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export fifty tons of ale called Beer. Such, Mr. Editor, is all the informaWhether we are to understand, by this tion I can at present afford your correfingular expression, that ale and beer werer Ipondent: unless a remark or two upon then distinguished as at present, on ac- the price of beer at different periods, be count of the larger portion of hops with added. which the latter is supplied, seems doubt At a dinner of the Salters' Company,
in 1506, a kilder kin of ale cost 25. zd. In the Domesday Survey, beer, brew Among the dilbursements of the Priory ers, malt and brewing, frequently occur; of St. Mary Huntingdon toward the close aud in one of the inquisitions it is stated of Henry the 8th's reign we have braziabat cujuscunque uxor, x«. that is, « Irem, for a doz. and a half of good thai, " from every man whole wife brew ale, agenst the comyng of the 3 ed, the fuperior lord received ten pence : ' visitors of our religion but I have found no mention of any thing “ Item, for so doz. and of good which an antiquary could interpret hops. ale, agenit the visitation of my 15 I have seen many books of receipts and
Lord of Lyncoln." payments, belonging to the religious of At a dinner of the Stationers' Company the middle ages, but do not recollect a July 5, 1558, a barrel .of beer had got single instance of their use. The Northum- up to 4s. &d.; and in an inventory of the berland Houshold book, however, from Stock in Trade belonging to the Mouth 1512 to 1525 bas a particular mention Tavern, Bishopfgate, 1612,
we find of bops for breuing, which seems to con “ Two duslen and 8 bottles of ale recktradict the old received account, that oned at no less than 5s. 8d. hops and heresy came into England in I wish your correspondent success ia the same reign : fee Baker's Chronicle, his researches, and am, Mr. Editor, his among the casualties of Henry the 8th's and your obedient Servant, reign, viz.
A PORTER-DRINKER. " About the 15th of Henry viii. it happened that diverse things were brought into England, wliere upon this shime was made:
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
SIR, Turkies, Carps, Hopps, Piccarell and Beere,
T is rather surprising, considering the Came into England all in one Year.”
This perhaps may relate only to the paid to the productions of Nature, that cultivation of hops, when they were first our knowledge on this subject fhould still planted in England, though the produce be in many instances very superficial and might be imported before from Flan- imperfect. A thorough acquaintance ders.
wiih che structure or composition of naThe brewing of beer, however, is the tural bodies requires much laborious insubject of an entire section in the book I vestigation, and must long, perhaps to have just mentioned, an extract from the end of the world, continue defective; which, as a few copies of the work were but the history of the more sensible qualiprinted only by the duke of Northumber- ties of animals, vegetables, or minerals, land, may be acceptable.
and of the various circumstances atiend. “ A Brewyng at Wrefill
ing them, which requires only attentive Fyrfe, paide at Wrelill for vi. quarters of observation, it might have been presumed Malle afcir vs. the quartir xxxS.
would have rapidly improved, and readily Item puide for vi lb. of Hopps for the faide disentangled ittelf froin any errors whici brewynge aftir 1d ob. the lb ixd.
inight have been adopted in its infancy. Len paide for y score Faggites for the saide That this has been the case in a great brewynge aftir v Faggotts 1d, ande after iis. degree, cannot be denied ; some of the the C.-xx.
many falli:ies respecting different subjects Summa, xxxijs. vd.
of natural history which formerly passed Whereof is made xii hoggeledes of beyr; current, have appeared too extravagant every bogelhede contenynx, xlviii gallons for modern credulity, such as the ancient which is in all cccciiii xxxvj gall. aftir ob.
accounts of the Dragon, Phoenix, Unie qu, the gall. Save iiis, vid, les at all
corn, Mermaid, and other fi&titious anja Xxxiis, v4."
mals, whose existence, had it been real, Wrehill was one of the duke of North. must have been long since ascertained; umberland's castles, fituated in Yorkshire, the Lynx and the Sulaman der have been which lost its splender in the civil found wholly devoid of the wonderte
qualities ascribed to them, and the it. ry
respecting the Pelican may be pronounced been obtained, except an account which a wilful misrepresentation. But if these appeared in the newspapers of August accounts have at length been discarded, *1786, the authenticity of which is very we are not without modern wonders of doubtful. a very fimilar nature; it is not many In some instances, the love of wonder years since astonishment was excited by has engrafted on real peculiarities much the descriptions given of the Barnacle imaginary fingularity, as in the accounts, Goofe, the Agnus Scythicus,or Plant-animal, which have been given of the Camelion, and of that enormous mass of animal the Cookoo, the Elephant, and the fafcin. materials the Kraken. The Barnacle ating power ascribed to Serpents. We Gnofe is a large sea-fowl, which it was are by no means to discard such accounts afferted, was produced, not from the egg as unworthy of examination because they of its own species, like all other birds, contain a large portion of the marvellous ; but from a linall shell-filh of the multió for though an 'apparent departure froin valve kind. Da Coita in his Natural Hif- the usual ceconomy of nature should extory of British Shells, noticing this strange cite our caution, it will by no means conceit, believed not only by the com warrant a hafty conclusion that it cannot monality, but even by learned naturalists, be true; so far as competent testimony or gives an instance in our countryman fair realoning leads us we ought willingly Gerard : he firmly believed it, by facts to go, but the moment thele guides forwhich he says came within his own know. fake us, we should stop, and confider ledge, and after reciting the story in a whether it is not better to fufpend our circumstantial manner, gravely ends his judgment than to risk adopting an error. narrative in the following words, “ for Had these principles been adhered to, the truth hereof, if any doubt, may it the animals juft mentioned would probaplease them to repair unto me, and I bly not have acquired so much celebrity.shall satisfie them by the testimonie of Let us examine their pretensions' to it. good witnesses;” but though firmly be- The Camelion was said to live on air; but lieved by great numbers, the story is on dissection of foine of them, their ttonow well known to be totally unfounded. machs have been found full of small The Agnus Scythicus, or Plant-animal, insects. Another quality ascribed to this was said to grow in Tartary. It was creature was that of changing at pleaproduced from a seed resembling that of sure the colour of its coat instantaneously: the melon, and grew to about the height this, however, is only true in a very liof three feet, having feet, hoofs, ears, mited degree; they certainly have the and the whole head excepting horns, power of dilating and contracting their resembling a Lamb. When wounded, a ikin, which may cause some alteration in liquor oozed out like blood, and it lived its hue, as may also removal from suna as long as there was grass or herbage shine to shade ; it may likewife affume a around it; but when these were consumed, different appearance when the creature is it wasted and died. The wolves were irritated or frighted, as we see in the very fond of it, &c. Two or three flesny appendage of a Turkeys neck, and naturalists have written seriously on this even in fome degree in the human counsubject; the creature has been shown in tenance, but beyond this it appears not different museuns; and á figure of it is to polless any peculiar qualities. Of the given in one of the early volumes of the Cookoo we are told, that when the breed. Philofophical Tranfa&tions. It is scarcely, ing teason arrives, it seeks for the neft vecessary to add, that the inquiries of of a Yellow Hammer, a Hedge Sparrow, travellers concerning it have been fruit. or other small bird, and taking a proper leis. The Kraken has been described opportunity of the absence of the legal as an animal of a crab-like form ; its proprietor, it devours or destroys the back or upper part, when it rises in the eggs it finds, and lays one of its own in water, being at least a mile and a half in their room, which is hatched by the bird circumference, and its horns sometimes to whom ihe nest belonged, who rears the appearing as high and large as the mafts young Cookoo as its own offspring : other of middle-sized vessels. It has been sup- accounts include more extraordinary cirposed that if it were to take the largest cumstances, but they are so contrary to man of war in its arms or claws, it would all that is known of 'orher species of the pull it down to the bottom. The sup- feathered tribe, that, notwithitanding they poled existence of this creature rests on have of late been attested by some relpec the authority of Bishop Pontoppidon, as, table authorities, I cannot avoid lurpedifince his time, no further particulars have ing that when we are in possession of
nuore full and decisive evidence on the in form, and of which many more might subject, some of the particulars will be have been readily found in almost any of 'found erroneous.
The Elephant, it was our chalk-pits. This reputed concretion alerted, would never couple in a state of of lightning, or caput mortuum of the domesticity. This was 'afcribed to the explotion, or whatever else it was conmolt elevated sentiments, which, could ceived to be, was not, however, always a they be proved, would indeed place this finty substance ; the Philosophical Transanimal far above the level of the com- actions for 1738 contain an account of a mon nature of brutes. Buffon obferves, small ball of fulphur found after a storm " that to be agitated by the most ardent in the Isle of Wight, and supposed to desires and to deny themselves the fatis have been generated in the air. But we faction of enjoying thein; to love fue well know the discharge of a thunders riously and preserve modeity, are perhaps cloud has no tendency to form such bo. the lait efforts of human virtue ; which dies, and that if it had, they must have in this majestic animal are all suggested been very frequently found and conseby instinct. Enraged that he cannot gra. quently well known to us. tify his desires without witnesses, bis fury, The opinion of the petrifaction of Wa. ftronger than his paffion, deltroys the ter, appears equally unfounded with the effects of the latter, provokes at the same foregoing, although some years fince it time his anger, and is the cause that, in was adop:ed by naturalists, and is still these instanis, the Elephant is more dan- current in those parts of England where gerous than any other wild animal.” Stalactites and other sparry concretions The British dominions in India contain are found. Dr. Plott (in h's History of thousands of living witnesses to the fallity Oxfordshire) speaking of Stalactites, says, of this account. The fascinating power that the very body of the water is turned afcribed to the Rattle Snake and other into stone as it drops down from the Serpents, was laid not only to affect rocks. It does not require an acquaintHares, Squirrels, Partridges and the like, ance with modern experiments on the in such a manner as to make them run composition or decompohtion of water, directly into their mouths, but even to to be convinced that an unconfined fluid extend iis influence to the human species. cannot be petrified, and that, though The inquiries of Dr. Barton, and Mr. water is che vehicle in forming sparry Rittenhouse in America, where there must concretions and incrustations, it does not be the best opportuni:ies for ascertaining enter into their composition in a gr-ater the fact, have, however, shown that this degree than into that of moito other extrao:dinary circumstance may be re!olv mineral suhitances. The petrifying quaed into the expreilions of t-ar common lity afcribed to the water of Lugh-neagh to mott linall animals when their own lite lake in Ireland, arole entirely from the or that of their young is in danger.
circumstance of considerable quanti ies of There are other accounts whico cannot fossil wood having been fuund on the be called exaggerations, for, having shores of it; but that the water itselt been built on a talie foundation, they are contains no such qualiiy, has been fully tunnd to be wholly erroneous. of this proved by experiments in ade for the purkind is the opinion which was very coin- pole. monly entertained previous to the dif In fome instances, the improbability covery of the analogy between lightning of the asserted fact justly excites doubts and the electric fluid, of the fall of respecting it, alihough it may be of a Thunder bolts. The form or fibltance of nature which renders it very difficult 10 this body, which was supposed to be ascertain the truth ; luch is the opinion' generated in the air during thunder- of no venenous animal living in Ireland; storms, and to be the instrument of the which implies the imp obuhle circummitchief they fonietimes cccalion, was itance of fome' hing in the foil or climate wholly undetermined, though, from the of that island to filentially diffeient from great number of thunder storms which this country, that animals wich 'eel no have happened since the creation, it might inconvenience here could not exiit ihere. have been supposed they could not be We are far from certain that even of very scarce in any country. Some years the few venemous animals of this country ago I was hown, by a collector of natural there are more in the interior part of curiofities, several stones which he affirmed Ireland: but even if this is really the Were thunder-boits, though they evidently case, it may be merely the consequence were nothing more than common black of its being an illard, and there may be Hints which happened to be merely similar others equally fortunate in this respect ;
nor ean it be expected that the naturalists where it is effectually deprived of these of Ireland will ever attempt to determine essentials. The only supposition then, the point by the importation of fuch which can give any degree of probability animals; it would be folly to risk the to such accounts is, that the animal may introduction of a dangerous race of crea- almost immediately after its inclosure fall tures, merely to refute an affertion to into fuch a complete ftate of torpidity highly improbable.
as to render air or nourishment unnecessary Still more contrary to all probability during an immense period of time. It. are the accounts of Toads being found is contrary to all our knowledge of anicompletely inclosed in mallis of stone. mal nature to admit this suppołtion; for That an animal to whom motion, respira. a total fuspension of respiration and cir. tion, and digestion are natural, should be culation implies, or at least must foon procapable of living in a ftuation which duce, an extinction of the vital principle; effectually precludes the exercise of these and if these powers were not completely functions, not merely for a few hours, stupt, there must be a consumption of air but for years, hundreds of years, ur and substance from which in so great a even thousands of years (for to 10 diftant length of time death would as certainly a period must we refer the formation of entue : nor is it probable that the creamany kinds of stone) is a circumftance ture should be fuddenly avaked out of which muß furely startle credulity itself, such a profound torpidity, and, on the and cause us to hesitate in admitting fone being cleft, immediately refume its possibility on any thing Ahort of the faculties which had lain dormant hun. most full and competent testimony. I am dreds of years; yet most of the accounts aware that accounts of this kind are relate that on the flone being broken, the numerous, and that most of the persons animal crawled about and appeared to who have given them appear to have had have suffered litile inconvenience from its no doubts of what they related. The impriionment, though if you take a Bat Jate learned and accute Mr. Wakefield or other animal which usually passes the asserted in your Magazine, that“ the fact winter in a torpid ftate, from its retreat, is unqueftionable :” but with the higheft it will for a considerable time exhibit lirrespect for such distinguished authority, I tle signs of life, and will in general ream till inclined to think otherwise. That quire many days and ihe application of life should continue in any animal wirh. warm'h to enable it to resume its natural out the accellion of nourishment, during faculties. On the whole, there is great such an immense period of time, is in reaton to believe this wonderful story has the highest degree improbable. Lizards, arisen entirely from inattention.
The fnakes, and fome infects will live a very Toad hides itself during the winter in considerable tiine without food; in the holes and crevices, and the breaking of a course of a few weeks, however, the want stone may have often disturbed its retreat of nourishment is generally apparent, hy and givti rise to a halty conclusion that the creature becoming thinner and let's it came out of the stone: the account vigorous; I have seen Toads experience have generally been taken from labourer the same effect from a few days confine- and ignorant persons, who prefer relating ment without food. Mr. H. Baker a wonder 10'examining into its reality, (Philosophical Transactions 1740) has Some other opinions, which probably given an account of a common House on examination, will be found erroneous Beetle which he kept three years without appear more within the reach of attentive food, and which the whole time appeared oblervation, and confequently may. b ftrong and vigorous (except that in cold more eagly determined : excuse me if weather it Teemed more torpid) but mention as an instance of this kind th though it appeared to be kept alive merely relation of the Porcupine footing by air, Mr. Baker had no doubt that in darting its quills at its assailants. Tha its natural hate it eals mere solid food. the creature poflefles an excellent defend That the Toad when at liberty feeds on by erecting its quills, must be admitted small insects, I have had positive evi- but the pretended power would deitro dence, as well as that fresh air is necessary this advantage, as by irritation it migh for its- respiration ; and lurely no one be provoked to discharge all its darts will suppole that it can fo materially differ and thus would become a most defencele from all other animals as not to require creature indeed, in which Itate it mu food or air; consequently it must be im- renain exposed to all attacks, for it can possible for it to continue to exercise the not be fuppofed that these strong quil W!ual functicns of an animal in a situation would be very speedily renovated. Upo
examining the animal, there appear's no land; in fixty-one degrees and a few min
name of Terra Labrador, extends from The accoun's of feinale birds of differ- the fifty-second to the fixty-first degree ent fpecies putting out, in advanced age; of north latitude, so that the most norththe plumage of the niale, naturally excite erly point of Labrador lies nearly under fufpicion; there are, however, tome ac- the same latitude as Cape Farewell, the counts of this circumstance, which appear most southern part of Greenland. Some so well authenticated, that they demand members of the Moravian Brotherhond. attention, if they do not positively esta- having discovered, in 1752 and 1964, that blish the fact. It must, however, be re- the Greenlanders and Eskimaux Indians membered, that the transformation is were but one nation, and that they spoke merely in outward appearance, tře sex of a similar language, they gradually formthe bird remaining (as might be expect- ed among th: latter (whole dwellings are ed) precilely as before.
scattered over a coast about seven hundred The opinion which has been very com- miles in length,) the following missionary monly entertained even by many highly tations and coinmunities :-1, Nain, in respectable naturalists, that all the Mells, 1771, situated in 56° 55' of north latibones, fragments of marine animals, im- tude.-2. Another on the island Kivala pressions of plants, and other adventitious lek, to the north of Nain, on a narrow matters, found buried in the earth, at all gulf, which the Etkimaux call Okkak, known depths, are remains of the Univer- i. e. Tongue.-3. Hoffenthal, in 1982. fal Deluge, is of a pature that its proba. This milionary settlement is the most bility may be decided by judicious obier- southern on the coalt, and Okkak the vation, and I believe will be found wholly most northern, lying nearly urder the untenable : but I must defer some re- fifty-eighth degree of north latitude. marks on this and other similar opinions On the zift of January, in 1790, the to a future opportunity:
thermometer röse at Lichtenfels, in GreenJ. J. G. Jand, five degrees above the freezing
point, though for some time previous the
cold had been very severe; the chermoFor the Monthly Magazine. meter having, on the igth of December, OBSERVATIONS on the state of the 1789, fallen eighteen degrees below the WEATHER IN GREENLAND and TERRA freezing-point : but in a few days it LABRADOR, between the YEARS 1790 again became cold. In the beginning of and 1801.*
August there were a couple of excessively
hot days at Lichtenau, and it was impotHESE observations may ferve to con. Gble to remain out of doors on account of
the immenfe swarms of flies. Immedi. plete, the information to be found relative ately after the 19th of September, the to the climate and weather of these north- ground in the neighbourhood of New ern countries, to be found in leveral well. Herrnhut was entirely covered with snow, known Travels, and parricularly in Cranz's and winter already set in. Hiftory of Greenland.
During this winter there was much The Moravian Brethren have now three fnow in Labrador, accompanied with incommunities, or missionary settlements, in tense frost, so that the thermometer of Greenland :
:-1. New Herrnbut, built on Fahrenheit frequently stood at from thirty the Balsriviere, on a peninsula not far to thirty-five degrees helow o; and at Hotfrom the Danish colony Godhaab, in 64° fenthal, on the 6th of January, even at 14' north latitude, and founded in 1733. forty degrees. The bay near Nain was not -2. Lichtenfels in the Fischerfiosde. free from ice till the beginning of July.tighteen miles farther south, on an island On the 2d of August, there was much four miles in circumference, founded in lightning in the night at Hoffenthal.. 1758. -3. Lichtenau, in South Green. The Elkimaux, to whom this was rather
common an unusual phenomenon, awakened the