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despondency, and the breach of the capitulation by the French, whereby the prisoners were all pillaged, and many butchered in cold blood, was long the theme of indignant reproach. The year 1758 opened with better prospects, and is distinguished for the capture of Louisbourg. A very powerful armament, consisting of twenty ships of the line, and eighteen frigates, having on board fourteen hundred men, under the command of Admiral Boscawen and General Amherst, appeared before that place on the 2nd of June, and on the 25th of July it surrendered. Fort Frontenac was also taken by a body of three thousand provincials, aided by regulars; and the French, after a severe encounter with part of General Forbes's army, evacuated Fort de Quesné on the Ohio. Teconderoga, the great object of New England's efforts, still remained to scourge the country, and it was resolved forthwith to attack it. This attempt, however, proved unsucessful, and occasioned a loss of sixteen hundred and eight rank and file of the regulars, among whom was Lord Viscount Howe, and threehundred and thirty-four provincials. To put

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an end to this ruinous contest, three great expeditions were undertaken, General Amherst,

with a body of twelve thousand men, was to

attack Crown Point; General Wolfe was at the opposite quarter, to enter the St. Lawrence,

and undertake the siege of Quebec, while

Generals Johnson and Prideaux were to at-
tempt the reduction of the French forts, near
the Falls of Niagara.
It was late in July before General Amherst
reached Teconderoga; on his approach, the
French blew up this magazine, evacuated the
fort, and retreated to Crown Point, whither
he immediately pursued them. But they re-
tired, and took post at Isle aux Noix, at the
northern extremity of Lake Champlain. As
the season was so far advanced, he returned to
Crown Point, and put his troops in winter
quarters.
The expedition, under Generals Prideaux and
Johnson, against Fort Niagara, was crowned
with complete success. A large force, collected
from all the neighbouring garrisons, was assem-
bled for the purpose of raising the siege, for the
French justly considered that post as the key to

all their interior American empire. These troops were gallantly repulsed, in view of the besieged, who, discouraged by having all succour cut off, surrendered as prisoners of war. While these successful operations were carried on in Upper Canada, General Wolfe was prosecuting the grand enterprise for the reduction of Quebec. Of the ascent of the heights of Abraham, the battle that ensued, the death of Wolfe and Montcalm, the fall of Quebec, and the subsequent conquest of Canada, every history, both American and English, contains a copious account. To abridge it would be to deprive it of its interest, and to enter upon it at large is inconsistent with the nature of this work. Bald and scanty as the narrative I have given must necessarily be, it is copious enough to exhibit the military character of the colonists, and the school in which they were trained to a knowledge of actual service. Anything beyond this I have omitted, as incompatible with the plan of a book that professes not to be a history, but a political sketch. On the 10th of February, 1763, a definitive treaty of peace was signed at Paris, and soon

after ratified. By the second article, France renounced and guaranteed to Great Britain all Nova Scotia or Acadia, and likewise Canada, the Isle of Cape Breton, and all other Islands in the Gulf and River of St. Lawrence,

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CHAPTER II.

skETCH of PoliticAL EVENTS FROM 1698 To 1740.

Arrival of Sir William Phipps—Difference between old and new charters—Spirit of first legislation—Determination to establish no permanent salaries—Formation of two parties, Loyalists and Patriots—Character and death of Phipps—New York imitates the conduct of New England—Refusal of militia of Connecticut to obey the King's officer—Board of Trade established—Courts of Admiralty created—Oath framed for Governors to enforce trade acts—Arrival of Lord Bellemont—His character and conduct—Appointment of Mr. Dudley–His unpopularity—The Assembly deny his right to negative their choice of Speaker, and refuse to comply with any of the Royal instructions—Insinuations against the Governor that he was holding treasonable correspondence with the enemy—He is attacked by the preachers—Appointment of Colonel Chute—Opposition of Assembly— Appointment and death of Governor Burnet—Arrival of Governor Belcher—End of contest about fixed salaries.

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