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· The effays professedly serious, if I have been able ' to execute my own intentions, will be found exactly conformable to the precepts of Christianity

, (without any accommodation to the licentiousness

and levity of the present age. I therefore look • back on this part of my work with pleasure, which

no praise of man shall diminish or augment. I ' shall never envy the honours which wit and learn

ing obtain in any other cause, if I can be num

bered among the writers who have given ardour 'to virtue, and confidence to truth :

· Celestial pow'rs! that piety regard,
• From you my labours wait their last reward.'

The Rambler, thus published in numbers, was not suffered to be lost to the world, or to sink into oblivion. As soon as, by the conclusion of it, it became a complete work, it was collected into volumes, and printed in Scotland *, and, soon after, also here, and obtained such favour with the public, as was an inducement with Dr. Hawkesworth to an undertaking of the same kind, the publication of a periodical paper called 'The Adventurer.' For the carrying on such a work as this, Hawkesworth, though he poffeffed but a small stock of learning, was more than meanly qualified. He had excellent natural parts, and, by reading the modern English and French authors, had acquired a style, which, by his acquaintance with Johnson he had improved into a very good one. He wrote verses, that is to say in English, with ease

* In this edition a translation of the mottos by Mr. Elphinston is given.

and Auency, and was better acquainted with the world than most men are who have been bred to no profession.

The subjects of these papers, like those of the Rambler, are human life and manners, with a mixture of humour and instructive pleasantry, criticism, and moral and religious exhortation, too various, it must be supposed, for the powers of a single person : they are therefore the produce of different pens, and may owe their merit, in a great measure, to that diversity. The curiosity of the reader is, to a small degree, gratified by the last paper, which afsigns to their author, Dr. Joseph Warton, such as have a certain signature, and leaves to Dr. Hawkesworth himself the praise of such as are without any. To the information there given, I add, that the papers marked A. which are said to have come from a source that soon failed, were supplied by Dr. Bathurst, an original associate in the work, and those distinguished by the letter T. by Johnson* The first number of the Adventurer inade its

appearance on Tuesday, November 7, 1752, and on that week-day, and also on Saturdays, it continued to be published, till the ninth of March 1754. To point out the many excellent essays contained in it is needless, as they are now collected into volumes, and together with the Rambler form a system of moral and æconomical institution; two of them are to be looked on as curiosities in different ways, Dr. Warton's remarks on · King Lear' and 'the Tempest,' the most

* That Johnson was the writer of the papers signed T, I assert on the authority of his Adversaria, in which are the original hints of many of them in his own hand-writing.

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learned and judicious critiques in the English language, and the account of a native of Scotland, called Admirable Crichton, dictated from memory by John. son to Hawkesworth.

As Johnson expected to be believed whenever he either spoke or wrote, he has not vouchsafed to cite any authority for the incredible relation, which the Adventurer contains, of the personal and mental endowments of a man who is described as a monster both of erudition and prowess, and in every other view of his character is represented as having passed the limits of humanity. That he had no authority for what he has related of him, would be too much to say, after he has asserted, that he had such as was incontestible, yet having that, he has kept within the bounds of it, and cast a veil over that blaze of glory, which, to gaze on in its naked splendour,would not dazzle but blind the beholder.

Johnson's account, for his I must call it for a reason above given, is in these words:

· Among the favourites of nature, that have from

time to tine appeared in the world, enriched with s various endowments and contrarieties of excellence,

none seems to have been more exalted above the cominon rate of humanity, than the man known

about two centuries ago by the appellation of the - Admirable Crichton; of whose history, whatever

we may suppress as surpasling credibility, yet we shall, upon incontestable authority, relate enough to rank him among proc'igies.

“ Virtue,” says Virgil,“ is better accepted when şi it comes in a pleasing form :” the person of Crich{ ton was eminently beautiful; but his beauty was


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consistent with such activity and strength, that in fencing, he would spring at one bound the length

upon his antagonist ; and he used - his sword in either hand with such force and dex"terity, that scarce any one had courage to engage « hiin.

• Having studied at St. Andrew's in Scotland, he went to Paris in his twenty-first year, and affixed

gate of the college of Navarre a kind of challenge to the learned of that university, to dif, pute with him on a certain day; offering to his opponents, whoever they should be, the choice of

ten languages, and of all the faculties and sciences. On the day appointed, three thousand auditors

assembled, when four doctors of the church and fifty maiters appeared against him; and one of his 'antagonists confesses, that the doctors were defeated, that he gave proofs of knowledge above the reach of man, and that a hundred years paff

ed without food or sleep, would not be sufficient ' for the attainment of his learning. After a dis

putation of nine hours, he was presented by the president and professors with a diamond and a purse of gold, and disinissed with repeated accla(mations.

· From Paris he went away to Rome, where he I made the same challenge, and had, in the presence

of the pope and cardinals, the same success. After• wards he contracted at Venice an acquaintance with

Aldus Manutius, by whom he was introduced to the I learned of that city; then visited Padua, where he engaged in another public disputation, beginning


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« his performance with an extemporal poem in praise

of the city and the assembly then present, and con<cluding with an oration equally unpremeditated in

commendation of ignorance.

< He afterwards published another challenge, in ( which he declared himself ready to detect the errors

of Aristotle and all his commentators, either in the « common forms of logic, or in any which his anta• gonists should propose of a hundred different kinds (of verse.

< These acquisitions of learning, however stupen· dous, were not gained at the expence of any pleasure ' which youth generally indulges, or by the omission

of any accomplishment in which it becomes a gen

tleman to excel: he practised, in great perfection, the • arts of drawing and painting; he was an eminent

perforier in both vocal and instrumental music; <he danced with uncommon gracefulness; and on

the day after his disputation at Paris, exhibited his • skill in horsemanship before the court of France, « where, at a public match of tilting, he bore away the ring upon his lance fifteen times toge( ther.

He excelled likewise in domestic games of less dignity and reputation ; and in the interval be

tween his challenge and disputation at Paris, he I spent so much of his time at cards, dice, and tennis, < that a lampoon was fixed upon the gate of the • Sorbonne, directing those that would see this monster of erudition, to look for him at the tavern.

So extensive was his acquaintance with life and manners, that in an Italian comedy, composed by


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