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1. Position of British Colonies

Tait's Magazine,

241 2. Thomas Carlyle on the Negro Question,

Fruzer's Magazin.,

248 3. First Quarrels - A Sketch from Life,

Chambers' Journul,

255 4. French Pedlers in Italy,

Do.

257 5. The Jews in Europe,

Independent,

261 6. Geographical and Ethnological Considerations,

L!. Maury

202 7. The Albatross,

Chambers' Journal,

264 8. Zinc substituted for White Lead in Painting, N. Y. Tribune,

267 Literary World,

268 10. Pasha of Egypt, vs. British Jockey Club, Bell's Life in London,

270 11. The Publishing Business,

Literary World,

272 12. The Artic Expedition, Search for Sir J. Franklin, Examiner,

275 and 279 13. Louis Napoleon's First Year,

Tines & Examiner,

276 and 281 14. The Cape and the Convicts,

Etaminer, 15. Foreign News and Miscellany,

Spectator, 8c.,

282 to 286 Poetry. - Dream of Argyle, 247; To Lady Franklin, 254. - First Snow Fall ; Dull De

cember, 260; The Hour Glass, 266; Forbear one another, 274; Death in the Batile, 282 ;

My Garden Gate, 286. Short Articles. — Dr. Samuel B. Woodward, 254 ; R. H. Dana's Writings, 297 ; Corres.

pondence, 287.

PROSPECTUS.- This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ourtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were through a rapid process of change, to some pew state of excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreigo criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to inake the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish io keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Law: the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians—10 men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensiva Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris and useful to their wives and Children. We believe that fian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch;

and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite ise of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "linnowing the wheat from the jom the new growth of the British colonies.

chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and Tae steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all warts of the world, so that much more than ever it I aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 300.—16 FEBRUARY, 1850.

From the Spectator. mankind was in his own genial nature ; to which LIFE AND WRITINGS OF DR. CHALMERS. * Dryden's lines might be applied

PERHAPS of all the divines who were connected I have a soul that, like an ample shield, with an establishment, or who observed the deco

Can take in all, and verge enough for more. rum of a settled church, Dr. Chalmers was the This, which approaches rhodomontade as a general most widely popular. The great divines of the proposition, had much reality as regarded ChalAnglican Church, and some of the great Noncon- mers. Full as he might be, he was always ready formists, were as well known, if not more influ- to learn, or to do, something beyond. And he ential; but their celebrity and their influence orig- brought to his arguments, his actions, or his inated partly in politics, lay or ecclesiastical. views, an earnestness and a vividness which were They lived in troubled times; they were perse- always spirited and forceful, if they sometimes cuted themselves, or, it may be, were occasionally passed into angry invective in earlier life, and at engaged in persecuting others; and in fact were all times had a tendency to wander into exuberessentially party leaders in periods of violence. ance. There was, too, a childlike simplicity about Wesley and Whitefield, like many Romanist saints, him, that won by its contrast with his massy force, were not only missionaries but mob orators, who, The life of this great patriarch of the Scottish though belonging to the established Church, set Church is brought down in the volume before us its decorums at defiance. The name of Chalmers, to the call of Mr. Chalmers to Glasgow, the first too, was popular beyond his own country; and seat of his national popularity; the book closing though it had not in England the same weight that with his farewell sermon at his first parish, Kilit possessed in Scotland, he was regarded relig- many, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. Future iously by large numbers in the church, as well as volumes and coming years may introduce the by most members of the different denominations. reader to greater works than Chalmers had hitherto Robertson's name was as widely known, but his attained, and present him much more prominently repute was literary. And we exclude from our before the world's eye ; but they can hardly be so estimate the party use the tories made of Chalmers important as regards the formation of his character, about the time of the Reform fever, when they or contain matter of more biographical interest. ostentatiously patronized his lectures in favor of That the child is father of the man was especially church establishments.

true of Chalmers. A family feeling, where perOne source of Dr. Chalmers' reputation is to haps religion and ambition pretty equally mingled, be found in his style, which had all the force and early designed him for the pulpit; but Nature had popularity of the platform, without its obvious " formed his genius in the natal hour” for that inechanism, its tiresome mannerism, its labored vocation. Long before he could have formed any efforts, and its “ damnable iteration.” Perhaps, idea of the ministerial duties, or comprehended the indeed, he was the founder of the modern school simplest doctrines of Christianity, he had entered of platform oratory ; but, in addition to the genius. upon his future calling. and character of an original, he had strength and

The sister of one of his school-fellows at Anfertility of thought, great fluency, and a natural struther still remembers breaking in upon her earnestness of feeling. His peculiarities were brother and him in a room to which they had renot professional affectations, but odd habits. The tired together, and finding the future great pulpit manner of Scottish and dissenting pulpit oratory orator (then a very little boy) standing upon a chair is so different from that of the Anglican Church, and preaching most vigorously to his single anditor that the introduction of science into Christian dis- below. He had not nly resolved to be a minister courses by Chaliners had to nonconformists all the -he had fixed upon his first text—" Let brotherly

love continue." effect of novelty. And had the junction been more common even with Anglican divines, they To show how this early bias was trained and of necessity wanted the new and living sci-fashioned, is one of the chief and most interesting encethe chemistry, the botany, the geology, features of Dr. Hanna's volume. Many biographwith which Chalmers varied, illustrated, and en-ical and family circumstances, and many sketches forced his discourses. These features, however, of Scottish life, are intermingled with it; but the were material or formal-such things as could be picture of Chalmers' mind, from his childish and were imitated by others when the pattern was school-days, through a boyhood careless of learngiven them. The secret of Chalmers' hold upon /ing, a youth sceptical of revealed religion altor

* Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Chalmers, gether, and an early manhood in which scholastic D.D., LL.D. By his son-in-law, the Reverend Williain and scientific ambition overpowered a cold and Hanna, LL.D. Volume I. Published (for Mr. Constable) by Sutherland and Knox, Edinburgh; Hamilton and formal belief in the logic of Christianity, forms the Adams, London.

principal figure of the piece, round which att 19

OC.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXIV.

other topics are grouped in subordinate, though |but ill prepared by previous education for reaping often considerable interest. Luckily, the journals the full benefit of a college course. I think that and correspondence of Chalmers allowed his men- during the first two sessions a great part of his tal life to be more fully displayed than is often the time must have been occupied (as mine was) in case even with religious men of his eminence and particularly hand-ball ; in which latter he was re

boyish amusements, such as golf, foot-ball, and activity ; while family papers, and the reminis- markably expert, owing to his being left-handed.” cences of relations, friends, admirers, and the publicly recorded actions of Chalmers himself, furnish

Something he must have picked up from the ample materials for the outward life.

common exercises of the place ; but it was not till Dr. Thomas Chalmers was born in 1780, the his third session—1793–294—that his “ intelleo

tual birth-time" took its date. And the first scisixth son of a family of fourteen. His father was a ship-owner and general merchant of Anstruther, ence to which he applied himself was mathemata small seaport on the eastern coast of Fife. The ics. Soon afterwards, ethics and politics engaged family was of a very religious turn ; and the his attention ; and the family faith, political and light and lax idea Thomas at first entertained of religios, received a considerable shock in the perthe duties of the ministry, and his postponement lice. To the toryism of his father he soon re

son of its sixth child, from Godwin's Political Jusof them to schemes of scientific and literary distinction, were in after years a source of uneasiness turned, scared probably by the atrocities of the to his father, as well as a cause of remonstrance.

French Revolution. His religious scepticism was At a very early age Thomas went off to school, to

of longer duration, and was strengthened some escape the cruelties of a nurse ; and remained years afterwards by the perusal of the Système de there till he became a student of St. Andrew's la Nature. Yet his scepticism was not of the cold

and abstract character of his masters ; he had University, when only in his twelfth year. At school he had been more conspicuous for a glee

none of the bigoted prejudices which rendered some aptness for play, and the power of doing his some of the infidels of that time as violent as fatasks if he chose, than for any real acquisitions natics. The genial nature of Chalmers came to The lax system of admission in the Scottish uni

his aid ; had he not been converted, first to an versities allowed Master Thomas to become a stu

historical and logical Christianity, next to Evandent when English spelling and grammar were yet gelism, he might have anticipated by half a cen to seek, and his Latin was what Ben Jonson de-tury the kindly philosophy and spiritual Theism scribes Shakspeare's "small;" nor for the first that have of late years arisen. Even while at St. two years did he apply much, or, to speak prop

Andrews, in his seventeenth year, with unsettled erly, he was not made to apply much, w study. opinions, the student's prayers he offered up in This sketch of the doings at St. Andrews, by a

public excited the attention of the “ town." class-fellow, exhibits a neglect and laxity that may It was then the practice at St. Andrews, that all more than vie with Gibbon's picture of Oxford the members of the University assembled daily in forty years earlier.

the public hall for morning and evening prayers,

which were conducted by the theological students. In November, 1791, whilst not yet twelve years The hall was open to the public, but in general the of age, accompanied by his elder brother William, invitation was not largely accepted. In his first he enrolled himself as a student in the United Col- theological session it came by rotation to be D. lege of St. Andrews. He had but one contempo- Chalmers' turn to pray. His prayer, an amplificarary there who had entered college at an earlier tion of the Lord's Prayer, clause by clause consecage, John, Lord Campbell ; and the two youngest utively, was so originally and yet so eloquently students became each, in future life, the most dis- worded, that universal wonder and very general tinguished in his separate sphere. However it may admiration were excited by it. “I remember have been in Lord Campbell's case, in Dr. Chal- still," writes one who was himself an auditor, mers extreme youth was not compensated by any "afier the lapse of fifty-two years, the powerful prematureness or superiority of preparation. A impression made by his prayers in the Prayer Hall, letter written to his eldest brother, James, during to which the people of St. Andrews flocked when the summer which succeeded his first session at col- they knew that Chalmers was to pray. The wonlege, is still preserved—the earliest extant speci- derful flow of eloquent, vivid, ardent description of men of his writing. It abounds in errors both in the attributes and works of God; and still more, orthography and grammar, and abundantly proves perhaps, the astonishingly harrowing delineation of that the work of learning to write his own tongue the miseries, the horrid cruelties, immoralities, and with ordinary correctness had still to be begun. abominations inseparable from war, which always His knowledge of the Latin language was equally came in more or less in connection with the bloody defective ; unfitting him during his first two ses- warfare in which we were engaged with France, sions to profit, as he might otherwise have done, called forth the wonderment of the hearers. He from the prelections of that distinguished philo- was then only sixteen years of age, yet he showed sophical grammarian, Dr. John Hunter, who was a taste and capacity for composition of the most then the chief ornament of St. Andrews Uni- glowing and eloquent kind. Even then, his style versity. “My first acquaintance with Dr. Chal- was very much the same as at the period when he mers,” writes the Reverend Mr. Miller," was in attracted so much notice and made such powerful November, 1791; when we entered the University impression in the pulpit and by the press.' of St. Andrews together. He was at that time For the cultivation of his talent for composition very young, and volatile, and boyish, and idle in he was largely indebted to debating societies formed his habits, and, like the rest of us in those days, among the students. During the session 1793–24, he had been admitted as a member of the Political After trying in vain to brook the indignities to Society; and on his entering the Divinity Hall in which he was subjected, Thomas Chalmers November, 1795, he was enrolled in the books of resigned his post, towards the end of the yearthe Theological Society.

1798. In the early part of 1799 he returned to He continued at St. Andrews University till he St. Andrews, and obtained a license to preach the was eighteen ; when he quitted it to take the office gospel as a probationer. of a tutor, being unwilling to remain longer as a burden to his father. His age, according to south

Some difficulties were raised against its being

received. He had completed his nineteenth year, ern notions, was juvenile, though not so in Scot- whereas presbyteries were not wont to take stuland; but he bore himself with dignity, and (what dents upon probationary trials till they had attained was harder for him) with temper, in a difficult the age of twenty-one. It happily occurred that position. The pupils were ten in number ; the one of his friends in the Presbytery fell upon the family had formed a low opinion of a tutor's old statute of the church which ordains" that) office; his predecessor had succumbed to their none be admitted to the ministry before they be estimate of himself, and had also curried favor twenty-five years of age, except such as for rare

and singular qualities shall be judged by the Genwith the ladies by allowing some improper indul- eral and Provincial Assembly to be meet and worthy gences to the pupils, which Chalmers was not the thereof." Under cover of the last clause of this person to do. The consequence was, a series of statute, and translating its more dignified phraseperty and irritating annoyances, which the youth-ology into terms of commoner use, his friend ful tutor thus sums up in a letter to his father-a pleaded for Mr. Chalmers' reception as “a lad prudent man, who seems to have feared that his o' pregnant pairts.” The plea was admitted ;

and, after the usual formalities, he was licensed as son's impetuosity was carrying hiin too far.

a preacher of the gospel, on the 31st July, 1799.

November 6, 1798. It was one of the tales of his earlier life which he Dear Father-I am sorry to think there is any- was in the habit in later years of playfully repeatthing in my last letter to make you suspect any im- ing, that such a title had been so early given to proper reserve on my part towards the family. I him, and such a dispensation as to age had been can assure you their conduct towards me is univer- granted. sally disapproved. I never have yet mentioned particulars to you ; but do you think I can feel

For some time the young candidate for the agreeably from being thought unworthy of supping ministry did little in the way of preaching. He in the same room with the family? My pupils went to Liverpool on a visit to one of his brothoften have this privilege when there is company, ers, who was in business at that place ; and whilst I, regarded as inferior to them, have supper there, or rather at Wigan on an incidental excurin my own room. I am sure they would consider sion, preached his first sermon. After some two themselves affronted if any persons in the town were years of mixed excursion and study, he became, to ask me along with them to their houses. I am in 1801, assistant-minister in the parish of Cavers. sometimes asked by myself, but never with the family. When there is company, I am on a very infe- He went through the duty properly and satisfacrior footing indeed. I have been frowned upon for torily; so much so, indeed, that in the year folspeaking, as if I were thought unworthy of joining lowing he was appointed minister of the parish in the conversation. To be sure, this does not give of Kilmany. But his heart was not altogether in offence in so high a degree when they are by them- his work; he panted after literary fame and selves ; but do you imagine that I am to take ad- academic distinction. In addition to his office in vantage of this privilege, as if I was glad of the the church, he became assistant to the Professor favor, and thought myself honored by their condescension? This is what the reserve I spoke of in of Mathematics at St. Andrews-rather with the my last letter chiefly consists in. I would never misgivings of his father ; but for some years it allow myself to do anything rude, to give a morose was a maxim with Thomas that the parish duty and uncivil answer, or fail in any of the attentions of a minister could be discharged in two days of which common discretion or common politeness each week. In his mathematical teaching he was required. I know that there are some people who, as original as in everything else. He sought to impetuous about trifles, take fire at every little thing, and make a great fuss about their dignity and stimulate the attention of his pupils by enforcing their respect. But I would ever distinguish be- the utility of mathematics, and the certainty of tween such a silly, contemptible dignity, and that their attainment by diligence, in a style so rich dignity which is never offended but when it has just and copious as to alarm the professor. That grounds of offence; and though I have a strong facundia, coupled with a misunderstanding on a feeling of such a distinction, yet I don't feel that it public day, in which the copia verborum of Chalis incumbent on me to speak, when by so doing I am exposed to careless, neglectful answers, and would mers was used in something like defiance of the show that I gladly catch at the honor of their con authorities, caused his dismissal. This looked versation. My present treatment has given me a

like tyranny to the pastor of Kilmany—a thing disgust at the situation of a tutor. I can assure he conld never away with ; he also thought it an you that my place at present is not nearly so eligi- attempt to monopolize education ; and he deterble or respectable as ihe schoolmaster's at Anster.mined to beard the lions in their dens, by starting I know that I could be in that situation ; but I know a rival course of mathematical lectures. The likewise that it would hurt you and my other friends, authorities, and the townsmen who depended on and I shall be far removed from you before I enter into such a situation.

the anthorities, were aghast at such audacity ; but I am yours affectionately,

some few patronized the opposition lecturer, and Thomas CHALMERS. had he persisted he might have done the antici pated mischief; but the dispute involved him in gospel. The idea of eternity was ever present to troubles and brawls, one of which he thus records his mind, as a motive principle of action ; not in his journal.

gloomily, but ardently and according to his genial I have certain information of Dr. R. giving the temperament. The energy which had hitherto impression that I broke faith with him.

diffused itself into many currents now flowed in Wednesday, Nov. 9.—Wrote yesterday to Dr. the channel of pulpit and practical devotion, R., respecting an impression he had given to my becoming deeper and stronger for the concentraprejudice. No answer to-day.

tion. But “ even in our ashes live their wonted Thursday, Nov. 10.- Received an evasive an- fires-he thought he might retain political swer from Dr. R. My reply sent back in an insulting manner, without any answer, though economy, as he somewhat naively writes in his opened, and with a message that he wished no journal. more lines from me.

Friday, Nov. 11.-Went to Dr. R. on the street August 21st.-Have conceived the idea of abanbetween ten and eleven, A. M., and said to him, that doning severe mathematics, and expending my I was sorry, from the proceedings of last night, to strength upon theological studies. Eminence in be under the necessity of pronouncing him the au

two departments is scarcely attainable. Let me thor of a false and impudent calumny: Called W. give my main efforts to religion, and fill up my V. to witness, arid repeated before him the same evenings with miscellaneous literature. The saert words. W. V. said that I ought to be prosecuted. fice is painful, but I must not harass and enfeeble Dr. R. left me in great agitation, saying, “ I will my mind with too much anxiety; and let me leave prosecute him.”

myself entire for all those discussions which are Monday, Nov. 14.—Heard James_Hunter say connected with the defence of Christianity, the exthat Dr. R. met him at twelve on Friday much position of its views, and the maintenance of its agitated. He said that I had called him a notorious interests as affected by the politics or philosophy liar, both to himself and in W. V.'s hearing of the times. The business of our Courts and the Hear of advice having been sent for to Edinburgh dignity of our Establishment will of course afford on the subject of me and Dr. R. in consequence of a most animating subject for the joint exercise of his having consulted the society.

speculation and activity. O my God, prosper me

in all my laudable undertakings, and let Thy glory When Chalmers had done enough for honor, and the good of mankind be the uttermost concern the versatility of his genius carried him to other of my heart. Political economy touches upon relig, studies. He gave a course of lectures on chem- ious establishments, and a successful or original istry, which excited so much attention and attained speculation in this department may throw an éclat so much popularity that they were repeated in over my ecclesiastical labors. several places : he entered upon geology, and at that early stage defended the science from the and extraordinary energy upon one subject, gave

The employment of his varied acquirements charge of infidelity brought against it-broadly Chalmers more fame than he might perhaps have laying down the rule, that “the writings of Moses do not fix the antiquity of the globe ; if they fix His reputation as a pulpit orator grew apace ;

acquired had he continued to disperse his powers. anything at all, it is only the antiquity of the while he had, in the Bible Society, the managespecies.” Chemistry and geology were followed

ment of the poor, and the public business of the by the study of botany and political economy: church, enough to give stimulus to his mind, and He was also involved in a practical and theoreti- to bring him before the public in a larger capaccal controversy. Some of the clergy of his ity than that of parish minister. The consePresbytery determined to proceed against him for

quence was, his removal to Glasgow, under cirnon-residence. The effort failed, and Chalmers was victorious ; having in the course of the dis- for he refused to give his friends a promise that

cumstances of great independence on his part ; pute published a pamphlet, which, after his con- he would accept if elected. He left the decision version, and he felt it his duty to treat others as

to “ the Lord" when the time came; though, we he had been treated, he tried to suppress.

His literary as well as his clorical reputation gradu- in favor of the great city. It was, however, a

suspect, with something of a foregone conclusion ally extended. He was engaged in one or two momentous decision, in which his friends and reviews ; he published a volume on political family had their say. His elder brother, James, economy; and he wrote the article “Christianity" who had settled in London and forsaken the Presfor Dr. Brewster's Encyclopædia. For eight or

byterian for the Episcopalian Church, addressed to nine years, however, his activity was out of relig- him a manly and sensible letter ; but could not ion. Deaths in his family, and a severe illness

the future in the instant"-he saw what which brought himself and death face to face, Mr. Chalmers was, not what Dr. Chalmers was to induced more serious thoughts. On his recovery be. he took new views of the sinfulness of man's nature and the necessity of justification ; but he

London, Nov. 26, 1814 only emerged into the meridian light of Evangel

Dear THOMAS-I am much concerned to learn ism after a mental struggle (in the beginning of that the allurements of the perishable mammon are which he thought grace mighi be dispensed with) likely soon to have an effect upon you, and make that endured from November, 1809, to December, quiet; but I still hope that you will look before

you resign all your earthly comforts and domestic 1810. Henceforth, literary and scientific fame you leap, and think better of the business before were subordinate to his efforts as a minister of the you accept of any nonsense that may be offered.

see

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