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the French Journals full of accounts of Swedish plays, and Glent as to any manly or rational production of that kingdom.

PRUSSIA.

The first part of Moritz's Annalen der Academie der Künste, &c. or Annals of the Academy of Arts and Mechanic Sciences at Berlin, is printed at that capital in 810. These annals are deftined to collect not only the discoveries of the academy, but any information concerning the history of arts, and the design of perfection to which they were carried by the ancients. This part contains eleven articles: 1. Monuments of the history of art in Prullia; 2. Discourse of Ilcinitz, the minister of state, on the introduction of the new regulation into the academy; 3. Answer, in the name of the academy, by profeffor Moritz; 4. On two edifices, each of one stone, drawn from the Egyp tian quarries, ürid transported on the Nile to Sais and Butos; 5. On the ancierit porcelain of Egypt; 6. Description of Brandenburg gate, now building at Berlin; 7. Imtitution of the Academy of Arts at Peteriburg; 8. Letter on the werk intituled an Eilay on Tafte; 9. Anliver; 10. Project of maps less expensive than the present: the secret connits in using wocd initead of copper; and a happy specimen by Unge is given; 11. Extracts of letters by the vice-director, Chiodoneiecky. The typographical part docs honour to the press of Unger.

Count Schmettau's work, Ueber den Feldzug, &c. on the Campaign of the Pruilian Army in Bohemia, 1778, under the command of the late king in person, Berlin, 4to. with plates, present not only instructive remarks on that.war, but a hiitory of it. The author ihews that the principal causes of inactivity in that campaign were, on the one fide, the great age and irfirmities of Frederic II. and, on the other, the extreme prue dence of the enemy, occasioned by the reputation of that eminent leader. Count Schmettau, however, is far from being a Hatterer of his hero. He points out many instances of the king's injustice to his officers, and to the people of the country. In throwing a glance on the war of ieven years, he dircovers several faults in the conduct of Frederic, who certainly owed much to fortune; and often did his best officers ditawa prove of his measures. In reading with attention the litory of the campaign 1778, one canno: avoid finding many traces of that intunion of seeking death in it, which is afcribed to the king. As Weldorf he remained exposud for ialf an hour to the fire of

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he Tyrolian chafieurs; and it was neceffary to give orders to epel them, unknown to him. At Hermanteiten he manifeftly fought danger: and at Leopolt hc chose a locgment, separated from the rest of his camp, and within 1500 paces of the enemies batteries. 'I must confets, lays our author, that I trembled in seeing all the danger to which the king was exposed, in a houte almost folitary, and where he could neither enter, nor go out, without being seen from the advanced poils of the foe.'

IMr. D.efel's book, Bemerkungen, &c. Remarks made in a Journey into Brandenburg and Saxony, to the Confines of I'ranconia, Berlin, 8vo. may be found great impartiality, phis lofophical views, and a picturesque flyle, which render it intoredling, in spite of the minute details in which the author appears forictimes to be lot. The difference between the two adjacent countries is very striking. In Brandenburg the people are in general rous , u:polished, and reserved, in Saxo cay they are polihed, obliging, frank, and communicative. The Saxon dialect is clafTical in the German language. In Brandenburg great labour is used in bringing uncuitivated lanes into ule: in Saxony the people are content to enjoy gayly what they have, without concerning themselves much in the acquisition of riches. In the former few murmurs are heard: in the latrer loud and free complaints are uttered against the taxes and the adıniniitration. The rousis are kept in good order in Brandenburg, while they are shamefully neglected in Saxony;

A third Memoir of Mr. Erman's Historical Eulogy of Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, queen of Prussia, has appeared at Berlin, 8vo. In speaking of Frederic I. he obferves that a feeble constitution, and delicate habit of body, denied to his mind those refources of activity and strength, which react on the thoughts, and in some degree communicate vigour to them. The appellation of Wile apily characteriles inim; while that of Great belongs to the indetatigable heroism of his father, Sophia Charlotte added to his court all the graces of her sex, with a mind adorned by every accomplishmänt, and an exquisite taite. The present king of Pretia, upon feeing the two former Memoirs of our author, condelcended to communicate to him twenty-two original lutters of this prinicho, which do honour to her feelings and her wit. They are witten in French, with great ease and spirit; the prince's was so great a miitrets of that tongue, that an illustrious French refugee, upon quitting her presence, enquired of an attendant whether ine upderitood German,

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Count Hertzsberg's Memoire sur les Revolutions des Etats, &c. Memoir on the Revolutions of States, external, internal, and religious, read at the academy of Berlin, on the 6th of Oaober, 1791, Berlin, 8vo. is worthy of its author's reputation.

RUSSIA.

Of Hupel's Versuch, &c. Essay on the political State of Russia, the first volume has appeared at Riga, in 8vo. Notwithstanding the modest title of this work, it is the most complete, and the best digested, yet offered to the public upon this subject. In this first volume the author treats of the different subdivisions of this great empire, of the climate, population, and culture of each province; of the classes and distinctions established among the inhabitants; of the public and civil law; of the imperial family; of the court, the army, the finances, the national industry, commerce, and in fine, of the relations between Russia and other European powers. Mr. Hupel has employed thirty years in collecting materials for this work; and as no access can be procured to the Russian archives, it is only by his connections with the ministers, and subordinate officers of government, that he has been anabled to procure them. The difference between the nations which constitute this empire is not so great as that between a noble and his vassals: the chapter on fervitude is far from being dictated by the prejudices of the country. That on the political interest of Russia is not a dream of the author, but the real plan of the Russian ministry, since the time of Peter the Great.

Friebe's Handbuch, &c. Manual of the History of Livonia, Estonia, and Courland, vol. i. printed at Riga, 8vo. has merit. The author begins at the period when the Phænicians commenced a traffic in Livonia for amber; and this first volume extends to the year 1439. The origin and exploits of the ancient Vandals are explained : at every change of government the manners of the inhabitants are described ; and a topography of these countries is given as they were in the thirteenth century. An extract from the memoirs of the count de Melm, which our author has inserted, has been favourably received by the learned. In this extract convincing proofs are adduced that the Livonian tongue is only a corrupt dialect of the Finnish or Estonian. The people of Estonia denominate themselves by the same term which they apply to the Fins, that is Rahvast, the name of Estonians being unknown among them. The appellative Livonia is derived from the Finnish word Luvane, which signifies sand; and is well appropriated to that sandy country. Count de Melm is occupied in a new Atlas of Livonia, in which will appear a map of the country, as it was before the year 1562, with a description of what was then remarkable.

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Friebe’s Beytrage, &c. Memoirs for the History of Livo. nia, taken from a MS. newly discovered by Mr. Friebe, with other materials for northern history, collected by Mr. Hupel, Riga, 8vo. The marfufcript in question was written about the year 1640, by Melchior Fuchs, burgomaster of Riga, and principally relates to the disputes between that city and the archbishop. From the author's quotations it is evident that he availed himself of several ancient documents now loft. The editor gives an extract, extending from 1360 to 1489, which throws much light on an obscure part of Livonian history.

ENGLISH LITERATURE Anecdotes of the Life of the Right Hon. William Pitt, Earl of

Chatham. (Concluded from p. 389.) THE other circumstances of the peace are humiliating to the

nation, and unpleasing to reflect on. If, as our author contends, the first treaty in this reign was the renewal of the former one with Pruslia, and the first step in making the peace the declaration of the principles and spirit of the treaty, we can only regret the inconfiitency of the minister, and join in the general reprehensions. The Manilla ransom was not, secured; but this reminds us of an omission, which is, we think, of importance, and not too late to supply the defect: we al. lude to a conversation, said to have occurred between Mr. Pite and a general officer, when a rupture with Spain was expected.

• A few weeks previous to Mr. Pitt's resignation, the follow. ing conversation, as nearly as it can be related from memory, happened between Mr. Pite and a general officer :

• Sir, says Mr. Pirt, I find the Spaniards, are determined to break wich us. It may become a fortunate circumstance ; for al. though we have taken the French Nands and colonies, they do not afford us ready money, which we want. You must take pos. sesion of Panama. How many regiments shall you want for luch an expedition -- the ships can be provided for the purpose immediately - I have no doubt of making up 5,000 men, if necessary, from the British colonies, who are now lecure. We have no reason to apprehend a disappointment they may not be ready in

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time, but must be sent you as they are raised ; rather as recruits than part of your couimand ?

• General oficer." Sir I Mall not want a great number of disciplined troops- I know the exact force in that part of Ame. rica-give me three or four regimenis, with inftructions to the middle and southern provinces to supply me with a few men accusa tomed to buih-fighting, and about two thousand negroes to work. in the heat of the day. Give me powers to form an alliance, and promife of protection in religion and commerce - I'll answer for the success, not only againit Panama, but for a refignation of all Spanish America, in all matters which may be deemed beneficial to Great Britain."

• Mr. Pitt. - “Sir, get yourself in readiness your commif. fion hall be made out immediately.”

« Nor was this all-He meditated an attack upon the Philipine Flands: and he consulted lord Anson upon the subject, on account of his knowledge of those seas. Mr. Pitt's design was to have reduced Panama first; and next, to have made a detachment from and against Manilla. The reader has been already informed of his design against the Havannah ; which, though it was afterwards executed by his successors, yet had he continued to direct the war, that conquest would have been accomplished much sooner, and consequently great part of the force employed: there, would have been at leisure, perhaps to have co-operated at Porto Bello, or some other place, with the expedition against Panama ; or have been ready for any other service, His design against the Philipine Islands was adopted by his successors; but materially altered, by joining the East India Company in the measure. Nor would this expedition have been undertaken, had not lord Anson, in the firongett terms, repeatedly recommended and presled it to lord Egremont.? :. There is much reason to suppose this conversation authenric; but we cannot understand how the Manillas were to be attacked by a detachment from Panama. The ships were, perhaps, to be carried across the isthmus, for they would not have been capable of any very active service after traversing Cape Horn. It must be remembered, however, that this idea is diftinct from the conversation.

• We have seen the end of this great man's brilliancy, as a minister. We are now to view him in the character of a single member of the legislature; dignified, indeed, by reputation, hut accompanied by no influence, nor followed by one individual of that obsequious crowd of representatives, who had lately given him un'imited confidence, and unbounded praise. This sudden, but not surprising change of opinion, in the represeniatives of the

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