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Modern Constitutional Conditions,


from a want of the element of antiquity, which lends much of its charm to what is usually known as historical research, and of the dramatic element, which rouses zeal and curiosity in the observer of the incidents of mere political change. Constitutional life is longer than political life, but shorter than historical life. There are many readers who can stand the strain of a lengthened antiquarian investigation, and there are many who can eagerly devour the recent anecdotes of political vicissitude. But it is only a limited class of students who can find mental sustenance and moral stimulus in tracking out the slow, patient, oscillating story of constitutional change. The story is perhaps rather less than more attractive when it is the story of modern life, and therefore iinplicated in the often repulsive annals of party discord, and in the biographies of persons only too familiarly known in their private capacities. Nevertheless, this detailed and modern history of the Government in relation to the people and the people in relation to the Government, when deeply studied and accurately scrutinised, presents the truest of all aspects of the national life and character. It is not in the individual life, or even in the family or social life, that the last and most precious products of character are elicited or can be exhibited. Nor, again, is it either in the mere sufferance of political wrong, or the noble reaction against such wrong, that the whole temperament and real proclivities of a people can be manifested. The people can be best studied in their attitude towards what may be called the chronic and necessary conditions of national existence. These conditions,.-which are, in fact, the essential or juridical elements of the Constitution,—are not in themselves

of a kind to attract attention by their singularity, their majesty, or their scenic portentousness. They are, indeed, often commonplace in their nature; and, as civilisation improves, they tend to identity in all nations. But the conduct of the people in view of constitutional requirements, or anticipated constitutional change, may present the utmost diversity from country to country, and from age to age. It is here that supreme and unselfish conscientiousness, in the absence of all mere excitement, is truly tested. It is here that the value placed by a people on liberty, and on the opportunity of a free moral life for all, is put to the proof. It is here, and here alone, that a people can show whether they know what is the worth of that which they have inherited, what are its shortcomings, what is the cost of handing on to their successors the good things they have, and whether they are willing to endure the silent but stern sacrifices wbich may be required to defray it.


Appropriation Act, the, 97, 98

Arbitration, International, motion
A BERDEEN, LORD, opinion of, on on, carried against the Govern-

the Prince Consort's title, 241 ment in 1873, 180, 181
---- suggestions of the Prince Con Army and Navy Administration,

sort to, as Prime Minister, du necessity of Parliamentary

ring the Crimean War, 253, 254 vigilance as to, 391, 392
- letter of the Prince Consort Articles of War, Act enabling the

to, as leader of the Opposition, Crown to publish, 267

Ashburton Treaty, the, 183
-- letter of the Queen to, pre ASHLEY, LORD (EARL OF

vious to a Russian debate in SHAFTESBURY), motions of, for

the House of Lords, 317, 318 educational and factory re-
- royal pressure on, in the Cabi. form, 132, 133
net, 372

Asia Minor, obligations under-
Admiralty, the High Court of, a taken by England with regard

permanent Court of Prize, 208 to, 377; 382, 383; 388 .
Afghanistan, correspondence of Associations, political, 64, 65
the Queen during the war in,

AUSTIN, MR. JOHN, paper of, on

Centralisation, 138, note
--- English mission to, 378, 379 Australia. See Colonies, Depen-
-- war with, 379, 380 ; 398; 400 dencies, Victoria, &c.
Alabama Case, 207

Australian Colonies Government
ALBERT, PRINCE. See PRINCE Act, 1850, 160

Authority, the supreme, where
ALTHORPE, LORD (see also LORD situated and how limited, the

main inquiry with regard to a
- Bank Act of, 123

Constitution, 2, 3
--- elevation of, to the House of -- Mr. Lowe on the supreme, in

Lords, vacating the leadership England, 26-28

of the Commons, 303
ANDERSON, MR., amendment

B .
moved by, to the Crown Private

Estates Amending Act, 220 | BADEN POWELL, MR. G., on the
dppellate Jurisdiction Aot, 1876, bi-cameral system in Victoria,
BAGEHOT, MR. WALTER, work of, signation of the latter, 291,
on the Constitution, 1

-- on the consequences of the BEACONSFIELD, LORD, comments
Reform Act of 1832, 18

of, on the conduct of Sir R.
- on the extent of the Royal Peel and the Duke of Welling.
Prerogative, 360

ton, with regard to Corn Law
Ballot Act of 1872, 37-43

repeal, 318-350
Ballot, views of Mill and Grote -- on the dependence of Parlia-
on the, 39; 41, 42

menton the Prerogative, 354,355
Bank Act of 1833 (Lord Al. - conduct of, in 1868, in leaving
thorpe's Act), 123

the Queen to determine whether
Bank Charter Act of 1844, 123– the Ministry should resign or

not, 355-357
Bank of England, constitution of --- novel relations between the

the, in its present relation to Executive and Parliament, es-
the State, 123-125

tablished during the Govern-
Banks, legislation with regard to, ment of, 468

Bedchamber Question, the, 233,
Bankruptcy and insolvency laws, 234 ; 235-238
reform of, 136 ; 455

Belligerents, shipbuilding for, 207,
Baru, MARQUIS OF, opposition 208

of, to the subjection of Crown BENTHAM, influence of, on Crim-
private estates to rates and inal Code reform, 436
taxes, 219

BEACONSFIELD, LORD, criticism ments of, on the Prince Consort's

of, on the Duke of Wellington's presence at a Corn Law debate,
remark on the House of Lords, 251

Berlin, Congress of, 377, 378
- on the finality of decisions of Berlin, Treaty of, 290; 383; 388
Election Judges, 44, 45

- on the Committee of Foreign differences between the two

Loans libel publication case, Houses in Victoria, 163, 164

-- on the pre-eminent importance BURY), opinion of, on the law
of Foreign Affairs, 179, 1 0

and practice of Parliament
- speech of, on Lord Palmer as not applicable to Colonial
ston's Conspiracy Bill, 186

Legislatures, 176
--- speech of, on the Royal Titles - opposition of, to the Russian
Bill, 214, 215; 375

Securities Bill, 205
-- view of the Bedchamber ques. - opinion of, on the testamentary

tion presented by, in “Co rights of the Crown, 220
ningsby,' 234

Bill of Rights, relation of the
--- criticism of, on the Prince Sovereign to the country as

Consort's presence at a Corn determined by the, 325
Law debate, 251, 252

- provisions of, with regard to a
-- motion of, in May 1855, in standing army, 385-387

favour of carrying on the war, ---- popular reference to, as a

bulwark of liberty, 422
-- correspondence of, with Lord | Bills. See Money Bills, Private

Carnarvon, relative to the re- Bills, &c.

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BIRKBECK, PROF., on the Russian

Securities Act, 206, note
BLACKBURN, MR. JUSTICE, opi- | Cabinet (see also Ministry,

nion of, on the imposition of Ministers)
Colonial taxes by the Imperial - the, an outgrowth of the Privy
Legislature, 158

Council, 267-270; 271-274
BOUVERIE, MR., comment of, on - relation of the, to Parliament

Mr. Disraeli’s attempt to make and the Crown, 267-268
the Queen responsible for a - Council, origin of the term,
dissolution, 357

269, 270
BOWEN, SIR G. F., on the Victorian - the first Whig, 270, 271
Constitution, 165

- Sir G. C. Lewis on the legal
BRAND, MR., Speaker of the House theory of the, 275, 276

under Liberal and Conservative -- Sir G. C. Lewis on the unity
Governments, 358

of the, 276-278
BRIGHT, MR., part taken by, in - Mr. Gladstone on the internal
debate on the Russian war, in relations of the, 278-281
1855, 258

- Earl Grey on the internal
British Columbia Gorernment Act, relations of the, 281-283
1858, 404

-- illustrations of the internal
BROUGHAM, LORD, dispute of, || relations of the, 283-295

with Lord Melbourne, on the - secresy of Members of the, as
designation of the Duchess of Privy Councillors, 295–298
Kent, 225, 226

- relation of the Sovereign to the,
- opposition of, to the settlement 299-328
of the Prince Consort's pre - relations of the, with Parlia-
cedence by Royal Prerogative, ment, 336-421

- possible influences at work in
dislike of William IV. to, a, 371-373
expressed to Lord Melbourne, - doctrine of the omnipotence of

a, supporied by Parliament,
-- part taken by, in prison reform, 468

BUCKINGHAM, DUKE OF, account the Chancellorship as the

of the Queen's first change of Speakership of the House of
Ministry by the, 300, 301

Lords, 101, nwte
BURKE, misuse of the doctrines of, - letter of the Lord Chief Baron
on representation, 34

to, on the secresy of the Privy
- speech of, at Bristol, on the Council, 295-298

functions of a Member of Campbell v. Hall, 156
Parliament, 47 ; 50 52

Canada, constitution and con-
- on party ties, 66, 67

federation of, 152-154
--- suggestion of a sale of the --admission of Hudson's Bay into
· Crown Lands hy, 224

the Dominion of, 172, 404
-- constitutional relations of - differences between Lord Lorne

England and the Dependencies and the Parliament of, 419
treated by, 374, 375

Canadian Confederation Act of
- on the changing character of 1867, 152 - 154
despotisms, 410

CANNING, definition of a patriot,

by, 412

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