes by the term civil law is Ang.; Shelf. on M. & D. 19; Preface to meant those laws which relate to civil matBurn's Eccl. Law, by Thyrwhitt, 22; Hale's ters only; and in this sense it is opposed Hist. C. L. 26-29; Bell's Case of a Puta- to criminal law, or to those laws which tive Marriage, 203; Dict. du Droit Cano-conce n criminal matters. Vide Civil. nique; Stair's Inst. b. 1, t. 1, 7.

3. Although successful in the west, these laws were not, even in the lifetime of the emperor universally received; and after the Lombard invasion they became so totally neglected, that both the Code and Pandects were lost till the twelfth century, A. D. 1130; when it is said the Pandects were accidentally discovered at Amalphi, and the Code at Ravenna. But, as if fortune would make an atonement for her for

LAW, CIVIL. The term civil law is gene

spective. These will be separately considered.

LAW, ARBITRARY. An arbitrary law is one made by the legislator simply because he wills it, and is not founded in the nature of things; such law, for example, as the tariff law, which may be high or low. This term is used in opposition to immutable.

4. By the term civil law is also understood the particular law of each people, opposed to natural law, or the law of nations, which are common to all. Just. Inst. 1. 1, t. 1, § 1, 2; Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. B. 1, t. 1, s. 4. In this sense it is used by Judge Swift. See below.

5. Civil law is also sometimes understood as that which has emanated from the secular power opposed to the ecclesiastical or military.

7. Judge Swift, in his System of the Laws of Connecticut, prefers the term civil

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law, to that of municipal law. He considers the term municipal to be too limited in its signification. He defines civil law to be a rule of human action, adopted by mankind in a state of society, or prescribed by the supreme power of the government, requiring a course of conduct not repugnant to morality or religion, productive of the greatest political happiness, and prohibiting actions contrary thereto, and which is enforced by the sanctions of pains and penalties. 1 Sw. Syst. 37. See Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 2, p. 6.

See, in general, as to civil law, Cooper's Justinian; the Pandects; 1 Bl. Com. 80, 31; Encyclopédie, art. Droit Civil, Droit Romain; Domat, Les Loix Civiles; Ferniere's Dict.; Brown's Civ. Law; Halifax's Analys. Civ. Law; Wood's Civ. Law; Aylife's Pandects; Heinec. Elem. Jur.; Erskne's Institutes; Pothier; Eunomus, Dial. 1; Corpus Juris Civilis; Taylor's Elem. Ciz. Law.

LAW, COMMON. The common law is that which derives its force and authority from the universal consent and immemorial practice of the people. It has never received the sanction of the legislature, by an express act, which is the criterion by which it is distinguished from the statute law. It has never been reduced to writing; by this expression, however, it is not meant that all those laws are at present merely oral, or communicated from former ages to the present solely by word of mouth, but that the evidence of our common law is contained in our books of Reports, and depends on the general practice and judicial adjudications of our courts.

in the seventh article of the amendments' of the constitution of the United States. "In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall not exceed twenty dollars," says that article, "the right of trial by jury shall be preserved." The "common law" here mentioned is the common law of England, and not of any particular state. 1 Gallis. 20; 1 Bald. 558; 3 Wheat. 223; 3 Pet. R. 446; 1 Bald. R. 554. The term is used in contradistinction to equity, admiralty, and maritime law. 3 Pet. 446; 1 Bald. 554.

4. The common law of England is not in all respects to be taken as that of the United States, or of the several states; its general principles are adopted only so far as they are applicable to our situation. 2 Pet. 144; 8 Pet. 659; 9 Cranch, 333; 9 S. & R. 330; 1 Blackf. 66, 82, 206; Kirby, 117; 5 Har. & John. 356; 2 Aik. 187; Charlt. 172; 1 Ham. 243. See 5 Cow. 628; 5 Pet. 241; 1 Dall. 67; 1 Mass. 61; 9 Pick. 532; 3 Greenl. 162; 6 Greenl. 55; 3 Gill & John. 62; Sampson's Discourse before the Historical Society of New York; 1 Gallis. R. 489; 3 Conn. R. 114; 2 Dall. 2, 297, 384; 7 Cranch, R. 32; 1 Wheat. R. 415; 3 Wheat. 223; 1 Blackf. R. 205; 8 Pet. R. 658; 5 Cowen, R. 628; 2 Stew. R. 362.

LAW, CRIMINAL. By criminal law is understood that system of laws which provides for the mode of trial of persons charged with criminal offences, defines crimes, and provides for their punishments.

LAW, FOREIGN. By foreign laws are understood the laws of a foreign country. The states of the American Union are for some purposes foreign to each other, and the laws of each are foreign in the others. See Foreign laws.

LAW, INTERNATIONAL. The law of nature applied to the affairs of nations, com

2. The common law is derived from two sources, the common law of England, and the practice and decision of our own courts. In some states the English common law has been adopted by statute. There is no general rule to ascertain what part of the Eng-monly called the law of nations, jus genlish common law is valid and binding. To tium; is also called by some modern authors run the line of distinction, is a subject of international law. Toullier, Droit Français, embarrassment to courts, and the want of tit. prel. § 12. Mann. Comm. 1; Bentham it a great perplexity to the student. Kirb. on Morals, &c., 260, 262; Wheat. on Int. Rep. Pref. It may however be observed Law; Fœlix, Du Droit Intern. Privé, n. 1. generally, that it is binding where it has not been superseded by the constitution of the United States, or of the several states, or by their legislative enactments, or varied by custom, and where it is founded in reason and consonant to the genius and manners of the people.

LAW, MARTIAL. Martial law is a code established for the government of the army and navy of the United States.

2. Its principal rules are to be found in the articles of war. (q. v.) The object of this code or body of regulations is to maintain that order and discipline, the fundamental

3. The phrase "common law" occurs principles of which are a due obedience of

the several ranks to their proper officers, a | subordination of each rank to their superiors, and the subjection of the whole to certain rules of discipline, essential to their acting with the union and energy of an organized body. The violations of this law are to be tried by a court martial. (q. v.)

3. A military commander has not the power, by declaring a district to be under martial law, to subject all the citizens to that code, and to suspend the operation of the writ of habeas corpus. 3 Mart. (Lo.) 531. Vide Hale's Hist. C. L. 38; 1 Bl. Com. 413; Tytler on Military Law; Ho. on C. M.; M'Arth. on C. M.; Rules and Articles of War, art. 64, et seq; 2 Story, L. U. S. 1000.

Latin municipium, which among them signified a city which was governed by its own laws, and which had its own magistrates.

LAW, MUNICIPAL. Municipal law is defined by Mr. Justice Blackstone to be "a rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power in a state, commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong." This definition has been criticised, and has been perhaps, justly considered imperfect. The latter part has been thought superabundant to the first; see Mr. Christian's note; and the first too general and indefinite, and too limited in its signification to convey a just idea of the subject. See Law, civil. Mr. Chitty defines municipal law to be "a rule of civil conduct, prescribed by the supreme power in a state, commanding what shall be done or what shall not be done." 1 Bl. Com. 44, note 6, Chitty's edit.

2. Municipal law, among the Romans, was a law made to govern a particular city or province; this term is derived from the

LAW OF NATIONS. The science which teaches the rights subsisting between nations or states, and the obligations correspondent to those rights. Vattel's Law of Nat. Prelim. § 3. Some complaints, perhaps not unfounded, have been made as to the want of exactness in the definition of this term. Mann. Comm. 1. The phrase "international law," has been proposed in its stead. 1 Benth. on Morals and Legislation, 260, 262. It is a system of rules deducible by natural reason from the immutable principles of natural justice, and established by universal consent among the civilized inhabitants of the world; Inst. lib. 1, t. 2, § 1; Dig. lib. 1, t. 1, 1. 9; in order to decide all disputes, and to insure the observance of good faith and justice in that intercourse which must frequently occur between them and the individuals belonging to each; or it depends upon mutual compacts, treaties, leagues and agreements between the separate, free, and independent communities.

LAW, MERCHANT. A system of customs acknowledged and taken notice of by all commercial nations; and those customs constitute a part of the general law of the land; and being a part of that law their existence cannot be proved by witnesses, but the judges are bound to take notice of them ex officio. See Beawes' Lex Mercatoria Rediviva; Caines' Lex Mercatoria Americana; Com. Dig. Merchant, D; 2. International law is generally divided Chit. Comm. Law; Pardess. Droit Commer- into two branches; 1. The natural law of cial; Collection des Lois Maritimes anté- nations, consisting of the rules of justice aprieure au dix hutième siècle, par Dupin; plicable to the conduct of states. 2. The Capmany, Costumbres Maritimas; Il Con- positive law of nations, which consist of, 1. solato del Mare; Us et Coutumes de la The voluntary law of nations, derived from Mer; Piantandia, Della Giurisprudenze Ma- the presumed consent of nations, arising out ritina Commerciale, Antica e Moderna; Va- of their general usage. 2. The conventional lin, Commentaire sur l'Ordonnance de la law of nations, derived from the express conMarine, du Mois d'Août, 1681; Boulay-sent of nations, as evidenced in treaties and Paty, Dr. Comm.; Boucher, Institutions other international compacts. 3. The cusau Droit Maritime. tomary law of nations, derived from the express consent of nations, as evidenced in treaties and other international compacts between themselves. Vattel, Law of Nat. Prel.

3. The various sources and evidence of the law of nations, are the following: 1. The rules of conduct, deducible by reason from the nature of society existing among independent states, which ought to be observed among nations. 2. The adjudication of international tribunals, such as prize courts and boards of arbitration. 3. Text writers of authority. 4. Ordinances or laws of particular states, prescribing rules for the conduct of their commissioned cruisers and prize tribunals. 5. The history of the wars, negotiations, treaties of peace, and other matters relating to the public intercourse of nations. 6. Treaties of peace, alliance and commerce, declaring, modifying, or defining

the preexisting international law. Wheat. Intern. Law, pt. 1, c. 1, § 14.

4. The law of nations has been divided by writers into necessary and voluntary; or into absolute and arbitrary; by others into primary and secondary, which latter has been divided into customary and conventional. Another division, which is the one more usually employed, is that of the natural and positive law of nations. The natural law of nations consists of those rules, which, being universal, apply to all men and to all nations, and which may be deduced by the assistance of revelation or reason, as being of utility to nations, and inseparable from their existence. The positive law of nations consists of rules and obligations, which owe their origin, not to the divine or natural law, but to human compacts or agreements, either express or implied; that is, they are depend

ent on custom or convention.

5. Among the Romans, there were two sorts of laws of nations, namely, the primitive, called primarium, and the other known by the name of secundarium. The primarium, that is to say, primitive or more ancient, is properly the only law of nations which human reason suggests to men; as the worship of God, the respect and submission which children have for their parents, the attachment which citizens have for their country, the good faith which ought to be the soul of every agreement, and the like. The law of nations called secundarium, are certain usages which have been established among men, from time to time, as they have been felt to be necessary. Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 2, p. 6.

As to the law of nations generally, see Vattel's Law of Nations; Wheat. on Intern. Law; Marten's Law of Nations; Chitty's Law of Nations; Puffend. Law of Nature and of Nations, book 3; Burlamaqui's Natural Law, part 2, c. 6; Principles of Penal Law, ch. 13; Mann. Comm. on the Law of Nations; Leibnitz, Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus; Binkershoek, Quæstionis Juris Publici, a translation of the first book of which, made by Mr. Duponceau, is published in the third volume of Hall's Law Jour-laws of nature. The principal duties it imposes on the parents, are to bestow on the child all the care its weakness requires, to provide for its necessary food and clothing, to instruct it, to provide for its wants, and to use coercive means for its good, when requisite.

nal; Klüber, Droit des Gens Moderne de l'Europe; Dumont, Corps Diplomatique; Mably, Droit Public de l'Europe; Kent's Comm. Lecture 1.

dictate of reason alone. It is discovered by a just consideration of the agreeableness or disagreeableness of human actions to the nature of man; and it comprehends all the duties which we owe either to the Supreme Being, to ourselves, or to our neighbors; as reverence to God, self-defence, temperance, honor to our parents, benevolence to all, a strict adherence to our engagements, gratitude, and the like. Erskine's Pr. of L. of Scot. B. 1, t. 1, s. 1. See Ayl. Pand. tit. 2, p. 5; Cicer. de Leg. lib. 1.

2. The primitive laws of nature may be reduced to six, namely: 1. Comparative sagacity, or reason. 2. Self-love. 3. The attraction of the sexes to each other. 4. The tenderness of parents towards their children. 5. The religious sentiment. 6. Sociability.

3.-1. When man is properly organized, he is able to discover moral good from moral evil; and the study of man proves that man is not only an intelligent, but a free being, and he is therefore responsible for his actions. The judgment we form of our good actions, produces happiness; on the contrary the judgment we form of our bad actions. produces unhappiness.

LAW OF NATURE. The law of nature is that which God, the sovereign of the universe, has prescribed to all men, not by any formal promulgation, but by the internal

4.-2. Every animated being is impelled by nature to his own preservation, to defend his life and body from injuries, to shun what may be hurtful, and to provide all things requisite to his existence. Hence the duty to watch over his own preservation. Suicide and duelling are therefore contrary to this law; and a man cannot mutilate himself, nor renounce his liberty.

5.-3. The attraction of the sexes has been provided for the preservation of the human race, and this law condemns celibacy. The end of marriage proves that polygamy, (q. v.) and polyandry, (q. v.) are contrary to the law of nature. Hence it follows that the husband and wife have a mutual and exclusive right over each other.

6.-4. Man from his birth is wholly unable to provide for the least of his necessities; but the love of his parents supplies for this weakness. This is one of the most powerful

7.-5. The religious sentiment which leads us naturally towards the Supreme Be

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