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human nature. It is by analytical examination ( wanted, it is a very obvious idea to import laborers ; that we have learned whatever we know of the and if negroes are best suited to the climate, to laws of external nature ; and if he had not disdained import negroes. This is a mode of adjusting the to apply the same mode of investigation to the balance between work and laborers, quite in aclaws of the formation of character, he would have cordance with received principles ; it is neither escaped the vulgar error of imputing every differ- before nor behind the existing moralities of the ence which he finds among human beings to an world ; and since it would accomplish the object original difference of nature. As well might it be of making the negroes work more, your contributor said, that of two trees, sprang from the same stock, at least, it might have been supposed, would have one cannot be taller than another but from greater approved of it. On the contrary, this prospect is vigor in the original seedling. Is nothing to be to him the most dismal of all; for either “ the attributed to soil, nothing to climate, nothing to new Africans, after laboring a little," will “ take difference of exposure—has no storm swept over to pumpkins like the others,” or if so many of the one and not the other, no lightning scathed them come that they will be obliged to work for it, no beast browsed on it, no insects preyed on it, their living, there will be “ a black Ireland.” no passing stranger stript off its leaves or its bark? The labor market admits of three possible conIf the trees grew near together, may not the one ditions, and not, as this would imply, of only lwo. which, by whatever accident, grew up first, have Either, first, the laborers can live almost without retarded the other's development by its shade? working, which is said to be the case in Demerara ; Human beings are subject to an infinitely greater or, secondly, which is the common case, they can variety of accidents and external influences than live by working, but must work in order to live; trees, and have infinitely more operation in im- or, thirdly, they cannot by working get a sufficient pairing the growth of one another ; since those living, which is the case in Ireland. Your corwho begin by being strongest, have almost always tributor sees only the extreme cases, but no poshitherto used their strength to keep the others sibility of the medium. If Africans are imported, weak. What the original differences are among he thinks there must either be so few of them, that human beings, I know no more than your con- they will not need to work, or so many, that altributor, and no less ; it is one of the questions though they work, they will not be able to live. not yet satisfactorily answered in the natural his- Let me say a few words on the general quarrel tory of the species. This, however, is well known of your contributor with the present age. Every -that spontaneousimprovement, beyond a very low age has its faults, and is indebted to those who grade—improvement by internal development, point them out. Our own age needs this service without aid from other individuals or peoples- as much as others; but it is not to be concluded that is one of the rarest phenomena in history; and it has degenerated from former ages, because its whenever known to have occurred, was the result faults are different. We must beware, too, of of an extraordinary combination of advantages; in mistaking its virtues for faults, merely because, as addition doubtless to many accidents of which all is inevitable, its faults mingle with its virtues and trace is now lost. No argument against the ca- color them. Your contributor thinks that the age pacity of negroes for improvement, could be drawn has too much humanity, is too anxious to abolish from their not being one of these rare exceptions. pain. I affirm, on the contrary, that it has too It is curious, withal, that the earliest known civil- little humanity—is most culpably indifferent to the ization was, we have the strongest reason to be subject; and I point to any day's police reports as lieve, a negro civilization. The original Egyptians the proof. I am not now accusing the brutal porare inferred, from the evidence of their sculptures, tion of the population, but the humane portion ; if to have been a negro race :: it was from negroes, they were humane enough, they would have contherefore, that the Greeks learnt their first lessons trived long ago to prevent these daily atrocities. in civilization; and to the records and traditions It is not by excess of a good quality that the age of these negroes did the Greek philosophers to the is in fault, but by deficiency-deficiency even of very end of their career resort (I do not say with philanthropy, and still more of other qualities much fruit) as a treasury of mysterious wisdom. wherewith to balance and direct what philanthropy But I again renounce all advantage from facts : it has. An“ Universal Abolition of Pain Associwere the whites born ever so superior in intelli- ation" may serve to point a sarcasm, but can any gence to the blacks, and competent by nature to worthier object of endeavor be pointed out than instruct and advise them, it would not be the less that of diminishing pain? Is the labor which ends monstrous to assert that they had therefore a right in growing spices noble, and not that which lessens either to subdue them by force, or circumvent them the mass of suffering? We are told with a triumby superior skill; to throw upon them the toils phant air, as if it were a thing to be glad of, that and hardships of life, reserving for themselves, the Destinies” proceed in a “terrible manner;" under the misapplied name of work, its agreeable and this manner will not cease" for soft sawder excitements.

or philanthropic stump-oratory;" but whatever the Were I to point out, even in the briefest terms, means may be, it has ceased in no inconsiderable every vulnerable point in your contributor's dis- degree, and is ceasing more and more : every year course, I should produce a longer dissertation than the "terrible manner,” in some department or his. One instance more must suffice. If labor is other, is made a little less terrible. Is our cholera

comparable to the old pestilence-our hospitals to And a ragged web like a tattered pall the old lazar-houses-our workhouses to the hang

Runs from its side to the sombre wall, ing of vagrants our prisons to those visited by

And over the window panes. Howard ? It is precisely because we have suc- The pendulum swings, the wheels go round, ceeded in abolishing so much pain, because pain Making a dull, monotonous sound, and its infliction are no longer familiar as our daily

As the vanishing moments fleet ; bread, that we are so much more shocked by what

A “tick,” like the falling of grains of sand,

As Time was pouring from out his hand remains of it than our ancestors were, or than in

The dust of years at his feet ! your contributor's opinion we ought to be.

Years have vanished—forgotten years— But (however it be with pain in general) the

With all their sorrows and sins and tears, abolition of the infliction of pain by the mere will And left their marks in the hall ;of a human being, the abolition, in short, of des- The old have died, the young grown oldpotism, seems to be, in a peculiar degree, the oc- Generations have gone to mould, cupation of this age ; and it would be difficult to And the clock survives them all. show that any age had undertaken a worthier.

Beautiful girls have watched the hours, Though we cannot extirpate all pain, we can, if

Knitting at stands, or working flowers we are sufficiently determined upon it, abolish all In frames of 'broidery finetyranny; one of the greatest victories yet gained And mornings, the young folks playing late over that enemy is slave-emancipation, and all

Wished the moments fettered to “ eight, Europe is struggling, with various success, towards

For the school began at “nine!" further conquests over it. Ii, in the pursuit of

Mothers, with sons in distant lands, this, we lose sight of any object equally important;

Sorrowing, chid its tardy hands,

And dreamed of the meeting dearif we forget that freedom is not the only thing

And wives whose husbands returned at night necessary for human beings, let us be thankful

Marked the time in the fading light, to any one who points out what is wanting ; but And listened for footsteps near! let us not consent to turn back.

Blushing brides at their toilets gay, That this country should turn back, in the

In snowy robes on the happy day, matter of negro slavery, I have not the smallest

Have waited the hour to wed : apprehension. There is, however, another place And sick folks, tossing on beds of pain, where that tyranny still flourishes, but now for Gazed at the clock again and again, the first time finds itself seriously in danger. At

And watched beside the dead ! this crisis of American slavery, when the decisive

But years have vanished, and others fill conflict between right and iniquity seems about to Their place, and the old clock standeth still commence, your contributor steps in, and flings. Ticking as in its pride :this missile, loaded with the weight of his repu

Summer and winter, day and night, tation, into the abolitionist camp. The words of

A sexton chiming the hours' flight, English writers of celebrity are words of power

Tolling the knell of Time!

January 7, 1849. on the other side of the ocean ; and the owners of human flesh, who probably thought they had

From the Churchman, not an honest man on their side between the

TO MY INFANT DAUGHTER ON HER BAPTISM. Atlantic and the Vistula, will welcome such an auxiliary. Circulated as his dissertation will The seal is on thy forehead, love ; probably be, by those whose interests profit by it,

The cross upon thy brow; from one end of the American Union to the other,

And holy prayer to God above I hardly know of an act by which one person

Is breathing o'er thee now ;

An offering to that God in heaven, could have done so much mischief as this may

Our precious first-born we have given possibly do; and I hold that by thus acting, he has made himself an instrument of what an able

We cannot draw the future's veil

And look, dear one, for thee, writer in the Inquirer justly calls “a true work

Into the shadowy gloom beyond, of the devil.”

Upon life's billowy sea.

We know not if thy coming years
From the N. Y. Tribune.

Be bright with smiles or dim with tears.

But we have given thee to God,

Be His the guiding arm,

To keep thee 'mid life's tempest waves, It stands in a corner of the room

And shield from every harm. Behind the door, in the shade and gloom

Be His the spirit to control ; In a heavy and antique case,

His smile the sunlight of thy soul. Rich mahogany, maple and oak,

And we may watch thy infant steps, Battered and scratched and dim with smoke,

And gently guide them here ; And the hands are bent on the face !

With the bright hope to cheer our hearts

'Mid every troubling fear, The knob and hinges are red with rust,

That He to whom our child is given The top o' th' mouldings covered with dust, Will lead her safely home to heaven. The panels are yellow with stains,

C. E. T.


From the Examiner, of 5 Jan. is as full of rebellion as Paris. Bohemia insists EUROPE AT THE CLOSE OF 1849.

on a separate constitution.

Croatia is even more There is no denying two very simple facts— menacing than Bohemia. The Austrian military that the people were masters of Europe in 1848, chiefs, therefore, laugh with some reason at the preand that the soldiers were masters of it in 1849. tension of the civilians to govern by a constitution. The people, or their leaders, certainly did not The land far and wide is too hot for a constitution. show themselves to be overstocked with wisdom One might as well propose a floral exhibition for the task of administration. No wonder—a in the crater of Vesuvias, as to work a constipeople is not made for administering. Those tution in Lombardy, or Hungary, or even Bohemasses, however, even in reform and revolution, mia. Russian and French reaction were needed have had their purpose and their use, in the estab- merely to be directed against resistance in one or lishment of new principles for the regulation of two towns. But all the Austrian empire has government. Having established these, they dis- been a battle-field of reform, of carnage, and bruappear from the stage, hooted off of it perhaps, or tality. The Russians were called on to effect driven from it by bayonets. And yet the most what the Austrians could not ; and what the Auspart of what they have proclaimed, and of the trians accomplished after all was by gold, and not laws they have promulgated, remain.

by fair fighting All this is so well known Discomfiture could not be more signal, nor the throughout the south-east of Europe, that the contempt which followed it more great, than that existing condition of things there has not one of which overwhelmed the people of Paris, of Vien- the characteristics of either subjugation or fear. na, of Berlin. Yet we find what these discom- The present moment is but a truce with the strugfited people declared to be law, remains law.gles, though not with the barbarities, of war. Representative government, universal suffrage, the If we draw a line diagonally across Europe, necessity of popular assent to elections, jury law, from the Western Alps to the mouth of the Visa free press, more or less prevail; not one of tula, we shall probably be of opinion that the which the overthrown governments would have events of 1849 have been pretty definitive, and not dreamed of granting And now the kings of Eu- unsatisfactory in their results for the countries rope are perplexed in the endeavor to solve the west of that line. Freedom, peace, constitutional difficult problem consequent on all this—to reign development, struggles after commercial, social, by the power of an army, yet according to the and ministerial changes, have been carried on not forms of representative government.

by arms but by argument. These are hopeful for In cabinets and throughout countries, at present, life and progress in the west, whilst every day the the great struggle is between civil and military dislike for war and riot, for oppression and liceninstitutions and authority. And this it is which tiousness, grows stronger. We observe here, in serves the popular cause. For the middle classes, a word, a marked prevalence of the tastes, the though ever so much in terror of revolution, are desires, and the principles of the middle, indusstill in such equal dread of military domination, trious, enlightened, and civilian class, over the that they, along with the civil functionary class, extravagances and tendencies of the two extremes and even the proprietors of land, are bent and of those below and above them. determined not to fall under the absolute regime of But to return to the enslaved and struggling the soldiers. This it is which constitutes the portion of Europe, we doubt even if 1850 will true element of contention in Paris between Thiers make any settlement of destinies. Russia overand the president, in Berlin between Brandenberg bears them most with its baleful power, which its and the constitutionalists, in Vienna between vicinity gives it power to exercise, and to apply Schwartzenberg and the emperor's military unceasingly, whilst the powers of the west can coterie.

only interfere casually and at intervals, as chance Throughout North Germany we have little permits. In opposing Russia, we are now playdoubt that the civilian element will finally prevail : ing an unequal game. Austria now is Russian; in France, likewise, unless any spark should fall and what France may be, the court scandal-monupon the old tinder temperament of the people, and gers only know. awaken by-gone pursuits and hopes. For, if peo- For corrupt and bankrupt Austria, Western ple are to be governed by soldiers, it must at least Europe might have substituted Young Hungary. be by soldiers of fame, of greatness, of genius. Whether such an opportunity may ever again If one's destiny is to be governed by poor and occur, whether the Sclavonic race, from the Vismediocre people, better have relays of lawyers and tula to the Danube, retain the force to assert their trusty politicians, than regiments of sub-lieuten- independence, and to bridle the power of the Tarants.

tar, remains to be seen. But as for Austria, she The difficulties of Austria are of course far lies bound in tyranny, in meanness, and in crime. greater than those of any government. It is Nothing can be hoped from her, or her dynasty, difficult to say which of its provinces, or what sec- but obstruction, falsehood, and treachery. She tion even of its metropolis, is the most disaffected. has lost Germany by the imbecility of Metternich, Hungary and Lombardy each require a huge army, and betrayed Eastern Europe to Russia by the still even to raise taxes and execute the laws. Vienna) greater imbecility and guilt of bis successors.

From the Examiner, 5 Jan. reduction upon the whole of about 64 per cent.; THE STATE OF THE COUNTRY.

while upon the number of sales there is an increase

of 50 per cent. ; in our local yards we observed a Who, of the old play-going world, does not falling off of about 30 per cent., until the last two remember, and laugh at the remembrance, of Lis- months, during which time more contracts have ton's Apollo Belvi, in Killing no Murder, attired been made, and more keels laid, than we were preas a mourner, with most preposterous hat-band, pared to expect. So soon as it was decided that scarf, and weepers, announcing his own decease, disposition to act evinced itself-the native hue

the old navigation laws were doomed, an increased and explaining that the lamented defunct was car- of resolution,” which had been “sicklied o'er with ried off by sudden death, to which he had all his life the pale cast of thought,” revived, and, under the been very subject? The Protectionists, with true assurance that the position of the British shipListonian face, are playing A pollo Belvi through- owner could not be further compromised, our buyout the country, and with every appearance of un- ers and builders resolved to be up and doing.impaired vitality proclaim that they are dead and At present there are eight vessels in course of gone. But the farce is a very old one, has been building in Liverpool; the aggregate tonnage, repeated to weariness, and we cannot call to mind 2,800 tons; and as our port is essentially more inthe time when agriculture was not perishing, so this is not under the average number in process of

terested in ship-repairing than in ship-building, subject has it ever been to the chronic complaint construction at one time here. of Liston's character, sudden death. For so it is that agricultural man never is, but always to be

So we are to believe that while there is any ruined. He has been poisoned as often as Dickens' uncertainty whether people are to be ruined or Mantalini, and is no whit the worse, or nearer not, they remain inert ; but when all doubt about his end after all. What is it that makes rural the matter is at an end, and the ruin settled and calamity of so long a life? How is it that it is sealed, then they begin to bestir themselves, and ever sinking, and never gets to the bottom? When to act precisely as if they had improved prospects are we to come to the promised wilderness? When before them! But we have never observed this is the plough to be deposited in the British Museum course of conduct in the instance of any interest as a curiosity belonging to a past and destroyed really sinking or superseded. For example, when world? How much longer are sowing and reaping

railroads came into use, innkeepers did not give to go on, just as if farmers thought of selling and orders for new post-chaises, and coach-masters did living by something different from a loss? But not build new four-horse stage-coaches. It canthis question does not apply to the farmers only, not be because they are utterly and irretrievably but to all the spoiled children of Protection, who undone that the ship-owners are now “ up and have promised to perish of the removal of their doing,” as alleged by Messrs. Tonge and Curry. swaddling clothes. The past year was to have been They are not building ships for fire-wood, or to the last year of British shipping. The wooden walls sell them at a loss, unless, indeed, they act upon were to have followed the wooden heads of Old the principle of the linen-draper, who protested England to destruction ; but, lo! at the beginning

that he sold every yard of his muslin at a loss, of the first year of the repeal of the navigation

but brought himself home on the quantity. laws, and the consequent ruin as predicted of British shipping, we find that the building-yards

From the Spectator, 5 Jan. of the Thames and east coast are so full of work

GREAT BRITAIN. that they cannot meet the demand for new ships,

DISTINGUISHED from the staler and minor suband that at Sunderland there are orders for fifty jects of political activity, this week, is the newlynew vessels of large tonnage. The circular of Messrs. Tonge and Curry, ship-brokers at Liver- organized coalition of independent politicians pool, makes the following statement as to the The movement is undoubtedly peculiar—combin

to obtain the reform of colonial government. business at that port, which is significant indeed, addressed as it is to the interest whose doom was ing as it does a Lyttelton, a Baring, and a Staffixed for this year :

ford, a Molesworth, a Milner Gibson, and a Cob

den, a Napier, a Walpole, and an Adderley—men The year just closed has been one of unusual of all leading parties ; but while it is too formidaanxiety to all persons connected with the building ble to be slighted, the presence of political friends or owning of British shipping, caused by that perplexes opponents on every side. The party change in the navigation laws, which enacts, that on and after this day all foreign shipping be ad- really in alarm is simply the official party, and mitted to the same privileges as British, with the that as such; for we hear no note of hostility from exception of the coasting trade. See Victoria 12 any other quarter. But the utmost art is used by and 13, cap. 29. The prospect of this sweeping the scouts and pickets of the official party to premeasure was accompanied with doubts and anxieties pare some diversion to the anticipated attack next that have had the effect of checking the operations session. A Mussulman fatalism is employed to of the most enterprising, and, as might be expected, represent the present state of colonial affairs as of reducing prices considerably ; under this pres- inevitable and inherent in colonial nature. “The sure of doubt, many vessels have been forced upon the market and sold, in some instances almost with history of every colony that we possess is but one qut reserve. In comparing the average prices for continuous series of difficulties, from its conquest the year 1849 with the previous year, we find a or its settlement to the present hour. The annex

Each pro

ation movement in Canada is but the last move- Speed the intercourse of soul with soul,

And waft a sigh from Indus to the Pole. ment in a varied game begun at the capitulation of Quebec, and carried on by successive genera

Alas! we have little else to wast. tions of statesmen and agitators.” While the Dreamers have made others dream; and the enterprise of amending the chaotic condition of rich gambler has ruined the poorer gambler at his affairs is represented as hopeless, the most is made first and last stake. History, in recording the of the heterogeneous elements of the coalition, as crimes of princes, may record perhaps some more one that will not work. But, indeed, of all im- atrocious than those who now rule exhibit ; but practicable ideas, that is the most so which sup- no future Tacitus or Suetonius will have parience poses that the actual course of things can continue to describe their obliquity, false promises, defecwithout ending in a break-up ; and the fatalist tion from duty, and from even kingly pride. Even whom we quote manifestly looks forward to one that specious glitter, even that reptile's scale at no distant day. The too clever writer makes appears not in the tortuous track they are puran over-candid admission—" While the lions and suing. Two of these creatures are, at this the lambs of our legislature are thus lying down instant, raising up a threatening crest against each together in paradisaical harmony as to the govern- other—the patron of Haynau and the persecutor ment of our colonies, the greater part of the British of Waldeck. A million of men will be marworld expresses its colonial sympathies by abusing shalled in arms to fight their batiles. the Colonial Office, Downing Street, and Lord tests he fights for Germany; each lies. WhichGrey.” He admits the “deep impression” per- ever is the winner, Germany will gain nothing. vading “all classes of politicians, that the ground Two swords will hew her through the centre ; has shifted under us, and that the mother-country two eagles (vultures rather) will divide and devour must adapt her policy to the new state of things ; her. the new state being, in fact, a spontaneous devel

of what use is any form of government which opment of the colonies themselves.” Very true; fails to protect the lives and properties of the peothis is the whole case. The colonies have been ple? And what form of government in Europe misgoverned by generations of statesmen, and our has done this? That government which Austria, actual ministers have fairly lost hold of all gov- France, and Spain have united to reëstablish, not ernment of the colonies; the whole political only failed to protect the lives and properties of world condemns the colonial office and Lord Grey; the people, but paralyzed their energies and stifled the colonies have taken the matter into their own their consciences. Spain and Austria make no hands; and, fearing that the imperial government pretences to honor or honesty in this aggression ; may be completely deposed, some of the more far- but the President of the French Republic uses seeing and earnest of our public men have united these words at the banquet in the Hôtel de Ville : to prevent that disastrous and disgraceful revolu- It has often been said that honor finds an echo in France. tion. Virtually the Times confesses that there is

Never were words truer. no case on the other side—nothing to be said

There is mostly an against the occasion or objects of the society for echo where there is a hollow and a vacuity. the reform of colonial government.

Honor had an echo, and a very loud one too. A report has obtained some currency, that min- every time an oath was taken and every time an oath isters are about to propose

an extension of the was violated. I forget how many dozens of them franchise,” based on a householder "rating." Talleyrand said he remembered to have taken. The Without calling this extension

best Christians in France, catholic and philosoph

a tub to the whale,” or a measure planned " for rejection,” the ical, romantic and poetical, swore they would lend very friends of ministers who spread the report to assistance to all nations that invoked them in the their credit, let out that the motive is to divert naine of liberty; and, within a few months, they attention from more troublous pursuits—per

bombarded Rome, scattering the patriots who haps the financial reform movement, or this for- defended her, recalling the Pope who abandoned midable colonial movement. A less credible her, and restoring the Inquisition. rumor is, that some tory party means to

The Americans have declared their sentiments

proposeuniversal suffrage ! Vogue la galère. Ministers freely, loudly, widely, consistently, against the and ex-ministers emulating the competition of rival violence and perfidy of Russia and Austria. They playhouse managers !

must do greatly more ; they must offer an asylum to whoever, rising up against oppression and indig

nity, shall, in the absence of law and equity, have WHAT WE HAVE AND WHAT WE OWE. slain those who caused it.* For it is impossible

At the close of this half-century the march of that such iniquities, as certain men in high places intellect is indeed a funeral march. What has have perpetrated, should be unavenged. Conspirbeen obtained by genius or by science for the ben- acies will never more exist; two persons (but efit of mankind ? Greater and more glorious dis- preferably one) will undertake the glorious task, coveries have been made within our memory than which not only antiquity applauded, bu which ever were made before. We may, with the

Meaning that we shall not deliver up assassins !-L. rapidity of lightning,


From the Examiner.

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