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operate so largely and so well as to get into the aries of officials should be partially reduced. The Gazette by energy and ingenuity. If he neglect stiff, formal gentlemen in the colonial office at home to sell well, his purchases will only hasten ruin. have taken offence at the “insolence" of mere A nation may commit a similar error, which will be planters, who dare to have an opinion of their own; attended by precisely similar results. A colony, and they consider their own honor committed 10 as the smaller and the weaker community, is cer- obtain the long salaries for their friends. The tain to feel soon and severely the evil consequences legislatures of iwo of the most important amongst of any selfish system of trade. Britain protected the West India colonies stopped the supplies. itself against its colonies from the selfish policy of They acted correctly, and in strict compliance with the landowners. All the rest of the world were the spirit of the British constitution. This pecuprotected against our colonies, because they be- niary quarrel is separate from the grand difficulty longed to Britain. Thus they languished, while in which we are placed with all our West India the tides of capital and emigration flowed rapidly colonies, between the desire to buy cheap on the from our shores into hostile lands.

one hand, and to be thought philanthropic on the Truth will prevail, but it may prevail too late. other. The Cape colonists have strenuously All shall revere truth, but the worship may be resisted, and completely defeated, the altempi offered when the temple is closed. A better pol- made to impose on them a consignment of crime, icy towards the colonies was at last devised. and an emigration of felons. They have decided , Something like justice was offered 10 Canada. that, if cheap labor should never be ubtained The offer was converted into a fact, and the reality amongst them, they shall at least have honest existed for one or two years. Then came the laborers in preference to scamps. The policy of famine ; next the great apostasy of Peel and his Earl Grey in this matter was entirely at variance party, as it has been termed, and as if Peel could with a distinct bargain. The African colony was commit political apostasy—a crime which would to be preserved pure and free from convict labor. imply the possession of a political faith, at some On that assurance, many individuals emigrated period, stronger than the expediency of the day. there who entertained conscientious objections 10 The country party had wasted their energies in the kind of society expelled from this country on nothing, and they were swept beneath the political account of their crimes. The recent effort, there

They became an old pattern, despised, fore, to change the character of the colony, was a unfashionable, and valueless. When requested to direct breach of faith with the emigrants and selregret their fall, we find the task extremely diffi- tlers, which they resisted—which some people cult. They do not appear to have owned large even allege that they were expected to resist, addhearts at any time. The grovelling vulgarity of ing that the scheme was devised to be opposed ; estimating all measures by their immediate profits but they belong to that class of hard thinkers who was introduced by them. The democracy of sometimes mistake fully for crime, and therefore Cromwell's time knew better, looked further, and look with jealous and suspicious eyes upon the grasped a wider range of thought than the Resto- conduct of men high in the colonial office. ration, or any party that has risen on and after the The colonies of Port Philip and South AusRestoration. A hundred John Hampdens would tralia have decided to present an opposition to save and reëstablish the power of England; but convict seulements not less determined than that her yeomen are depressed into tenants-at-will. of the African Boors. All the Australian culoNew measures were adopted, by which the colo-nies have quarrels with Earl Grey and his people nies were placed on the dead level of Cuba or the at home. Dr. Lang has, after a three years' Brazils ; while we found them governors, named sojourn in Great Britain, returned to New South their salaries, calculated the labor that they should Wales, breathing revolt, republicanism, and a have permission to buy, and refused them leave 10 president. He writes as if some strange thing enake greater purchases than the colonial office and had happened 10 him because he encountered short our own philanthropy deemed right. Abhorrence civility from Earl Grey. The Rev. Dr. Lang's of the slave trade, and the love of cheap sugar, parling words are more bitter than his reception made our legislature inconsistent. The desire for from the people deserved. They at least have not a benevolent character, and the avarice for low mocked his schemes, scorned his zeal and wrought prices, made thern unjust.

mischief to his projects. He came here avowedly We are now to state summarily those changes for the noblest ends that could lead a patriot travwhich have apparently become essential to the ex- eller over the ocean. He came to show in vainly istence of our colonial empire. The eye ranging toiling thousands at home a way to independence ; over it meets only one vast expanse of discontent, to our anti-slavery societies a means of throwing ripening into rebellion. The North American slave-grown cotton out of the market; to our provinces are dissatisfied, although the majority cotton-spinners a plan for increasing the supply of of their population still desire to maintain the raw material. He was heard. His letters were connection with this country. The West Indian read — his plans were partially adopted ; they were Islands are in a state of legislative revolt against followed by considerable enigration ; and Morethe government, on the shabby question of sala- ion Bay Colony promises soon to reach imporries. The planters have experienced a great tance, and 10 rise into an active, prosperous coundiminution of profits, and they expect that the sal- ) try in shorter time than even its senior colonies in

Australia have required to effect that purpose. I protective ring in this living empire, within which Therefore, we think that Dr. Lang's references to the erysipelatous affection which they madly cherBenjamin Franklin were not requisite embellish-ish in the outer regions shall not enter ? They ments in his farewell address to Earl Grey. He are still, we presume, prepared to protect the has not yet at least experienced the measure of brain and the heart; but of what value are the Benjamin Franklin's wrongs. The Australian centres of life if the limbs be chopped away? colonies have not quite the complaints to make The reasons why we want to extend and preserve that the New England States justly preferred the colonies are in number five, which might be without redress or sympathy in the maddened divided into numerous particulars, if that were parent land. We may even take care here that advisable and time permitted. they never shall have similar grievances, and never First; the empire should be maintained in its shall be publicly met with the same cool contempt integrity, for the promotion of those moral and when they come to state their wrongs. But Dr. religious ends that its existence may subserve ; for Lang is a man, with an active spirit, who makes, the maintenance of universal peace by the gradwe presume, a better hater than rightly becomes ually coming maturity of a power sufficiently the ecclesiastical character. He has been coldly strong, and perfectly willing, to enforce it everytreated by the colonial office. He thought that where, and not a vast power cramped up in a corthey needed advice there, forgetting that Earl Grey ner of the earth, so as to exercise no influence out must keep in his service a mesmeric familiar, who, of its immediate vicinity ; for the abolition of with the gift of clairvoyance, gives him a better slavery by the force of its example, and the vast acquaintance with the wants, the wishes, and the influence of its commerce ; for the elevation of the woes of all the colonists than they can themselves aboriginal tribes and nations of different lands by profess. A man's greatest difficulty is to know the rising strength of its philanthropy; for the himself; and the colonists, like other people, must maintenance of their rights and liberties, as in experience it. But Earl Grey's familiar knows the case of this Nicaraguan quarrel into which the everybody, and so far as he is concerned the diffi- United States threaten to throw themselves, for the culty disappears. Dr. Lang has, however, com- creditable purpose of stealing a river mouth and a menced his voyage home in very bad humor with few miles of coast from an Indian chief. These this country's representative, and unfortunately he are duties laid on us by our position-duties that will find many persons waiting him in a similar we have to perform in the sight of God and man spirit. At Ceylon we had a rebellion lately, and duties that we cannot devolve on others by any a number of persons were executed after its sup- act of our own, except on the principle that a chapression. In the Ionian Islands Mr. Ward has grined man may retire out of the world into a herestablished a character for the prompt hanging up mitage or a monastery, when he feels that his of the villains whom he catches. Our vast pos- merits have been neglected, or that his purposes sessions in the East Indies are spending at the have been crossed ; except on the principle that a rate of one million more per annum than their man somewhat wilder may say and believe of revenue. We have not heard of disturbances at Cato that he reasoned well, and act accordingly. Heligoland, but they may be anticipated.

“But," say the decompositionists, " we seek not This internal discontent must be subdued, not the destruction of this empire-we agitate not for by armies and fleets, but by fraternization and jus- its abolition-we are willing that it should remain tice. A gulf exists between us and a large party forever, or for all time; only we must be allowed in this country by whom the colonies would be to follow our own courses, although they should sacrificed, while by us they would be maintained lead to its demolition.” Just thus may the enemy and incorporated. This party is willing, very ap- have spoken by whom the tares were sown amongst parently desirous, to narrow our dominions within the wheat, even while engaged at, and if he had our central islands. Why they should restrain been seized in, the very act. He did not wish to their doctrine of decomposition at the English choke the wheat-he entertained no malice regardChannel, we cannot tell. Perhaps they are under ing its growth—he had no desire that it should no such restraint. The repeal of the union with not flourish to ripeness, and bring forth fruit ; but Ireland might yield them more pleasure than pain ; only he sought and seized permission to sow his and why should they stop there? Is there any own tares. The clear, logical powers manifested reason for refusing Scotland to the Scotch? Have in the composition of a little book, originating at the southern protective counties committed an un- Westminster, but taught nearly to all the children pardonable sin, that they should be forever chained of Scotland, have had a direct influence in formto the manufacturing districts of the north? Is ing the national character. The Assembly's the Heptarchy impossible ? Is there a line of de- shorter catechism says that the sixth commandmarcation drawn where decomposition must stop?ment not merely requires us not to kill, but also Have these gentlemen noticed the stern treatment to use all lawful means for preserving and extendof erysipelas? Have they seen a patient's skin ing the lives of ourselves and others. Suptattooed like a New Zealander's, to restrain the posing, therefore, that we hold ourselves bound, progress of this inflammation? Have they ob- for the reasons stated, not to lay violent hands on served that it is a painful process ? And have they the existence of the empire, we are equally bound prepared and damped their lunar caustic to burn a l not to be neutral, and equally constrained to use our efforts for its preservation and extension. Ilic debts they had no concern ; but the argument That is a strictly logical sequence of our passive will scarcely bear repeating, that whereas we duty not to destroy, which in its existence implies, allowed them to escape from their share, or their for it begets, the active duty to uphold.

fathers were allowed to evade their share, of the Second; we maintain the empire as a means of general responsibility by emigration, therefore reaching an object very dear to us, but one at pres- they should also abstract those means by which ent gradually eluding our grasp-namely, the fair we might be enabled to lighten their and our and free commercial intercourse of nations on responsibilities, laid now solely upon our enerequal and on just terms. We never have yet gies. The doctrine that the waste land of coloknown the powers of our great colonial connection nies is to be administered for the good of the colfor the expansion of trade. The peculiar value onies, is no better and no worse than another asserof our empire has never yet been grasped and tion, that they are entitled annually to a certain recognized by our keenest mercantile men. Other sum in exchequer bills, for no other reason than large empires, at different periods, have been that they are better off than their old neighbors at formed out of adjacent materials. The Roman home, in pecuniary affairs. Even this doctrine Empire, indeed, stretched over a great portion, and Inight have been tolerated in return for the advanthe best portion, of the world, as known at that tages to be found in free trade with any portion of time. But its objects and wants were so alien the world ; but now that the colonists are allowed from those which we entertain, that no comparison to impose heavy taxes on our goods, that argucan be formed between them. Modern empires, ment also is ended. The waste or unimproved and except our own, are crushed into a corner of the unallocated lands of the colonists belong to this earth. The Russian Empire stretches over a vast country. Our national debt was directly incurred and a valuable tract of land in Europe and Asia, in obtaining and preserving those possessions. and a comparatively small and valueless tract in The colonists may be able to do now without our America ; but it is all crushed together, neverthe- aid ; and at one time they would have been unaless, and what seems at first sight an element of ble. Their farms might have been cultivated, and conciseness and power, is a germ far more assur- their towns might have been built and inhabited ; edly of weakness and disunion. The United but not by or for them and theirs, without our aid, States of America comprise many different climates and without our expenditure in men and in money. in one large portion of a great continent; but the They cannot replace the men ; but neither can diversity is limited when compared with this em- they honestly seek to confiscate our security for pire. Our British union embraces specimens of the money towards their own private purposes. every soil and climate. It furnishes all the arti- This land becomes more valuable as the colonies cles that commerce knows. It may, by the com- advance ; and even yet, if put under good manbination of the capital, labor, and skill that we agement, a balance remains of great importance have in abundance, supply all that we can possibly and value. We may barter this claim for liberty require. Thus we have the nucleus of perfectly to trade, but we cannot be justly asked to barter it free trade-the lever that will move the world to for nothing. The property of our people at home adopt our principles, whenever we apply it; and has been cruelly absorbed in many ways, but in will secure, in the mean time, those advantages none more imprudently than in the grants and gifts and blessings for the attainment of which we have and jobbing of the colonial office. entered on this struggle. Therefore we would Fourth ; we would maintain the colonial conmaintain the colonial connection, as the means of nection for the good of the colonists. It must be attaining universal freedom of trade ; and, in the a mutual good, or soon be destroyed. Its capamean time, as the realization of free trade on a bilities, in this respect, are not even yet discovered. very large scale, on a larger scale than the world British capitalists want a safe investment for capihas ever yet known.

tal, and a safe investment is the thing which the The third reason is a matter of justice to the colonists want above all others to bring into the people of this country. The land of the colonies market. The colonists want to be freed from the not yet conceded belongs to them. It may be expense of inaintaining large armaments, and their called by any name, but it is theirs. For if they connection with the British flag renders that unor their fathers incurred debts, which they or their necessary. They require economy; and the finansons must pay, this land will undoubtedly become cial associations will aid, we hope, in obtaining valuable, and stand them as some security or sat- the boon. They require an invariably open marisfaction for the immense debt which they must by ket for the produce of their soil, and their industry ; some means meet and discharge. The colonists, and we offer them the largest in the world. They we know, are in the habit of regarding their claim are not yet, and they will not be in many ages, to the waste lands of the respective colonies good ; worse of the connection, in all their intellectual, while nothing, we believe, can be considered worse moral, and religious pursuits, which, judging upon a fair inquiry. These colonists originally from the States, are apt to become gross and matereceived conveyances of their own land at a cheap rial in new countries. To them the indirect benefits rate, or for nothing. The gift was a poor reason of this connection are greater than can be readily for claiming gratuitously other portions that they stated, and they desire its maintenance on fair terms. did not get. They may pretend that with our pub- The fifth exists in that not so easily definable reason which practical men refuse to reckon ; but, which he exists, by whose laws he is governed, which, nevertheless, has been at the heart of by whose power he dwells safely, and in whose more great deeds than any other principle ; a rea-counsels, directly or indirectly, he exercises an son that pervades all others, that may be esteemed influence. a prejudice, that has been termed patriotism, and The colonists must feel that the connection is that, in its numerous associations, has formed a good for them; and we must recognize it as good strong link between the colonists and the home for us, before its permanence can be secured. All country. Cosmopolitanism necessarily despises the legislative barriers that intervene between us this feeling. It professes antagonism to all narrow must be thrown down. Natural barriers are suffiviews of this nature. It rises superior to localities ciently obstructive, without the aid of those of art. and to attachments, by promising to enfold the No other tax must be allowed to exist on the world in the four corners of its ample mantle. trade between Nova Scotia and Ireland, or Jamaica, It is good for strong minds, for great, wide pro- or Australia, than exists in the trade between jecting souls, for spirits that penetrate over all Hampshire and Kent, or Sussex, or Somersetsublunary space, into all earthly crannies and shire. creeks, and look out as clearly on 2050 as on 1849. All advantages open to the people of the three These minds are rare, but haplessly they deem kingdoms must be made equally attainable by those themselves common currency, and quite plentiful. of Port Natal, of Barbadoes, or of Morelon Bay. They are to be met seldom, and yet when they In some professions obstacles come between an are met, we find them ever assuming the vulgar Irishman or a Scotchman and employment in Engattribute of being numerous. Their case is a land. One bishop lately assumed as a rule that phenomenon, for they repudiate their own great- education in Dublin university was not to be conness, which consists, like the preciousness of sidered equivalent to education at Oxford or Camdiamonds, in their rarity. Like diamonds, also, bridge. Medical instruction at Edinburgh, the they are clear, cold, hard, impenetrable. Their best medical school of the three kingdoms, is not, love is abstract and stern, like the beanties of an we believe, deemed sufficient to secure the concesiceberg; but, unlike icebergs, they never melt and sion of a license for English practice. Education thaw. By virtue of their vast theoretical expan- in any place should avail nothing ; knowledge is sion, they esteem themselves free from the minor the thing songht, and if it be attained at the falls duties, those scavengerings or sweepings of love of Niagara or on the banks of the Ganges, its posand kindness that fall within the compass of ordi- session should secure all the purposes that can be nary powers. Nero wanted to have one neck for served by the certificate, that a man spent so many all the Romans, that he might hang them on one years in a position where it might have been beam, or decapitate them by one stroke. Our secured. All monopolies are bad, but none are “strong minds” want one general receptacle for more insolently bad, or more eagerly maintained, humanity, on which they may administer their love than a monopoly of learning. If commerce should by one operation, to save time. Nero omitted to be free, assuredly knowledge should not be fetact out his principle. He did not wait for one tered. common neck to Rome ; but he went on decapi- The little hostile tariffs, built up like walls tating them singly as they stood. Cosmopolitans between different colonies, should be entirely should imitate Nero, and go forward by steps to abolished. The multitude of separate governorthe grand consummation of which now they dream. ships should be reduced. If one man may be The example is that of one who wrought well governor-general of India, another may take all the where they would do good ; but it is practical con- North American provinces. The means of comduct applied lo a different course. This fifth rea- munication should be zealously improved. Why, son for seeking the maintenance of the colonial for example, should the Halifax and Quebec railempire is but “ Jove of country,” and, however it way require years to arrange, or the East India may be explained, the nature cannot be criminal Company higgle for an equal period on their railwhich has in other times and circumstances led to ways, when the mere economy in the military the purest results.

department, by their use, would equal their entire The next inquiry is, What must be done : how cost in seven years? The negotiations of a colony must we act in order to attain this object? The with foreign powers should be strengthened by the ties that bind together all these distant communi- weight of the whole empire. The Canadas stand ties hang loosely, and they need to be tightened. alone in treating for a reciprocal treaty with the Loyalty is described as the pervading motive, the United States. Afford them the influence of the life and soul, of this empire. The golden link of empire, and this treaty will be signed and ratified the crown, said Mr. O'Connell, will connect us in 1850. But we have theories that must not be still. Few men knew better than Mr. O'Connell | louched, and to preserve them would sacrifice the that loyalty is the result of two operations. The facts that they represent-give the substance for duty depends on something to be done. It is a the shadow. It is laudable in the Canadas to principle called forth solely by a sense of benefits ask reciprocity from the states; it would be mean, received, either personally or collectively. It is pitiful, reäctionary, and retrogressive in us, to prethe attachment felt for the cause of order in society, sent the same request. To those who use this the homage rendered by man to that society in language we give a warning in the form of a ques

tion, Are you sure of your majority? We, who honestly oppose retrogression, think that majority doubliul. If Parliament were dissolved within six months, its existence would be endangered. It is reduced by all the elections that have occurred since the commencement of the recess. It would be reduced at present by very nearly all the members of your party in Ireland. What its fate might be in 1851, or in 1852, when the cabinet must come on the country, will depend on the seasons; but we would not have a great principle—the course of progress-dependent on the weather.

In the end, and before long, our representation must be increased ; the colonies must be represented by their own members in the imperial Parliament. But is that Parliament to manage the local affairs of one third of the globe? We think not, for it manages so badly the local business of three kingdums, that it had better not take more work of that nature. Our present position cannot be maintained. But two paths are open: we may go downwards into Great Britain and Ireland literally, and soon, probably, into Britain alone; or onwards to a great federative union. This is a revolution, the offspring of necessity, and not greatly to be regretted, for local business will be most economically arranged in local assemblies, and imperial affairs in the imperial Parliament. But will Africa, America, Australia, continue to send representatives here, when your colonies in these quarters of the world become great nations, comprising many millions of men ; conducting a vast traffic ; producing, with the leisure of wealth, ardent followers of literature, distinguished disciples of science, and statesmen of great and comprehensive information? They will, if these statesmen may be our rulers; if their science and their literature be a part of our own; if they come not only to be legislated for, but to legislate. And it follows, not because our population will expand, that ours will be stationary or decrease, as in the present year. A federative union of this nature will so extend commerce and production, that our population will continue to maintain its position towards the colonies ; and that the magnificent dream of making our islands the workshop and the warehouse of the world may be turned into a magnificent reality.

From the National Era.



Earthly arms no more uphold him;

On his prison's stony floor, Waiting death in calmest slumber,

Rests the great Mac-Cullum More! And he dreams a dream of boyhood,

Of his dear-loved Argyleshire, Of his bold, heroic clansmen,

Of his plumed and plaided sire.

Once again, with pulses beating,

Hears the wandering minstrel tell
How Montrose, on Inverary,

Thief-like from his mountains fell.

Now he stands, in plaid and bonnet,

In the grim and sombre hall,
And again the ruddy firelight

Sees he on the armor fall.
Down the glen, beyond the castle,

Where the Linn's white waters shine,
He, the heir of haughty Argyle,
Meets young

Effie of Loch Fine-
Effie, with her snooded tresses,

And her timid eye of blue,
At the gloaming, to her trysting,

In the bracken valley true!
Now he hears a sad lamenting-

Harpers for his mother mourn,
As, with floating plume and pinion,

To the burial cairn she's borne.
Then, anon, his dreams are darker-

Sounds of battle fill his ears,
And the pibroch's mournful wailing

For his father's fall he hears.

Wild Lochaber's mountain echoes

Wail in concert for the dead,
And Loch Awe's hoarse waters murmur

For the Campbell's glory fled.
Fierce and bold, the godless tyrants

Trample the apostate land,
While her poor and faithful remnant

Wait for the Avenger's hand.
Once again at Inverary,

Years of weary exile o'er,
Armed to lead his scattered clansmen,

Stands the bold Mac-Cullum More !

Once again to battle calling,

Sound the war-pipes through the glen,
And the court-yard of Dunstaffnage

Rings with tread of armed men.
All is lost! the godless triumph!

And the faithful ones and true,
From the scaffold and the prison,

Covenant with God anew.

On the darkness of his dreaming,

Great and sudden glory shone;
Over bonds and death victorious,

Stands he by his Father's throne.
From the radiant host of martyrs,

Notes of joy and praise he hears,
Songs of his poor land's deliverance,

Sounding from the future years.
Lo! he wakes! but airs celestial

Bathe him in immortal rest;
And he sees, with unsealed vision,

Scotland's cause with victory blest.
Shining hosts attend and guard him,

As he leaves his prison door ;
And to death, as to a triumph,
Walks the great Mac-Cullum More !

E. H. W.. Amesbury, 12th month, 1849.

The unfortunate Duke of Argyle, who shared the disastrous defeat of Monmouth, under James II., was found sleeping by the officers who came to lead him to the scaffold.

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