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diately put a handspike under it to heave it up. ends of the tube slowly descended to their respecThat man will be killed," said Mr. Stephenson tive shelf or ledge on each tower ; and the disvery quietly. Captain Claxton vociferously as-carded power, that had successfully transported the sailed him through his trumpet, but the crew were vast gallery across the water, then floating away Welshcould not understand English-and ac- with the stream-gently transferred from one cordingly the man, as if he had been applauded, element to another-it was thus left in the aëriexerting himself in all attitudes, made every pos- form position it had been planned to occupy. sible exertion not only to kill himself but his com- During the operations we have detailed there rades astern, who most certainly would also have were, of course, made by the spectators of both been nearly severed by the hawser had it been sexes a variety of observations of more or less liberated ; but a tiny bump or ornament of iron wisdom, of which our limits will only allow us on the boat's head providentially made it impossi- historically to record a single sample. ble, and the hawser having been veered out from Dear me !" said an old gentleman, as the ashore, the tube instantly righted.

tube when it first swung across the Straits was in The seventh movement brought the foremost perspective seen approaching the platform on end of the tube about 12 feet past the Anglesey which he sat, and which was immediately in Tower, and the rear end being now close to its front of the awful chasm between Britannia and destination, the hook of an immense crab or pulley- Anglesey Towers, they have surely been and block, passing through a hole purposely left in the made it too SHORT; they must put a bit on!” As masonry of the Britannia Tower, was no sooner soon, however, as, veering round, it approached affixed to it than the workmen at the capstan on him broadside foremost, he whispered, I'm quite piles, whom we described as asleep, instantly ran sure it 's too LONG ; they 'll have to cut a piece off!: round, until the tube was by main strength dragged A lady said to her companion, " Mr. Stephen-like the head of a bullock in the shambles—10 son appeared dreadfully excited during the passage! a ring from which it could not possibly retreat. Did n't you observe how he kept continually stretchBy a combination of capstan-power on the north ing out his arms, raising them up, and then sinking shore, the foremost or opposite end was now them down in this way?" (suiting her words to drawn backwards until it came to the edge of the the actions by which the speed of the voyage had Anglesey Tower ; and although we were aware calmly been regulated.) “ But no wonder he was that the measurements had of course been accu- so agitated!rately predetermined, yet it was really a beautiful The company's servants were engaged until triumph of science to behold the immense tube long after sunset in securing and placing in safety pass into its place by a windage or clear space the various materials, &c., that had been in requiamounting, as nearly as we could judge it, to sition during the day, and it was not till past midrather less than three quarlers of an inch.

night that, over-tired, they managed one after The tube having now evidently at both ends another lo retire to rest. attained its position over the stone ledge in the On the following morning, after we had bidden excavation that had been purposely constructed adieu to the hospitable inmates of a small wooden for it, a deafening-and, to us, a deeply-affecting habitation, beneath the Anglesey Tower, in which --cheer suddenly and simultaneously burst out we had been very kindly received, we had occainto a continuous roar of applause from the mul- sion to pass near to a stand which had purposely titudes congregated in all directions, whose atten- been constructed in a peculiarly advantageous tion had been so riveted to the series of operations position, to enable the directors of the Chester they had been witnessing, that not a sound had and Holyhead Railway to witness the operation.' previously escaped from them; nor had they, in Upon the centre bench of this platform-the any place, been seen to move from the spots at ground far around which was partially covered' which they either stood or sat.

with bits of orange-peel, greasy papers that had Mr. Stephenson took no notice whatever of this contained sandwiches, and other scraps, indicative salute ; indeed, we much question if he even heard of an intellectual feast that was over-we obit, for his attention was intently occupied in giv- served, reclining entirely by himself, a person in ing to his able and confidential assistant, Mr. the easy garb of a gentleman, who appeared to Wild, directions respecting the final adjustment be in the exquisite enjoyment of a cigar, whose of the temporary fastenings by which the tube white smoke in long expirations was periodically was to be retained ; but the crowd of spectators exuding from his lips, as with unaverted eyes he --like that at a theatre when the curtain of the sat indolently gazing at the aërial gallery before after-piece drops—were already seen hurrying him. It was the father looking at his new-born away in all directions, by steam, by boats, by child! He had strolled down from Llanfaircarriages, and on fuot, until, in the brief course pwllgwyngyll, where, undisturbed by consonants, of an hour, both coasts were clear. The tide, he had soundly slept, to behold in sunshine and in however, during the operations we have described, solitude that which during a weary period of geshad become high. had turned, and was now be- tation had been either mysteriously moving in his ginning to be violent; the valves therefore having brain, or like a vision---sometimes of good omen been partially drawn up, the pontoons, as they and sometimes of bad—had by night as well as gradually filled, sank, until the widely-sopärated l by day occasionally been fitting across his mind.

Without, however, presuming to divine, from final resting-place. This operation, which might the rising fumes of a cigar, the various subjects be compared to lifting the Burlington Arcade to of his ruminations, we will merely confess that, the top of St. James' Church-supposing always on looking up from our boat, as it glided away, that the said church arose out of very deep, rapid at the aërial gallery he was contemplating, we water-was, as we have already stated, to be were astonished to find ourselves very much in the performed by the slow but irresistible agency of frail predicament of mind of the old gentleman hydraulic power ; and as one of the presses used of yesterday whose emotions we so accurately is said not only to be the largest in the world, but delineated—for when the tube was lying on the the most powerful machine that has ever been Carnarvon shore we certainly fancied that it constructed, we will venture to offer to those of looked too heavy and too high for its object, our readers who may never have reflected upon. whereas it now appeared almost too light and too the subject, a brief, homely explanation of the low : in short, it had assumed the simple appear-simple hydrostatic principle upon which that most ance which, in principle, it had been designed to astonishing engine, the hydraulic press invented by bear—that of a rectangular hollow beam; and Bramah, is constructed. although it had in fact annulled the awful chasm If the whole of the fresh water behind the lockbetween the Anglesey and Britannia Towers, nev- gates of a canal communicating directly with, say ertheless, by exactly measuring it, it now ap- the German Ocean, were to be suddenly withpeared considerably to have increased it! drawn, it is evident that the sea-side of the gates

Moreover, in viewing this low narrow passage would receive water-pressure, and the other sido --only 15 feet by 30—which, without cuneiform none. support, was stretching half across the Menai Now, if a second set of gates were to be inStraits-(it has been quaintly observed by Mr. serted in the salt-water at a short distance, say Latimer Clark, in the clever pamphlet named at one foot, in front of the old ones- -(the water bethe head of this article, that if this single joint of tween both sets of gates remaining at the same the tube could be placed on its tiny end in St. sea-level as before)-many, and perhaps most Paul's Churchyard, it would reach 107 feet higher people, would believe that the pressure of the than the cross)—it seemed surprising to us that German Ocean against the new gates would of by any arrangement of materials it could possibly course relieve, if not entirely remove, the presbe made strong enough to support even itself, sure against the old ones—just as a barrier before much less heavily-laden trains of passengers and the entrance of a theatre most certainly relieves goods, flying through it, and actually passing those between it and the door from the pressure each other in the air, at railway speed. And the of the mob without. more we called reason and reflection to our assist- This opinion, however, is fallacious; for, supance, the more incomprehensible did the mystery posing that the new gates were by machinery to practically appear ; for the plate-iron of which be firmly closed, the foot of salt-water included this aërial gallery composed is literally not so between them and the old gates would not only thick as the lid, sides, and bottom which, by heart- continue to press exactly as heavily against the less contract, are required for an elm coffin 6 feet latter as the whole German Ocean had previously long, 24 feet wide, and 2 feet deep, of strength done, but by simultaneously inflicting the same merely sufficient to carry the corpse of an erna- amount of pressure against the inside of the new ciated, friendless pauper from the workhouse to gates as the ocean was inflicting on their outside, his grave!

the pressure of this imprisoned single foot of The covering of this iron passage, 1841 feet in water would so accurately counterpoise that of the length, is literally not thicker than the hide of whole wide, free ocean, that if the machinery the elephant! Lastly, it is scarcely thicker than which had closed the new gates were suddenly to the bark of the “good old English” oak; and if be removed, they (the new gates) would be found, this noble sovereign, notwithstanding the “ heart” as it were, vertically to float between the two and interior substance of which it boasts, is, even equal pressures ! in the well-protected park in which it has been But anomalous as this theory may appear, it is born and bred, often prostrated by the storm, how beautifully demonstrated by the well-known fact, difficult is it to conceive that an attenuated aërial that if water be poured into a glass siphon, of hollow beam, no thicker than its mere rind, should which one leg is, say an inch in diameter, and the by human science be constituted strong enough to other, say a foot, the smaller quantity will exactly withstand, besides the weights rushing through it, counterbalance the greater, and the water will conthe natural gales and artificial squalls of wind to sequently, in both legs, rise precisely to the same which throughout its immense length, and at its level ; and this would be the case if one leg of the fearful height, it is permanently to be exposed ! siphon were as large as the German Ocean, and

IV. Raising the TUBES.Hydraulic Press.— the other as small as the distance between the two Although the tube, resting at each end upon the sets of lock gates we have just described—indeed, ledge or shelf that had been prepared for it, had it is evident that, if a hole were to be bored through been deposited high enough to allow an ordinary the bottom of the new gates, a siphon would inboat to row under it, yet the heaviest job still re- stantly be formed, of which the ocean would be ono mained-that of raising it about 100 feet to its | leg and the foot of included salt water the other.

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LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIV.

Now Bramah, on reflection, clearly perceived | is capable of exerting for the purpose of raising its that from this simple principle in nature a most tubes. In short, the power is to the weight of the important mechanical power might be obtained ; tubes as follows :for if, say five ounces of water in a small tube can

Tons. be made to counterbalance, say a hundred thousand Weight of one of the largest tubes 1800. ounces of water in a large one, it is evident that by Lifting-power of the hydraulic press 2622. the mere substitution in the bottom of the larger The mode in which this enormous power is praetube of a flat solid substance instead of the water, tically exercised is as follows :a pressure upon the body so inserted of very nearly

The hydraulic cylinder, standing erect, like a a hundred thousand ounces would be inflicted by cannon on its breach, on two stout wrought iron the application of only five ounces !—and as this beams bolted to each other, is, together with its pressure would of course be proportionately in- steam-boiler, securely fixed in the upper region of creased by increasing the height, or in other words the Britannia Tower, 148 feet above the level of the weight of water in the smaller tube-Bramah its base, and about 45 feet above that to which the therefore further reasoned that, if, instead of adding bridge is to be raised. to the quantity of water in the smaller tube, the Around the neck of the iron ram or piston, which fluid therein were to be ejected downwards by a protrudes 8 inches above the top of this cylinder, force-pump, the pressure upwards in the larger there is affixed a strong horizontal iron beam 6 tube would proportionately be most enormously feet 9 inches in length, resembling the wooden increased ; and à fortiori, as, in lieu of the old- yoke used by milkmaids for carrying their pails, fashioned forcing-pump, the power of steam has from the extremities of which there hang two lately been exerted, our readers will, we believe, enormous iron chains, composed of eight or nine at once perceive that, if the instrument which holds flat links or plates, each 7 inches broad, 1 inch the water could but be made strong enough, the thick, and 6 feet in length, firmly bolted together. pressure which might be inflicted within it by a few These chains (which, in order to lift the tube to gallons of water might almost be illimitable. its destination, are required to be each 145 feet

The principle of the hydraulic press having been long) weigh no less than 100 tons—which is more above faintly explained, the power and dimensions than double the weight of the equestrian statue of of the extraordinary engine of this nature, which the Duke of Wellington, lately erected in Hyde has been constructed by Messrs. Easton and Amos, Park-commonly regarded as one of the heaviest of Southwark, for raising the Britannia tubes, may lifts ever effected ; and certainly, when from the be thus briefly described.

giddy region of the Britannia Tower, in which The cylinder, or large tube, of the siphon, which this hydraulic machinery, like the nest of an eagle, is 9 feet 4 inches ip length, 4 feet 10 inches in has been deposited, the stranger, after looking diameter, and which is made of cast iron 11 inches down upon the enormous weight of iron not only thick, weighs 16 tons. The piston, termed the to be supported, but to be raised, compares the Ram, which, pressed upwards by the water, works whole mass with the diameter of the little touchwithin it, is 20 inches in diameter. The whole hole immediately before him, through which the machine complete weighs upwards of 40 tons. lifting power has to pass—and when he reflects The force-pump barrel communicates with a slen- that the whole process can, with the greatest ease, der tybe or passage about the size of a lady's small- be regulated and controlled by a single man, it is est finger, which, like the touch-hole of a cannon, impossible to help feeling deeply grateful to the is drilled through the metallic side of the cylinder; Divine Power for an invention which, at first sight. and thus, although the siphonic principle really has more the appearance of magic than of art. exists, nothing appears to the eye but a sturdy As soon as all adjustments were prepared, and cast iron cylinder of about the length of a 24 lb. the boiler was sufficiently heated, the great piston, cannon, having the thickness of metal of a 13-inch under the influence of severe pressure upon the mortar.

water beneath it, began slowly, like a schoolboy's From the above trifling data it will be evident “ jack-in-the-box,” to emerge from the cylinder, that, leaving friction and the weight of the ram out and, apparently regardless of the enormous weight of the question, the lifting power of this machine that oppressed his shoulders, he continued steadily must exceed the force applied to the force-pump in to rise, until in about thirty minutes he lifted the the same proportion that 1}-inch diameter bears to tube 6 feet, and, as he could raise it no higher, the a diameter of 20 inches—which in figures amounts huge chains beneath were immediately secured by to about 354 to 1; and as the two 40-horse steam- a powerful vice or “clams” at the foot of the press. engines which are to be applied to the touch-hole By letting off the water, which of course relieved for compressing the water in the smaller tube the pressure beneath the piston, it descended, by would, it has been calculated by Mr. Latimer its own gravity, to the point from which it had Clark, be sufficient to force the fluid more than five started, where the chains being again affixed to its times as high as the top of Snowdon, or 5000 feet yoke--an operation which requires about half an higher than the summit of Mont Blanc, our readers hour-it again, by the vitality of steam, lifted its have only to increase the force in this proportion weight another six feet; and, as the other end of to become sensible of the extraordinary power the tube was simultaneously treated in a similar which the bydraulic press of the Britannia Bridge way, the whole was progressively raised nearly

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30 feet, when, by the bursting of the largest of the / was saddled not only with its own natural burden hydraulic presses--a contingency which, from the but with the preternatural works we have defaithless crystalline character of cast iron, it is scribed ; indeed, in order to obtain its Act of Parutterly impossible for science to prevent the pon- liament, it was so completely at the mercy of the derous mass suddenly fell through a space of seven government, that it was obliged to submit to cerinches-an awful phenomenon to witness- until it tain excruciating terms which—-with the nonpaywas stopped' by the brickwork and timber which ment to the company of its 30,0001. a year for the had cautiously been underbuilt during its ascent- mail-service, which the members of the late adand from which it has still to be raised to a point ministration well know was ensured to it—and a few feet above its final position, where, a strong with a competition between the government and iron beam being placed beneath, it will, we trust, the company's steamers most lamentably inflicting triumphantly be lowered to its final resting-place, a serious loss upon both parties--have, it

appears, to be the aërial highway of the public.

reduced the value of its shares in the market by [Here follows a discussion as to Mr. Fairbairn's claims more than 70 per cent., and, of course, completely to a large share of the credit. The reviewer decides drained its capital of all dividend. “ And,” it against them; and we omit that part of the article.- has been said, “ so much the belter for the public !" Living Age.)

Be it so! we have no desire to relieve the proMORAL.—The sums expended by the Chester prietors of the Chester and Holyhead Railway and Holyhead Railway Company to the 30th June from the terms (whatever they may be) of their last have been as follows :

contract. On the other hand, there can be no Cost of Tubular Bridge for cross

doubt that, if Parliament holds every railway com

£ s. d. ing the Conway

110,000 0 0 pany hard and fast to its bargain when it has made Cost of Tubular Bridge for cross

a bad one, it ought not, at all events, by ex post ing the Menai Straits

500,000 0 0 facto legislation, to let loose the public from every Remainder of the line, &c. . 2,971,587 0 0 imprudent engagement which they, on their parts,

have contracted to perform. We will exemplify Total expenditure .

3,581,587 0 0

our meaning by a particular case. Contribution to be paid towards

At the fag-end of last session Lord Monteagle the construction of the Holy

introduced into the House of Lords a bill, which, head Harbor of Refuge 200,000 0 0 though hastily approved by a vote of that house, Present market-value of orig

was very properly, as we think, discountenanced inal stock

72 per ct. discount. by Lord John Russell, and finally thrown out in the Ditto of preferential stock at

House of Commons, to deprive railway proprie54 per cent. interest issued

tors of the power they now enjoy of solely auditby the Company to obtain

ing their own accounts. funds to complete the works 20 per ct. discount.

It was not attempted to be shown that an auditor The above figures strikingly illustrate the con- appointed by the public could increase the number sequences of the system, or rather want of sys- of trains-improve station accommodation-or tem, which the imperial Parliament has hitherto give additional security or even comfort to any pursued in railway legislation.

description of persons travelling by rail. It was If the communication between England and not attempted to be shown that the proposed measIreland viú Holyhead, had-on the principle which ure would confer a single additional privilege at the time we earnestly recommended—been con- upon railway share-owners. On the contrary, it sidered as one great arterial line, the proportionate was frankly admitted that “to THEM the books expense of contributing to a harbor of refuge, as of the company are by law at all times open;" well as the enormous cost of raising the two but as a highly popular doctrine, it was honestly bridges necessary for crossing the Conway and and unscrupulously explained that the real object of Menai Straits to a height sufficient for the dis- the proposed audit-bill was to enable the public, tinctly different purposes of railway traffic and the by legislative "clairvoyance," accurately to ascersailing of large vessels, might, with some appear- lain the present and prospective state of every ance of justice, have been thrown upon the afore- railway company, in order that the proprietors said large company ;-although, in the day of thereof might be prevented from any longer selling M'Adam roads, Telford's bridges over the very their shares to the aforesaid "public" at prices" same places, and the construction of harbors, above their intrinsic value. were considered as national works, and were If Parliament were to force every horse-dealer accordingly executed at the cost of the public. to divulge the vices and infirmities of the sorry Very improvidently, however, the moderately animal he is at this moment chanting," there remunerating portions of the line were first estab- can be no doubt that the public, by a general lished by Parliament ;—and thus the little com- illumination, would have vast reason to rejoice. pany which, with feeble means, was to continue If Parliament were to oblige the proprietors of from Chester the circulation of the royal mails all quack medicines to prepublish the exact cost -of goods of all descriptions of first, second, of the ingredients which compose them, there can and third class passengers—and of her majesty's be no doubt that John Bull might henceforward troops and artillery between London and Dublin, repeatedly swallow a peck of pills for less 'money

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than he is now paying for “a single oonce box.” Įination, and that honest as well as disinterested In fact, for aught that we in our sequestered her- audit of their accounts(in the last half-yearly mitage know, it may be very possible, that if printed statement of the London and North-westevery merchant's ledger were to-morrow morning, ern Railway Company's affairs we observe that by legislative enactment, to be declared public there was expended in six months in “audit and property, the prices of sugar, tea, iron, hides, account 24881. 5s. 6d.”)—which will satisfy men coals, and a hundred other articles in the market, of business ; and which was, no doubt, Lord Montwould, in the course of a few hours be lowered. eagle's object, when—with rather more zeal than It has, however, hitherto been considered that the consideration—he proposed that it should forcibly British merchant's counting-house is as much be effected by Act of Parliament. “his castle" as his residence ; that his accounts The desideratum, however, we feel confident, are as sacred as his person; and that, morally can be obtained by milder means; and although speaking, nothing but a suspension of the Habeas between buyers and sellers of all descriptions conCorpus Act can authorize the seizure of either the tention must always exist to a certain degree, we one or the other. ·

trust that the proprietors of the rails which have When Mr. Stephenson's magnificent project of gridironed the country, and those who travel on a cast iron bridge of two arches, 100 feet high at them, instead of unnecessarily snarling over the inthe crown-which, instead of costing 600,0001. vention, will feel that it is alike their interest and (being at the rate of 10001. per yard,) could have their duty to join together hand in hand, magnanbeen executed for 250,0001.—was rejected by the imously to develop to its utmost possible extent the Admiralty, that powerful board very justifiably greatest blessing, or at least one of the very greatdeclined to advise by what other means the stipu. est, which has ever been imparted to mankind. lations they required should, or even could, be

It is generally asserted by railway proprietors, offected. The doubts, the difficulties, the risks, who are of course self-interested in the question, and the uncertainties were all, with an official that the existing practice of rating their respective shrug, very prudently thrown upon the little com- companies according to their earnings--their pany; and if the expenses of the Chester and industry—or, as it is technically termed, their Holyhead Railway could thus be legitimately “ profits in trade,” is unjust, because the same sygforced into darkness, is it just, after the proprie- tem, or fiscal screw, is not equally applied to landtors have not only peformed their bargain, but have owners, manufacturers, or shopkeepers. It is nearly been ruined by doing so, that their accounts argued that, so long as our old-fashioned highways, should, by an ex post facto law, be dragged into besides levying tolls, are allowed to tax for their daylight, not merely to gratify idle disinterested maintenance every parish through which they pass, curiosity, but for the open avowed object of shield- it is unreasonable that the same parishes should at ing the public—or rather public stockbrokers-- the very same moment, by a process diametrically from the very risk and pecuniary uncertainty which opposite, be allowed to transfer a large proportion they (the proprietors) were forced to encounter ? of their domestic rates for the support of their poor,

But, as in all transactions, “ honesty is the best &c., upon railways, which, it is affirmed, have, policy,” so we submit that the proposed inter- generally speaking, not only grievously overpaid ference with the rights of railway proprietors for the land they occupy, but have materially into be the sole auditors of their own accounts, creased the value and prosperity of every city, is not only unjust, but impolitic. Thousands of town, village, hamlet, and field, through which or owners of railway stock have, by a fatal experi- near which they pass. ence, lately learned that it is possible for a joint- Upon this serious and important question, involvstock company, as it is possible for any of the ing some general readjustment of assessments of individuals composing it, to encourage profuse every description, we shall abstain from offering expenditure, to act dishonestly, and, for a short any opinion, because we are convinced that, sooner time, to veil impending ruin by mystified accounts. or later, it will be duly considered by Parliament. The antidote, however, to this poisonous admix- In the mean while, however, it is with deep regret ture of indolence and fraud is already working its we observe that the innumerable direct as well as cure. The punishment of the principal transgres- indirect impositions and taxes which-rightly or sor has already become "greater than he can wrongly, legally or illegally-have been imposed bear;" and a salutary suspicion has not only spon- upon our railways, are already producing the taneously aroused the proprietors of two hundred lamentable consequences we ventured to predict. millions of railway property, who had hitherto From want of funds, even our greatest railwayvery culpably neglected their own affairs, but has companies are openly abandoning branch-lines materially depreciated all railway stock ; and there which they had almost completed ; they are reduccan be no doubt that this wholesome castigatory ing the number of their trains ; economizing at depression of their property below its intrinsic their stations; in fact, in various ways, in proporvalue will, to the evident benefit of the share-purchas- tion not only to the expenses imposed upon them, ing public, continue to exist, until railway pro- but moreover to the reductions made in their origprietors have sense enough to perceive that it is inal parliamentary tolls, they are-perceptibly as their interest to remove the suspicion which created well as imperceptibly—curtailing the convenience it, by the prompt establishment of that open exam-1 and accommodation which, from a sound regard for

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