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men fitted and equipped for the times in that unity which characterises it in its which we live. May he long and success- great features through the whole race. fully labour in training up a sturdy race of The moral law is God's law; and sin, therepastors for the Congregational churches of fore, is not simply transgression of law, but Scotland.
also rebellion against God.
And now comes up the question, What is TAE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF Sin, ex
the true constituent principle of the moral hibited by Dr Julius Müller, ordinary law? Why are some things made to apProfessor of Theology in the University pear right to the human spirit, and some of Halle-Wittenberg. Translated from things wrong? Many answer, God's will the German of the third improved and
is the ultimate principle. This is ably conenlarged edition, by William Puls
troverted. For on this principle it would follow, that if God had chosen to issue
other commands than He has done, what is Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark.
now right might have been wrong, and Tais is a work of very decided excellence. what is wrong might have been right. It is constructed upon the principle of Hatred might have been made the essence speculatively determining, by à considera- of duty. Others have said, that what leads tion of the elements of human and Chris- to enjoyment and happiness is on that tian consciousness, what is the true nature account moral, thus making utility the of sin; and it brings its conclusions to the standard of virtue; but this idea is also test of Scripture at every step, renouncing controverted, and it is shown that the them when a basis cannot be found for moral is a higher principle than the useful, them there. To the practical and Baconian - that happiness does not constitute mominds of British readers, this may appear rality, but springs from it. Where, then, a circuitous and dangerous course. But lies the ground-principle of the moral ? It in these days, when Pantheistic and infidel is traced up, not to the will of God, but to notions are so prevalent, though it may the understanding of God, or rather to his satisfy men who are already Christians tó essential nature. He is the absolute good. develop the doctrine of sin from Scripture, All creatures depend upon Him, and all yet a different method is required in order intelligent creatures, by their origination to do battle successfully with the enemies from Him, are bound to recognise Him as of the Gospel. It is of importance that the Alone Sovereign. The principle of the true character of sin, and the need of right, therefore, is recognition of God, and an expiation, be established on grounds wilful subjection to his authority. The which the men of the world cannot con- principle of evil is disregard of God, and sistently dispute. And certainly the work the substitution of something else in his before us handles this difficult subject in room as the chief good. Now what is that the most masterly style. Its investiga- other thing which the sinner puts in the tions are profound and searching. It is room of God? Not a few answer, the pervaded by a spirit of deep moral earnest- creature. And that is quite true ; but it is ness. The author is a man of warm piety; not the creature on its own account, but and his sympathies are all engaged on the the creature viewed in its bearing, upon side of the pure Gospel of Christ, as the the sinner himself. The ground-principle only hope to this fallen world.
of sin, therefore, is the substitution of self First of all, sin is viewed as transgression in the room God. The sinner make of law. The human spirit at the dawn of himself the centre of his thoughts and conconsciousness becomes sensible of obliga- cerns, and other things are valued on action, and begins to feel that some things count of their connection with him, or their ought to be, and that some ought not. Yet subserviency to his enjoyment. Selfishness often it consciously determines in favour is the essence of sin. Subordination of of those which it feels ought not to be; and self to God is the essence of morality. this is a disturbance of the moral life, and And thus it appears, " that sin cannot be à sense of demerit ensues. The question regarded merely as disorder in the outward next presents itself, whence comes this sphere of life,-an impurity to be shaken off law that binds the Spirit ? The idea of like the dust from our feet,—but must be Kant’s autonomy of the will is here con- looked upon as
a positive disturbance, sidered, and most ably refuted ; and it is which has penetrated down into the very shown, that the thing the spirit feels bound core of life” (p. 138). An able analysis is to, cannot possibly come from itself, nor given of all the different forms of sin ; and from the collective determinations of all it is shown clearly how they spring out of human beings, but must come from the this radical principle. will of a perfectly holy and all-powerful The author next takes up the question Being. Were the law in the heart a self- where the blame of sin lies. Here the imposed law, it could not possibly have nature of the creature's dependence upon
the Creator is handled at great length, and of it would prove sin to be absolutely unthe deduction which has been wickedly avoidable- a necessary condition of all drawn from this dependence, that God creatures—and therefore not sin at all. himself is the source of sin, seeing that his And in another view it would merely show sustaining power is requisite to every that the creature is capable of sinning, but effort, is opposed and refuted with great would not account for the actual fact of earnestness and most triumphant success. his falling into sin. Another extensively Man sins in the exercise of bis own free prevalent idea has been, that sin takes its will, and in sinning he feels that he him. rise in the sensational part of our nature, self alone is to blame. God, through the as opposed to the spiritual. But though instrumentality of conscience, holds him many forms of sin manifest themselves back and warns him of his danger, and yet through the sensations of the body, yet it he will do what he feels to be wrong, and is not in the body that sin takes its rise and what he knows he should avoid. Guilt is has its seat, but it is in the mind and heart. the blameworthiness consequent upon the Sin uses the body simply as its instrument. commission of sin, and punishment is the This sensational theory implies that there return whieh it merits. Punishment is a could be no sin among finite spirits existing moral necessity in government. God's without bodies. But do not the Scriptures authority must triumph. It triumphs in lead us to believe that there is a virulence the voluntary submission of the creature. of wickedness in the fallen angels far tranBut it is not defeated by the creature's scending the ordinary wickedness of man rebellion. It manifests its unconquerable in this world? This sensational theory majesty in his punishment. For the sinful would also imply that the greatest wickcreature to escape punishment, would be edness must exist in childhood, when the tantamount to God's abdication of authority. spirit is comparatively feeble, that it must The Divine law must maintain its dignity. become less in manhood when the spirit is The author regards it as a very unfavour- fully developed, and that it must fade away able symptom of the present times, that in old age, when the body becomes weak there is so prevalent à disposition to set more rapidly than the mind. aside the idea of punishment as punishment, Other theories are discussed by the auand to look upon it simply as the means of thor, such as that evil exists simply to be reclaiming offenders. Chastisement looks overcome and to serve as a kind of gymnato the restoration of the culprit ; but sium to the creature, that it exists as the punishment concerns itself only with the means of securing a bigher harmony, as majesty of the law. Those who are not a discord is sometimes intentionally inbenefited by chastisement, are in the end troduced in music, and also that it is a given over to punishment agreeably to dualistic principle necessarily standing over Paul's distinction: we are chastened of the against the good, and existing, therefore, Lord that we should not be condemned from eternity, agreeably to the old Persian with the world. “As to the Divine punish- and Manichaean notion. These systems are ment, its real design can so much the less carefully weighed in the balance of a be the improvement of the punished, since sound judgment, and are all found to be this indeed is just the end of redemption. wanting. The next volume will exhibit If punishment were means adapted to this the author's own views of this dark and end, redemption would not be requisite; perplexing problem, which has engaged or rather, inversely, if this end is to be at- the thoughts of countless multitudes in all tained by redemption, what purpose is to ages. be answered by severe means of punish- This work will amply repay perusal. ment? Or are we thus, perbaps, to con- Yet to be read with proit, it must be read ceive of the relation, that, where redemp- with uncommon attention. Many of the tion is not able to effect the improvement forms of thought
will appear strange to an of man, he must be brought to this end by English reader. The translation follows the means of punishment? But then it would German mode of exhibition far too closely follow that punishment is a more powerful It has but little of the air of an English means of regeneration than redemption. book, which may be accounted for from And if punishment renovates, how is it pos- the fact of the translator residing for sible that its removal, viz., redemption, also three years on the Continent. To translate renovates!"-P. 262.
a German book well is an exceedingly difThe volume closes with an examination ficult task. The beau ideal of a translaof the theories that have been formed re- tion is, that it should exhibit every thought garding the origin of sin as an existing and shade of thought in the original fact. Leibnitz traced it to the necessary with fidelity, and yet that the style limitation of the creature, to his meta- of the translation should be so thoroughly physical imperfection. He is a finite being, English, that the reader will not be sensiand not God. But this theory in one view ble he is reading a translation. To approximate in any good degree to this end, great labour. We have tested several of not only must there be a perfect know- the ecclesiastical and moral statistics, and ledge of both languages, but a great amount discover a satisfactory accuracy. The local of labour must also be bestowed. The details are often very curious and amusing. translation before us has decidedly too much The utility and interest of the volume merit, of a German hue. You never lose the and, we doubt not, will command for it an feeling that you are reading a German extensive circulation. In commending the production. The sentences all run in execution of the work, as far as concerns German moulds.
Vacillating to the last the learned author, we should not omit to degree, Baur expresses himself on this sub- notice, approvingly, that of the letter press. ject," p. 344, a good sentence in German where the adjective and the adverb are the
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, the History of a same in form, but the English idiom required a different shape. “ Derselbe," denotes
Christian Slave. Twelve Illustrations “same,” but “ derselbe” occurs in German
by Anelay. in multitudes of cases wbere we cannot
London : Partridge & Oakey. with any propriety translate it by “same A NEAT and elegant library edition of this in English. ‘Yet Mr Pulsford seems to famous book. The illustrations are exhave supposed that closeness of rendering quisite, both in conception and execution. required this word to be always used ; and A powerfully-written preface, dated at many sentences are thus made heavy and London, introduces the work to English obscure. “However, it will be later shown, readers, and tears to rags the sham apolothat with respect to these passages of Scrip- gies sometimes heard among us in defence ture, an entirely different conception is the of slavery:one more thoroughly founded in the same.”
“ Good easy Christians, with pouches well -P. 244. Why not say “in them ?” or
lined, sleek-haired and double-chinned, comthat the passages referred to express a very
fortable in their high-backed chairs after different idea.
dinner, talked learnedly of "slavery in the We conclude with repeating that this abstract. It is an ancient custom, forsooth work deserves a careful study. And we -an institution of antiquity-a mysterious look forward with high expectation to the dispensation of Providence, with which they appearance of the second volume.
are cautious of interfering--the time of deliverance is not yet come, etc., etc. Worthy
sirs, have the goodness this once to lay your AN ABRIDGED STATISTICAL HISTORY OF
abstract notions aside for a small space of SCOTLAND, arrar ged Parochially, with
time, and taking this book in your hand, look Biographical, Historical, and Descriptive at the thing in reality. Make acquaintance Notices. By James HYOPER DAWSON, witb Uncle Tom'and his fellou-sufferers of Esq., of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at- both sexes; and having done so, reading Law. 1853. Pp. 1088.
candidly to the end, ask yourselves how,
being Christians, you would like to fulfil the Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars.
Christian law, and bear your brother's burTag Statistical Account of Scotland pub- den? Will you volunteer to be separated lished by Sir John Sinclair, was a valuable and sold away from your wife of twenty or and important work. The new account thirty years? Your handsome and accompublished within the last twenty years was
plished daughter; shall she be bartered for a great improvement upon it. But, how- dollars, and paired with a slave to breed ever excellent, both were too voluminous
slaves ? Yon prattling 'six years' darling of and costly for general use.
a pigmy size,' shall he be thrown in as makework, in one volume, not only comprises weight, to complete some infernal bargain
that traffics away the lives and liberties of the principal statistics these supplied at
your housebold? Oh, dear no,' say, you ; their respective periods, brought down to • anything but that.' In a word, you have a the present time, but it furnishes a variety decided objection to participate in that sort of valuable and interesting information of burden; and you have a secret conviction, they did not embrace, and is an essentially which is the true one, though it is not connew and much more useful work, “illustra- venient to express it, that the law of Christ tive of the physical, industrial, moral, and never contemplated ary such burden to be social aspects of Scotland, and of its civil
borne by anybody. You are quite right and religious institutions.” It is such a
there: the thing is intolerable, and not to be
borne: but if not by you, then not by any book as was needed for handy reference
man or woman either; and not by your dark. on these points, and will be prized not
skinned brother from Africa more justly than alone by the politician and philanthropist, by you, your matronly lady-wife, your accombut by the intelligent of every class. It is plished daughter, or that bounding child, characterised by care, impartiality and whose merry laugh is your heart's music.”
Intelligence.—United Presbyterian Church.
midst of a large mixed population. By bis Berwick. The presbytery met on Tues- readiness to aid every means of promoting day, 5th April. Several petitions were general improvement, and by his wise, prepared for the approaching meeting of peaceful, and conciliatory deportment, he Synod. The following presbyterial visita- secured the sympathy and good will of all tions were appointed_Messrs Glover and classes, and commended both himself perMontgomery to visit the congregation of sonally and the society be represented, to Coldingham on 23 June; Messrs Muirhead universal favour and respect. A most and Anderson to visit the congregation of gratifying evidence of the esteem in which Mr Ker in Dunse on 7th July; Messrs he was held, was evinced in the common Ritchie, of Berwick, and Young to visit the sorrow of all classes expressed on the event congregation of Mr Ritchie in Dunse on of his removal. As a friend, they have 7th July ; Dr Thomson and Mr Pearson experienced great private kindness from to visit the congregation of Stockbridge on their late brother. Though naturally cool, 7th July; Messrs Peden and Mearns to and entirely free from ostentation, he visit the congregation of Mr Stark, Ayton, gained and preserved the confidence of his on 28th July; and Messrs Ritchie, of brethren. They felt that they possessed in Dunse, and Cairns to visit the congregation him a friend who took a sincere interest in of Mr Montgomery, Ayton, on 28th July. their welfare, and gave evidence of his The next ordinary meeting of presbytery readiness to make personal and domestic was fixed for Tuesday, 7th June.
sacrifices for their convenience and comCarlisle.—This presbytery met at Car- fort. In all their social intercourse with lisle on the 29th March-the Rev. Peter him they felt themselves at home. His Carruthers, moderator. The Rev. Richard labours in the cause of the church were Hunter, Carlisle, having been removed by assiduous and disinterested. To him, in a death, his name was taken from the roll. special degree, the Presbyterian congregaIt was stated by the moderator that on the tions in the whole north of England stand day of the funeral of their late brother, the indebted for permanent and substantial members of presbytery present had assem- advantages. On bim, in consequence of bled in the church, and recommended that the office he held as clerk, the chief busithe Rev. Dr Thomson, the old and intimate ness of the presbytery devolved ; and his friend of Mr Hunter, should preach his caution and consideration, his experience funeral sermon, and declare the congrega- and business habits, enabled him to con. tion of Carlisle vacant, on Sabbath, the duct it with prudence, care, and success. 13th March-to which Dr Thomson con- The presbytery, in recording their sorrow sented. Also, that Dr Thomson, along for the loss sustained, desire to say, 'The with the Rev. George Chapman, should will of the Lord be done. Even so, Father, prepare a statement to be inserted in the for so it seemeth good in thy sight.' They minutes of presbytery, in reference to the also express their sympathy with the con-loss sustained in the removal, by death, of gregation and family of their esteemed their esteemed brother. The presbytery brother under this bereavement.” The approved of their transactions. The Rev. presbytery, after appointing Messrs CarPeter Carruthers was then unanimously ruthers and Craig to appear as their reprechosen clerk, and Mr Chapman was elected sentatives in the Synod's committee of moderator for the next twelve months. It bills and overtures, adjourned, to meet at was agreed that the following tribute of Wigton on the last Tuesday of June next. respect to the memory of the late Mr Edinburgh. The ordinary monthly meetHunter be inserted in the minutes :—“On ing of this presbytery was held on 5th April. this the first meeting after the decease of the resignation of the Rev. Mr Semple of the Rev. Richard Hunter, the presbytery Peebles was accepted, and the charge deregard it as a duty to record in their clared vacant. The Rev. Mr Livingston of minutes their deep sense of the loss sus- Musselburgh laid on the table his resignatained by his death. They have many tion of Mill-hill congregation, of which he strong reasons for leaving on record a warm has been pastor for sixteen years. This expression of respect for the memory of step he took, he said, in consequence of the their departed brother. He was endowed congregation not having been able for some with those gifts and qualities which emi- years back to make an adequate provision nently fitted him to commend true godli- for his support, and there being no reasonness to the favourable regard of the whole able prospect of improvement in this recommunity, in the midst of which his spect. He felt the step to be a painful charge was situated. He possessed the one, and hoped the congregation might yet
enjoy a large amount of prosperity. He ness of a minister in the bounds, the presalso expressed the high esteem in which he bytery agreed to supply his pulpit for two held the members of presbytery. This Sabbaths. The presbytery agreed to petiresignation the presbytery directed to be tion Parliament against university tests in intimated to the congregation, that they Scotland, and ordered a petition to be might appear for their interests at next drawn up and sent to the Lord Advocate. meeting. The presbytery then proceeded The clerk was instructed to write to absent in private to consider a case brought up by members who had not made the collection appeal from one of the sessions in Edin- for the liquidation of debt fund ordered by burgh. — An adjourned meeting of this the Synod. It was agreed to overture the presbytery was held on 12th April. The Synod as to the propriety of increasing the proposed demission of his pastoral charge salary of the librarian, that he may have by Mr Livingston, of Mill-hisl congregation, remuneration for his faithful services. Mr Musselburgh, was taken into consideration. Andrew Wilson, student of divinity, deliThe congregation appeared by their com- vered a sermon, which was unanimously missioners, who laid on the table a resolu- sustained. He also read Hebrew, Greek, tion adopted by their constituents. In said and Latin to the satisfaction of the presbyresolution no objection was stated to the tery: Next ordinary meeting is to be held demission being accepted, but it set forth on the first Tuesday of June,
and an interin strong terms the confidence of the con- vening one in the library hall, after the Sygregation in the Christian character of nod evening sederunt, on Tuesday 3d May. their minister, and their sorrow because of Glasgow.—The ordinary monthly meethis separation from them, and announced ing of this presbytery was held on Tuesday, that they had provided a testimony of re- 12th April, in Greyfriars' Church Session spect and sympathy for him in the prospect House-the Rev. Dr Lindsay, moderator. of his retirement. The presbytery found A letter was read from the Home Mission themselves necessitated to accept of the Board, stating that the board had agreed demission, but, unanimously and cordially to give a grant of L.30 annually to the concurring in the estimate of Mr Living- congregation of Oban, in the event of that ston's character embodied in the resolution congregation obtaining a fixed pastor. Mr of the congregational meeting, appointed a M-Gill reported that he had fulfilled the committee of their number to take measures appointment of presbytery in reference to that, in conjunction with the congregation the mission station in Main Street, Gorbals, of Mill-bill, the other congregations within under the charge of the Rev. Mr M‘Crae, the bounds, may have opportunity of tes- and that sixty persons had been admittifying regard and affection for him and his ted to membership. Two overtures to family. Members were elected to repre- the Synod were presented and read-one sent the presbytery in the Synod's Com- from Mr Henry Chalmers, elder in Mon. mittee of Bills and Overtures, viz., the Rev. trose Street congregation, having reference Dr Harper and Rev. William Reid, with to the incongruity of spirit dealers holding Messrs Robert Mathie and W. M'Intosh, the office of the eldership—the other from elders. The Synod's remit as to congrega- Mr J. Mitchell, a member of Cathedral tional finance was considered, and a com- Street congregation, having reference to mittee appointed to ascertain the regulations that part of the Confession of Faith which upon this subject, by which the various relates to the law of marriage. After hearcongregations in the bounds are guided. ing parties, the presbytery, without conThe overture as to the better support of curring in the opinion expressed in either the Gospel Ministry was also reviewed, overture, agreed to transmit both. It was when the presbytery agreed to report that next agreed to petition in favour of the L.150 per annum should be the minimum Public Houses (Scotland) Bill, and, after stipend aimed at, to approve of the con- the transaction of some routine business, tinued circulation of tracts on the subject, the presbytery adjourned. as also of the various suggestions proposed Hamilton. This court met in Brandon by the Committee of Synod entrusted with Street Church Session-House, on the 29th the matter, and to recommend the con- March-Rev. D. Laughland, moderator, tinued direction and support of the scheme The Rev. Mr Struthers and the moderator, to the Supreme Court.
according to appointment, led the devoFalkirk.—The united presbytery of Fal- tions of the presbytery, with a special refer. kirk met on the 5th April—the Rev. Mr ence to the revival of religion among themGardiner, Kincardine, moderator. Mr selves and the churches under their care. Steel called the attention of the presbytery Mr Struthers again brought the scholarship to the scholarship scheme, when the pres- scheme before the presbytery, when they bytery most cordially entertained it, and enjoined the different congregations to act agreed to do all in their power to obtain in this matter, and report their collections contributions. In consequence of the ill- or subscriptions for the same at next meet