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BRIEF VIEW OF THE MISSIONS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF
COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS.
The Annual Report of the Board comes into the hands of but a small part of those, who patronise the missions of the Board, though it is sent over the country so as to be accessible to nearly or quite all. The printing of a very large number of copies would not be expedient, on account of
It has therefore been found desirable to insert an abstract of the more important matters of the Report in the Missionary Herald. Such an abstract will now be given of the last, or 22d, Report, read at the annual meeting in October, 1831.
tives had then never heard the gospel preached
in their own tongue. No part of the scriptures The missions under the direction of the had been translated. Nothing had been done to Board are in India-China—the MEDITER
attract attention to the Christian religion. Indeed, RANEAN--the Sandwich Islands and
when Hall, Newell, and Nott first took their the North AMERICAN INDIANS.
stand in Bombay,-without a knowledge of the language; without books, or printing-press, or
schools; without a chapel; without the counteIndia.
nance of government, and wholly unknown to the native population; when they contemplated
the structure of society, so artificial and so conThe missions are in Bombay, one of the Presi- || nected with the idolairous systems of religion; dencies of British India, and in the northern dis- | and also the laws of India, which made the fortrict of Ceylon. The first was commenced in feiture of property the penalty for renouncing the year 1813; the second, in the year 1816.
Ilindooism, or Islamism;they must have regarded the visible and tangible results of their
labors as certainly remote. And so they did, BOMBAY .
But the note of preparation was heard, imme.
diately on their arrival. The language was acAllen Graves, Cyrus Stone, William Ramsey, l) quired; the New Testament and some portions Hollis Read, Missionaries,* and their wives; David
of the Old were translated and printed; books for 0. Allen and William Hervey, Missionarios; James Garrett, Printer, Mrs. Garrett; and Cynthia Farrar,
elementary instruction, and tracts of various deSuperintendent of Native Female Schools.
scriptions, were published; schools were estab
lished; a chapel was built in the centre of BomMr. and Mrs. Graves are on the Neilgherry | the markets and other public places were fre
bay, and opened regularly for Christian worship; Hils, in pursuit of health. Mrs. Allen died on the 5th of February, and Mrs. Hervey on the quented for conversation and preaching; journeys 3d of May. Vol. xxvii, pp. 365,378. Messrs.
were taken, and schools multiplied. Ramsey, Read and Hervey, with their wives, his conviction, ihat the facilities for employing
After twelve years, Mr. Hall declared it to be joined ihe mission in the early part of the year
the appointed means of salvation among the peo 1831. The Report contains a general view of the progress of Christian missions in this Presi- || ple had multiplied ten fold since his arrival in
1813. dency since the commencement of the American
The means are now still greater, and they are mission in 1813.
continually increasing. There are eight misIt is about cighteen years since the Americansionary stations within the Presidency of Bommissionaries first landed in Bombay. The na
bay, connected with no less than five different societies in Great Britain and America:
-a faci * The term Missionary used to denote an or
which makes it delightfully certain that a vast dained preacher of the gospel.
amount of benevolent interest, in different parts VOL. XXVIII.
of the Christian world, is concentrated upon the TILLIPALLY:-Levi Spaulding, Missionary, and Mahraita people. And in the city oi Bombay
Mrs. Spaulding. itself there are, also, seren societies of various
Timothy Dwiglit, Teacher in the Preparatory
School; Julin Codinan, Assistant Teacher; Seth names, formed expressly for co-operating with kindred institutions in Great Britain in spiritually I chist; Azel Backus, Cyrus Kingsbury, and others,
Parys011, Native Assistant; Charles Hodge, Cateilluminating that part of India. The governmeni, Readers. 100, notwithstanding the complaints of natives ODOVILLE:-Miron Winslow, Missionary, and that the divine origin of their religion and its
Mrs. Minslow. obligations are publicly denied, tolerates the
Charles A. Goodrich, Natire Preacher; Nathaniel, Christian missionary in every part of the country, Schools; Rurus 18. Bailey, Teacher in the English
Catechist; Saravary Mortuo, Superintendent of and protects him in his labors.
School; John B. Lawrence, Reader. There has been no material change in the la PANDITERIPO: - John Scudder, M. D. Missionary, bors of the missionaries, or the number and char. and Mrs. Scudder. acter of the schools. The native attendance at Native Helpers not reported. the chapel had somewhat increased. The MANLPY:--ilenry Woodward, Missionary, and
Mrs. Woodward. schools, of which there were 17 for boys and 18
Sinnatumby, Catechist; Nathaniel, Superintendent for girls, comprised about 1,000 boys, and not far
of Schools; C. A. Goodrich, Teacher of English; from 500 girls.
Catheranian und Tuuber, Readers. Seventy-cight of the boys had Mohammedan parents, and 130 were of Jewish origin. Ten of EDUCATION.—This is conducted in a Theihe boys' schools were in difierent villages on theological School, Seminary, Boarding Schools, continent; the others, with all the female schools, and Free Schools, in which are the following were on the island of Bombay. It is au interest nunber of scholars. ing facı, that most of the schools on the continent are under the instruction of Jewish teachers, who Theological School,
20 scholars, disallow the observance of heathenish customs in Mission Seminary, their schools. These schools exert a favorable Academy for Boys,
37 influence on the character of the villages where
Academy for Girls,
Free-Schools, they are situated, and the missionaries justly re
3,367 gard them as so many lights burning amidst the Whole number,
3,566 deep spiritual gloom which covers the country. They are an important means of preparing the The Theological School is under the care of way for the publication of the gospel, whether Mr. Winslow, and is composed chietly of young thai publication be made through the medium of native men, who, having completed their courso conversation, preaching, or the press.
in the Seminary, are employed on a salary as Six of the female schools are parronised by the assistants in the mission. They pay the expenses Bombay district committee of the Society for of their own board and clothing, and divide their Proinoting Christian knowledge.
time between teaching and study. Their scrThe ainount of printing executed at the mis vices are important, and their progress in learnşion press during 1829 and until Nov. 20u, 1830, ing, especially in the knowledge of the scripis cxhibited in the following table.
fures, is highly gratifying and auspicious. A
few have received license to preach the gospel. Copies. Pages.
Mr. Poor is Principal of the Seminary. The In 1829,
90,000 1,087,000 first class contains 22, the second, 20, the third In 1830, 35,800 1,136,700 19, the fourth 30. Including those who have
finished their studies, and are employed as In Mahratta, 61,800 2,223,700 Iu English, 41,720 772,501
teachers in the Seminary, the number is 102.
The principal building is called Ourley Hall, Total, 103,520 2,996,201
in honor of Sir Richard Oiley, chief justice of
Ceylon, corresponding member of the Board, Or nearly 3,000,000 of pages in little more and for ten years past an influential and liberal than twenty-two months. The whole amount of patron of the mission. This edifice, including printing executed at Bombay from April 1817 10 virandah-rooms erected on one side and end, is the close of 1830, was about 10,000,000 of pages. 109 feet in length and 66 in breadth. Its height
Only about 10,000 of the above mentioned is two stories. It is designed for public exami103,520 copies were printed at the expense of the nations, lectures, the library, &c. A sufficient mission. The British and Foreign Bible Society number of rooms has been crected within the and its Auxiliary at Bombay defraved the ex-college yard to accommodate one hundred slupense of printing the scriptures in Mahratta; and dents. ihc Bombay Auxiliary Tract Sociсty, which was The Seminary has been furnished with a reorganized four years ago, paid the cost of tracts spectable philosophical and other apparatus. for gratuitous distribution.
The pnuematical and mechanical instruments, Some of the natives, and among them three with the orrsry and telescope, have been found brahmins, profess to be serious inquirers into the particularly useful in illustrating various branches truth of the Christian religion, and hopes are en of study, which could not be effectually taught tertained concerning a few, that they have been without such belps; especially where the prejurenovatod by the Spirit of God.
dices to be cncountered are so inveteraie, as
not readily to yield even to ocular demonstraÇEYLON.
The mission library contains more than 600
Seminary,) and is in general well selected. The
members of the Seminary have the use of this the Seminary; Nathaniel Niles, Native Preacher; Ebenezer Porter, Superintendent of Schools: P. M, Whelpley, Nalive ledical Attendant on the Semi
The sum of $5,372 has been collected for this nary; Samuel Worcester, John Griswold, 1. w. Hinstitution among the friends of learning and roPurnam, and others, Teachers.
ligion in Ceylon and India, all of which has been
expended in erecting the necessary buildings. Malta is the book-manufactory for the whole The residue of the expenditures for buildings, || mission, as well as a central point of intercourso together with the cost of books and apparatus, I and union. The library collected at this station the board and clothing of the students, the pay of is already valuable, both in the materials and the teachers, and the salary of the principal, has helps for iranslations. There are three printingbeen provided for from the Treasury of the presses, two of which are in constant use. Thero Board,
are founts of type for printing in English, Italian, The study of English, and of various branches Greek, Greco-Turkish, Armenian, Armenoof science principally in that language, occupies || Turkish, and Arabic. The printing, however, about two-thirds of the time of the students, and lias been chicily in the Italian, modern Greek, Tamul literature the remainder. The published || and Armeno-T'urkish languages, the Jast being journals of the Principal shew in whal manner the Turkish language written in the Armenian these studies are affecting the system of Tamul character. The press has ever been perfectly superstition.
secure in Malta, and has operated without any Boarding Schools. The one at Tillipally | embarrassment from the government, though the contained 51 boys at the close of 1830. The one publications have been subject to a mild and at Oodooville contained 37 girls, of whom seven tolerant censorship: were members of the church.-It is a singular No regular and full report of the publications fact, stated by Sir Richard Outley to be peculiar at the Malta press since the year 1829, has been to the district of Jafina which contains the mis- | received. Among the works subscquently sion stations, that the landed property is princi printeri are known to be the following: víz. one pally vested in the females.
of 48 pages, called the Child's Assistant; a small Free-Schools. The number of free-schools arithmetic; a simple grammar of the modern connected with the five stations is 89, containing | Greek; Pinnock's catechism of Creek history, 2,732 boys, and 635 girls; or 3.367 in the whole. with remarks, containing about 150 pages; and a
PREACHING, etc. Each of the five missiona- reading book of about the same size, made up of ries has a congregation of patives on the Sab- interesting and useful selections. The lives of bath varying in numbers from two 10 five hun Joseph, Abraham, Nioses, Samuel, Esther, and dred-composed chiefly of the children and Daniel, had also been printed, or were in the youth belonging to the schools. The native press; and Mr. Temple was employed, when ho preachers, though received with less
last wrole, in making selections of the most imattention than the missionaries themselves, are portant events and narratives recorded in the useful helpers in the publication of the gospel in
Old Testament, for the use of the schools in the high-ways and villages.
Greece. In these works he has the valuable asThe Mission Church contains 148 native mem sisiance of Mr. Nicholas Petrokokino, who was bers in regular standing.
educated by the Board in this country; and there The mission has been repeatedly blessed with can be scarcely a doubt but they will he popular effusions of the Holy Spirit. Previous to the
and useful among the people for whom they are year 1824, thirty-four natives had been received
designed. into the mission church. During the first three But the most important work executed at the months of that year, the mission was visited with
Malta press, during the last year, was the transvery special divine influence, and 41 natives were
lation of the New Testament in the Armenoadded to the church. Another time of refreshing Turkish language. The printing of this was was experienced near the close of the same year; commenced on the 8th of January 1830, and the and there were hopeful conversions in the suc last sheet was corrected in the press before the ceeding years. A third revival of religion was
expiration of January 1831. This translation was experienced near the close of the year 1830, as prepared by Mr. Goodell from one made by him. the first fruits of which 34 natives were added selt, with the aid of the Armenian bishop Carato the church in the April following.
bet, from the original Greek, and another made All the buildings at the station of Manepy, at Constantinople, from the Armenian version, with the principal part of Mr. Woodward's ef
under the superintendence of Mr. Leeves, agent fects, were consumed by fire March 30, 1831. of the British and Foreign Bible Society; and
was carried through the press by Mr. Goodell, China.
at the expense of that noble institution.
The whole amount of printing performed at Elijah C. Bridgman and David Abeel, Missiona Malta since July 1822, cannot be less than ries.
12,000,000 of pages. Mr. Bridgman's time is devoted chiefly to the
GREECE. acquisition of the language. Mr. Abeel has entered the service of the Board, and gone to ex Jonas King, Missionary, and Mrs. King. plore the state of religion among the degenerated Dutch churches in that part of the world, and Mr. King has removed from Tenos to Athens, also the facilities for missionary effort in the While at Tenos he supported and superintended kingdom of Siam.-A printing press has been a school of 60 or 70 females, and distributed sent out for the use of the China mission. many copies of the New Testament. In this
school he freely expounded the scriptures. Mediterranean.
Athens is the place, which Mr. King has been
desirous, ever since he entered Greece, of making The several branches of this mission are in the centre of his operations. But in the autumn Malta, Greece, Syria, Constantinople, and to the
of last year, there being a prospect of its speedy evacuation, Mr. King visited that celebrated
spot, and made arrangements for his future resiMALTA.
dence. In April of the present year, he made a Daniel Temple and Eli Smith, Missionaries; Ho
second visit to Athens and opened a Lancasicman Hallock, Printer; Mrs. Temple and Mrs. Hal
rian school for both sexes, at the head of which lock.
he placed Niketoplos, formerly master of the
Jews of Turkey.
Orphan school at Ægina, and author of an epi- 1 method of obeying this command, which the
and their wives. The school at Syra, under the superintendence of Doct. Korck, Church missionary, in the com Messrs. B. and W. resumed the mission in mencement and partial support of which the Syria in May 1830, and were received by many Board has been concerned, have been of great of the natives with the usual friendly salutations. service to the cause of education in Greece, | Among those who received them gladly, were a especially in the islands called the Cycladies. Syra is one of these islands, opposite Tenos. | rejoiced in former years as the fruits of their la.
few young men, over whom the missionaries had The schools are three in number.
bors, and who appeared to have remained stead
fast in the faith, and to have honored the gospel
by their lives. The adherents of the Romish
Mr. Whiting is employed in learning the AraIn all,
534 bic language. Mr. Bird is occupied in scattering
the seeds of divine knowledge, which fall, like The three schools have grown out of the one
those of the sower in the parable, upon every deestablished in January 1828, by Mr. Brewer, at scription of soil. Among all classes of the peothe expense of the Board. When Mr. Brewer ple, there is a distressing apathy on the subject was about returning to this country, he gave that
of education, as that does not enter at all into the school into the hands of Dr. Korck. In the sum ecclesiastical or civil policy of the country. mer of 1829, there were 330 scholars of both There is but little demand for the Arabic copies sexes. The house for the school was erected by of the word of God, though from twelve to twenty the government and people, and the salary of persons meet the missionaries every Sabbath for the Greek master, since the expiration of the first the purpose of reading a few chapters in the New three months, has been paid by the Greeks. In Testament, which is accompanied by brief ex1829, another school-house was reared by the pository and practical remarks. Many are beGreeks, with some foreign aid, having two apart
lieved io be dissatisfied with the religion taught ments;-one for the accommodation of females, in their churches, and it is generally conceded, the other for a scientific school for boys. A
that there is no such thing as vital godliness found great increase of pupils was the consequence of in the country. Indeed a great amount of prethis division. The teacher of the female school, paratory labor is yet to be performed, before the a Greek young woman, has derived her wages foundations of the spiritual temple can be laid, from the Treasury of the Board; and all the and the walls begin to rise. three schools were under the free, personal superintendence of Doct. Korck and his associate
CONSTANTINOPLE. Mr. Hildner, until the close of the last year. They have since experienced considerable em William Goodell and H. G. O. Dwight, Missionabarrassment in their relations to these schools, ries, and their wives. from circumstances growing out of the policy of the government. It should be stated, however, Mr. Goodell was instructed to leave Malta as that the connection, which these schools have soon as he had carried his Armeno-Turkish verhad with the government, were the result of sion of the New Testament through the press, necessity, not of choice and design.
and take up his residence at Constantinople, The Committee have never had any thought where he would be more favorably situated for of embarrassing their operations in Greece, by exerting an influence upon the Armenians, and any sort of connection with the Greek govern- determining the value of his translation. This ment. They were long doubtful, indeed, what was in accordance with a plan of operations conmeasures were expedicnt. The inquiries ad certed at Malta, in the year 1829. Accordingly dressed to the President of Greece in the spring he embarked for Constantinople, with his family, of 1829, were merely for the purpose of gaining on the 21st of May, in the Banian, captain Smith, information, and they elicited some facts, which which was to touch at Smyrna. He arrived at deterred the Commiitee from a class of expendi- || Smyma on the 29th of May, and at Constantinotures, that would have been in accordance with il ple on the 9th of the following month. Before the popular feeling then pervading our communi- leaving Malta, Mr. Goodell had commenced a ty, but might have proved a fruitful source of translation of the Hebrew scriptures into the disappointment and regret. The Committee re Armeno-Turkish; and the prosecution of this imsolved to direct almost their whole efforts, for a portant work will continue to occupy a portion of timo, so far as Greece was concerned, to the liis time. production of books for elementary instruction, Mr. Dwight, after completing his arduous exand to the introduction of these into the schools i ploring tour through Armenia and the neighborof that country. This they believe to be within ing countries, in company with Mr. Smitli
, protheir commission to publish the gospel to every ceeded to Malta; bui is expected to become ascreature, and the most direct and effectual || sociated, for the present, with Mr. Goodell.
ISLAND OF TAWA11.
ISLAND OF MAUI.
Exploring Tour in Armenia.
may be distributed with greater judgment, and
far less danger of loss. In short, our operations This occupied the year previous to May 25, for the spiritual benefit of the degenerate churches 1831, and exiended from Constantinople, through of the East, may be conducted with a most imTocat, Erzeroom, Kars, Tiflis, Shousha, Erivan, il portant knowledge of the work we have to tlo, of Etchmiazin, Tebreez, and from thence through the obstacles to be encountered, and of the peBayazid to Trebizonde on the Black Sea, and culiar reasons for anticipating ultimate success. thence by water to Constantinople.
Messrs. Smith and Dwight, always courageous
1. ISLAND OF OAHU.
HONOLULU:--Hiram Bingham and Ephraim W. menians in the Russian and Turkish dominions, || Clark, Missionaries; Gerrit P. Judd, Physician; and also with respect to considerable bodies of Levi Chamberlain, Superintendent of Socular ConNestorians on the south. The larger portion of CErns, and Inspector of Schools; Stephen Shepard, the results is yet to be submilted, with the facts Printer, with their wives, and Miss Mary Ward. by which they are sustained, which will probably
2. be done personally by Mr. Smith, during a visit he is about making to his native land. But enough is known already to prove the expediency
KAILUA:-Asa Thurston and Artemas Bishop,
Missionaries, and their wives. of the enterprise, and to justify all the costs, la WALKEA: --Joseph Goodrich, Missionary, and bors, and risks it has occasioned,
WAMEA:- Samuel Ruggles, Missionary, and JEWS IN TURKEY.
KAAVALOA:-Now vacant. William Gottlieb Schauffler, Missionary.
3. Mr. Schauffler has gone to Paris, where he will spend three or four months in completing his LAHAINA:--William Richards, Lorrin Andrews, preparatory studies, and then proceed to Turkey.
and Jonathan S. Green, Missionaries, with their His central position is expected to be Constanti
wives, and Miss Maria C. Ogden. nople. He is supported by the Ladies Jews
4. ISLAND OF TAUAI. Society of Boston and Vicinity.
WAIMEA:Samuel Whitney and Peter J. Gulick,
Missionaries, and their wives.
A third reinforcement sailed from New Bed. The missionaries of the Board have traversed a ford in the ship New England, captain Parker, vast extent of country around the Mediterranean. on the 28th of December 1830, consisting of We may trace their routes from Tripoli to Tunis -from Alexandria to Thebes in Upper Egypt Dwight Baldwin, Reuben Tinker, and Shelden from Cairo through the desert to Gaza-through Dibble, Missionaries; Andrew Johnstone, Superinalmost every district of Palestine—from Beyroot eendent of Secular Concerns; and their wives. in Syria across the mountains of Lebanon to Damascus thence to Aleppo and Antioch On the 26th of November 1831, a fourth reinthence down the shore to Beyroot-from the an
forcement sailed from the same place, in the ship cient Tarsus through the southern provinces of Averick, captain Swain, consisting of nineteen Asia Minor to Smyrna-from thence through the persons. central district of ihe same country to Czesarea -- from Smyrna through the country round about
John S. Emerson, David B. Lyman, Ephraim which embraced the Seven Churches from Spaulding, William P. Alexander, Richard ArnSmyrna to the Bosphorus-from Constantinople
strong, Cochran Forbes, Harvey R. Hitchcock, and
Lorenzo Lyons, Missionaries; Doct. Alonzo Chapin, through the northern provinces of Asia Minor to
Physician: and their wives; and Edmund H. Erzeroom in Armenia-thence to Tidis among
Rogers, Printer. the mountains of Caucassus—thence through the northern parts of Persiamthence through the in Some of the missionaries in both of these reinhospitable region of the Koords, and through Ar- / forcements were destined to form a new mission menia, to Trebizonde on the Black Sea. Well in the Washington Islands. may trace their route, also, in Europe, to five of Schools. There are about 900 schools in the the seven Ionian Islands, throughout the Pelo- | Sandwich Islands, instructed by as many native ponnesus, in Attica, and to many islands in the teachers. The number of readers and learners Ægean.
on the islands is estimated at 50,000. The readWe now know, to a great extent, the physical, || ers are not all now members of the schools. A intellectual, moral, and religious condition of view of the schools is given in the following those countries. We know what kind of moral table. power is most needed and most likely to succeed. We know what places are most accessible Islands. Schools. Readers, Scholars. and most promising. We know, far better than Oahu,
6,035 we did six years ago, how to economize and di Maui,
603 rect our labors. But little more exploring, at the il Molokai,
506 expense of long and hazardous journies, now re Kaboolawe, mains to be done in that part of the world. The Tanai, about 90
2,500 about 5,500 missionaries may now locate and concentrate Hawaii, about 300 about 1,000 at leaşi 20,000 their influence. The press may operate with
908 greater certainty in its various languages. Books