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Competing claims of public interests and private rights. 426

Liberty of the subject as connected with Criminal Law ad.

ministration . . . . . . . . 427

Appointment of Stipendiary Magistrates . . . . . 428

Inefficiency of an unpaid magistracy . .

429

Multiplication of offences classed as crimes . . . . 431

Summary jurisdiction of magistrates . .

432

Possible miscarriage of justice under the system

Reorganisation of Criminal Courts . . .

434

Practice of appeal to the Home Secretary

435

Criminal punishments

. . . . . . 436

Flogging as a criminal punishment . . . . . 437

Detinition of crimes . .

439

Treason and treason-felony.

440

Definition of murder . . . . . . . . 441

The law of conspiracy . .

442

Responsibility of judicial officers to Courts of Justice . . 443

Police organisation . . . . . . .

445

Multiplication of police officials . . . .

. 446

Danger to private rights from a highly-organised police

. 448

Trial by jury . . . . . . . . . .

449

Requirement of unanimity of juries . . . . . .

Oral examination of prisoners . . . . . .

Liberty of the subject as connected with Civil Law adminis-

tration . . . . . . .

455

. . .

Debt . . . . . . . . . . . .

455

Injury to private rights from the expensiveness of law . .

Legislative invasions of private liberty on behalf of public

interests . . . . . . . . . . 456

Vaccination Laws . . . . . . . . . . 457

Lunacy Laws . . . . . . . . . . 458

Corporal inflictions or violations under the sanction of the

State . . . . . . . . . . . 459

Consequences of trespasses by the State on personal liberty . 461

ANALYSIS.

CHAPTER I. THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS MOVEMENTS. Nature and elements of the Inquiry. Necessity of studying institutions in their working, development,

and mutual dependence.
Moral as well as legal elements in the Constitution.
Sources of information as to its variable elements :-

(Acts of Parliament,
Judicial decisions,
Current interpretations of acknowledged principles, as shown
1 in

| deliberate utterances of statesmen,
comments of scientific writers,
manifestations of popular feeling,
reports of executive acts and their reception by

Parliament and the public.
Organic unity of the Constitution.
Necessity of treating every part of it in its relation to all the other

parts.

CHAPTER II.

THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. SECTION 1.-COMPOSITION AND MUTUAL RELATIONS OF THE

. HOUSES. Parliament the organ of Constitutional change. The two Assemblies one Legislature.

THE HOUSE OF LORDS:
( as a Judicial Body :-

| Appellate Jurisdiction Act of 1876.

| Incidental creation of Life Peers by the Act. ( as a Legislative Body :

| Contest with the Commons on Paper Duties Repeal.

Indirect initiation of money grants by the Lords. | Contest with the Government on Army Purchase.

THE HOUSE OF COMMONS :
Notions of representation.
Transition from class representation to individual representa-

tion.

| The Ballot Act.

| The Parliamentary Elections Act. Modern controversies as to the functions of Representatives :

1. Delegacy and Pledges.

2. Representation of Minorities.
Political Associations.
Party Government:-

(1. Its historic origin.
2. Its foundation in nature.
3. Its political expediency.

SECTION. II.- PRIVILEGES AND ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS.

Avenues of communication between the House and the public :

Petitions.
Publication of Proceedings.

Exclusion of Strangers.
Disciplinary powers of the House :-

Right of the House to sentence for contempt.

Obstruction.
General conduct of business in the House :-
Competing claims of Government and private members :

The half-past twelve rule.
Private Bills : Their scope and importance.

Procedure as to private bills.

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Supply :-Four stages of procedure :

((1.) Committee of Supply.
| (2.) Committee of Ways and Means.

(3.) The Appropriation Bill.

( (4.) Committee of Public Accounts. Procedure of the House of Lords.

SECTION III.-HOME LEGISLATION.

1. Removal of religious disqualifications :

Emancipation of Catholics, Protestant Dissenters, and Jews.
Disestablishment of the Irish Church.
Abolition of Church-rates.
Abolition of University Tests.
Abolition of Ecclesiastical Courts of Probate and Divorce.
Institution of Civil Marriages.

2. Readjustment of Endowments and Charters :-
r (1.) Ecclesiastical and Religious Foundations:

( The Established Church,

1 Dissenting Bodies.
(2.) Educational Institutions :

| University Reform.

1 Endowed Schools Reform. (3.) Endowed Charities.

(4.) Municipal Corporations.
3. Economic Legislation, bearing on :-
((1.) The Bank of England and other Banks.
(2.) Public Companies.
(3.) Railways.
(4.) Factories.
|(5.) Taxation and the National Debt.
4. Fresh delimitations of Central and Local Government :

The Parish and the Union.
Police.
Public Health.
County Administration.
Municipal Corporations,
Education.

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